On this site, I am creating a resource that will help you to learn:

friul-01 Lenghe furlane
Friulian language
Język friulski
polski-01 Język polski
Polish language
Lenghe polache

I post detailed notes relating to Friulian and Polish using, as source texts, books of the Bible. These notes will assist you in understanding what you read and help you to acquire the language. There is also a good deal of material on this site relating to Italian. Use the index to find all available study material.

I am currently working on the following:


  • Genesis — complete
  • Exodus — underway


  • Genesis — complete
  • Exodus — underway

If you have some experience with languages, you can use the Bible to start learning Friulian and Polish even as a complete beginner. If you are unconvinced by this, make the attempt nonetheless. Start at Gjenesi 1:1 for Friulian, or Rdz 1:1 for Polish; study the language of the verses with the aid of the notes, and listen to the audio.

The exercise is not meant to be easy — this is not Friulian or Polish “in three months.” Indeed, the very challenge of the task may be just what is needed to sustain your interest and determination over the long term, ultimately allowing you to learn the language. If you have failed to make progress using conventional methods found on the market (assuming, of course, that you have been able to find any at all, especially with regard to Friulian), the solution may very well lie in the considerable increasing of the challenge, and not in the lessening of it.

You do not need to understand every bit of language in the moment; become comfortable with a certain amount of doubt, and continue your study. It will especially be the case in the beginning stages that certain portions are simply beyond your understanding. Do your best to understand what you can, and then move on. (Consult a translation of that portion in your language, if necessary.) You are in this for the long term; you can return to the chapters as many times as you like; indeed, as your language skills strengthen, you will find that you necessarily wish to. With time, the earlier bits whose meaning once escaped you will come into focus and your understanding of the texts will deepen.

Regarding the Friulian and Polish studies of the Bible, I should like to point out the following: The notes that I have provided are not a commentary on the language of the original Hebrew. In the instances where I have provided a translation of a certain passage from Friulian or Polish into English, the translation must not in any way be taken as my rendering of the original Hebrew into English — my translation serves only to assist you in understanding the Friulian and Polish texts, which are, in themselves, also translations. This necessarily means that certain passages translated into English will not always align perfectly with the original Hebrew and that shades of meaning will be lost. After having passed through two grinders of translation — first into Friulian or Polish, and then from those into English, this is really quite unavoidable.

I should further like to point out that the translated portions of text that you will find here have been prepared with the needs of the student in mind. This means that I have usually chosen to prefer a rendering that better elucidates the working and sense of the Friulian or Polish, even if stilted, to one that might have read more naturally in English. The notes here do not constitute a translation of the works in question; they are meant only to assist you in your learning.

At a certain point in your study of the chapters, you will find lists of vocabulary begin to appear for each of the groupings of verses under consideration. In the Polish, I have separated the new vocabulary from that already encountered; in the Friulian, everything (new and review) is lumped together in one. These lists get longer as the amount of vocabulary to be retained becomes greater. Some of you may find the review parts of these lists repetitive and unnecessary; I have nonetheless seen fit to include vocabulary already encountered for the following reasons: in the case of Friulian, you will not have access to an advanced bilingual Friulian-English dictionary coming anywhere close to your needs for this study (none exist), and so I have chosen to err on the side of caution and provide the words many times; in the case of Polish, the vocabulary may be so foreign to you that a constant reminder of its meaning seems only beneficial.

With these preliminaries out of the way, I would like to express my hope that these notes enable you to read, understand and appreciate the Bible in their Friulian and Polish versions, and allow Friulians and Poles born abroad to reacquire their ancestral language. Friulian and Polish each present their own challenges to the learner (for the one, an almost complete lack of resources; for the other, a high level of difficulty), but there is not much that the human mind cannot come to grips with after sufficient time and focus. I wish you success.

Use the index to find your way about the site. (In addition to Friulian and Polish, there is also a considerable amount of material available here for Italian, which may be of additional interest to Friulians; note, however, that I have chosen to move ahead only with Friulian and Polish on this site, considering both the workload that these two languages alone represent and the lack of learning materials available for them.)

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To contact me with comments or enquiries, please send an email to the address shown below.

Roberto Polesello