Roberto Polesello

On this site, I am creating a resource that will help you to learn the following languages:

Lenghe furlane Lenghe furlane
Friulian language
Język friulski
polski-01 Język polski
Polish language
Lenghe polache

I post detailed notes relating to Friulian and Polish using, as source texts, books of the Bible. These notes will assist you in understanding what you read on your own and help you to acquire the language. Use the index to find all available study material.

I am currently working on the following:


  • Gjenesi (Genesis)
  • Esodo (Exodus)
  • Levitic (Leviticus)
  • Numars (Numbers)
  • Deuteronomi (Deuteronomy)


  • Ks. Rodzaju (Genesis)
  • Ks. Wyjścia (Exodus)
  • Ks. Kapłańska (Leviticus)
  • Ks. Liczb (Numbers)
  • Ks. Powtórzonego Prawa (Deuteronomy)

If you have some experience with languages, you can use the Bible to start learning Friulian and Polish even as a complete beginner. If you are unconvinced by this, make the attempt nonetheless. Start with Gjenesi 1 for Friulian, or Rdz 1 for Polish; study the language of the verses with the aid of the notes, and listen to the audio.

It may be the case at the beginning of your study that the language of certain passages is beyond your understanding — this is normal, and you need only continue your study. You are in this for the long term, and you can return to previous passages as many times as necessary; indeed, as your language skills strengthen, you will undoubtedly wish to reread earlier chapters. With time, the earlier bits whose meaning once escaped you will come into focus.

In relation to the content that I publish here, I should like to make the following points:

(1) I ask that my work be used only in the way that I have intended it — as a tool in your study of the Friulian and Polish languages. Any translations that I have provided are to be read with discernment, as they are based on my own understanding of the Friulian and Polish texts of the Bible and how they relate to English, and must not under any circumstances be taken as authoritative translations of the Scriptures. The authoritative translations are the Friulian and Polish works themselves, and not my translations thereof.

(2) With regard to translated portions of text: The source Friulian or Polish is always in bold, and my translation into English is in italics. The first (and often only) translation provided is an idiomatic rendering into English; a literal or near-literal translation sometimes follows. When the translations are interspersed within a Friulian or Polish sentence, the idiomatic translation appears between round brackets, and the literal or near-literal translation between square brackets. For example: Friulian/Polish sentence begins (idiomatic translation [literal translation, where needed]) Friulian/Polish sentence continues (idiomatic translation [literal translation, where needed]) Friulian/Polish sentence continues (idiomatic translation [literal translation, where needed]). In the case where a source sentence has been taken as a whole, with its entire English rendering following it rather than broken up and interspersed within, the sentence is followed by a colon and an idiomatic translation; any necessary literal or near-literal translation is then placed between round brackets. For example: Entire Friulian/Polish sentence: idiomatic translation (literal translation, where needed). Where I have used {curly brackets}, this indicates my own inclusion of text for clarity.

(3) I have provided vocabulary lists for each grouping of verses under consideration. These lists are not exhaustive, but they will help you to acquire and review Friulian and Polish vocabulary. Words in this list may include English translations that do not apply directly to the verses in question. For example, the Friulian tiere and Polish ziemia might be rendered in a list as land, earth, ground, given that they can mean any of these, but it may be the case that only land is the English rendering that applies in the context of the verses. By reading the notes for the verses in question, it will become apparent which of the renderings applies in context, and the other renderings can be taken as having been provided for your information only.

(4) I am always returning to older posts to make any necessary improvements. Should you come across something in my notes that requires my attention, please do inform me of it. (Note that I am currently working on a site-wide edit. See the index for more details.)

It is my hope that these notes in some way assist Friulians and Poles born abroad to reacquire their ancestral language by way of a reading of the Bible. Friulian and Polish each present their own challenges to the learner (for the first, an almost complete lack of resources; for the second, a higher level of difficulty), but there is not much with which the human mind cannot come to grips after sufficient time and focus.

Use the index to find your way about the site. To be notified of new posts when they are published, subscribe by email. On your desktop, the subscription box is in the right-hand sidebar; on your mobile device, it is in the footer section below (click on the three dots to expand the page).


To contact me with comments, please send an email to the address shown below.

Roberto Polesello