Roberto Polesello

On this site, I am creating a resource that will help you to learn the following languages:

Lenghe furlane Lenghe furlane
Friulian language
Język friulski
polski-01 Język polski
Polish language
Lenghe polache

I post detailed notes relating to Friulian and Polish using, as source texts, books of the Bible. These notes will assist you in understanding what you read on your own and help you to acquire the language. Use the index to find all available study material.

I am currently working on the following:


  • Gjenesi (Genesis)
  • Esodo (Exodus)
  • Levitic (Leviticus)
  • Numars (Numbers)
  • Deuteronomi (Deuteronomy)


  • Ks. Rodzaju (Genesis)
  • Ks. Wyjścia (Exodus)
  • Ks. Kapłańska (Leviticus)
  • Ks. Liczb (Numbers)
  • Ks. Powtórzonego Prawa (Deuteronomy)

If you have some experience with languages, you can use the Bible to start learning Friulian and Polish even as a complete beginner. If you are unconvinced by this, make the attempt nonetheless. Start with Gjenesi 1 for Friulian, or Rdz 1 for Polish; study the language of the verses with the aid of the notes, and listen to the audio.

It may be the case at the beginning of your study that the language of certain passages is beyond your understanding — this is normal, and you need only continue your study. You are in this for the long term, and you can return to previous passages as many times as necessary; indeed, as your language skills strengthen, you will undoubtedly wish to reread earlier chapters. With time, the earlier bits whose meaning once escaped you will come into focus.

In relation to the content that I publish here, I should like to make the following points:

(1) I ask that my work be used only in the way that I have intended it — as linguistic commentary and as a tool in your independent study of the Friulian and Polish languages. I am not a biblical scholar: any translations that I have provided are to be read with discernment, and must not under any circumstances be taken as authoritative translations of the Scriptures. The translations that I have produced are meant only to explore the language used in the Friulian and Polish texts. The authoritative translations are the Friulian and Polish works themselves, and not my translations thereof. These are your reference texts: Bibie par un popul for Friulian, and Biblia Tysiąclecia for Polish.

(2) The content of this site should be taken as a work in progress. Rather than present a finished work on this site, I publish new content one chapter at a time, as I produce it. This means that I often return to older material to make improvements where necessary. Should you encounter anything in my notes or translations that requires my attention, please write to me.

(3) With regard to my translated portions of text: The source Friulian or Polish is always in bold, and my translation into English is in italics. The purpose of my translations is not only to render the source text into English that you may understand the meaning of it, but often to elucidate a grammar point also. For example: Aron e i siei fîs (Aaron and his sons) si lavaran lis mans e i pîts (washed their hands and feet [washed the hands and the feet unto themselves]). The portion between square brackets is a very literal rendering that eludicates the grammar. Other times, a portion between square brackets serves not to elucidate grammar but simply to provide a more literal rendering of the translation that immediately preceded it. For example: l’om al lè cun jê (the man lay [went] with her) e chê e cjapà sù (and she conceived [took up]). In the examples above, the translations are interspersed in the sentence. There are times when I have taken a sentence as a whole, with the entire translation following it, set after a colon; in this case, the translation and use of brackets appears so: Aron e i siei fîs si lavaran lis mans e i pîts: Aaron and his sons washed their hands and feet (washed the hands and the feet unto themselves).

(4) I have provided vocabulary lists for each grouping of verses under consideration. These lists are not exhaustive, but they will help you to acquire and review Friulian and Polish vocabulary. Words in this list may include English translations that do not apply directly to the verses in question. For example, the Friulian tiere and Polish ziemia might be rendered in a list as land, earth, ground, given that they can mean any of these, but it may be the case that only land is the English rendering that applies in the context of the verses. By reading the notes and translations for the verses in question, it will become apparent which of the renderings applies in context, and the other renderings can be taken as having been provided for your information only.

It is my hope that these notes in some way assist Friulians and Poles born abroad to reacquire their ancestral language by way of a reading of the Bible. Friulian and Polish each present their own challenges to the learner (for the first, an almost complete lack of resources; for the second, a higher level of difficulty), but there is not much with which the human mind cannot come to grips after sufficient time and focus.

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Roberto Polesello