Roberto Polesello

On this site, I am creating a resource which will help the student to learn the following languages:

Lenghe furlane Lenghe furlane
Friulian language
polski-01 Język polski
Polish language

I post detailed notes relating to Friulian and Polish, using books of the Bible as source texts. These notes will assist the student in understanding that which he reads on his own and will help him to acquire the language. All study material is found in the index.

I am currently working on the following:



If the student has some experience with languages, he may use the Bible to start learning Friulian or Polish, even as a complete beginner. If he is unconvinced by this, he is encouraged to make the attempt nonetheless. He ought to start with Gjenesi 1 for Friulian or Rdz 1 for Polish; he will study the language of the verses with the aid of the notes, and will listen to the audio.

It may be the case at the beginning of study that the language of certain passages is beyond the learner’s understanding — this is normal, and he need only continue his study. If he is a serious student, then he is in this for the long term and will return to previous passages as many times as necessary; indeed, as his language skills strengthen, he will undoubtedly wish to reread earlier chapters. With time, the earlier bits whose meaning once escaped him will come into focus.

In relation to the content which I publish here, I should like to make the following points:

(1) I ask that my work be used only in the way which I have intended it: as linguistic commentary and as a tool in one’s independent study of the Friulian and Polish languages. I am not a biblical scholar: any translations which I have provided are to be read with discernment, and must not under any circumstances be taken as authoritative translations of the Scriptures. The translations which I have produced are meant only to explore the language used in the Friulian and Polish texts. The authoritative translations are the Friulian and Polish works themselves, and not my translations thereof. These are the student’s reference texts: Bibie par un popul for Friulian; Biblia Tysiąclecia for Polish.

(2) The content of this site is a work in progress. Rather than present a finished work on this site, I publish new content one chapter at a time, as I produce it. This means that I must regularly return to older material to make modifications where necessary. Should the reader encounter anything in my notes or translations which requires my attention, he is asked to write to me.

(3) With regard to my translations into English: The source Friulian or Polish is always in bold, and my translation is in italics. For instance: Gdy Bóg stworzył człowieka (when God created man), na podobieństwo Boga stworzył go (into the likeness of God did he create him). Square brackets indicate a more literal rendering yet: Lie e cjapà sù (Leah conceived [took up]) e e parturì un frut (and bore a male child). If a sentence is taken as a whole, and not broken up as in the preceding instances, the translation is set after a colon: E cussì al sucedè: and so it came to pass.

(4) Where the Friulian and Polish texts employ the second-person singular, I render thou; where they employ the second-person plural, I render you. This is not an attempt to render my translations archaic in tone but is for the benefit of the student, that he may understand which person has been employed in the source text. I employ the contemporary -(e)s ending of the third-person singular (he comes, he speaks, etc.), rather than the archaic -(e)th ending (he cometh, he speaketh), although I have a preference for the latter when subject and verb are reversed (cometh he?, so speaketh he).

(5) The translations which I produce into English will sometimes employ terms which are unfamiliar to speakers of English; the reason for this is, of course, that my translations are issuing from Friulian and Polish. The reader may wish to consult the work of his choice to see how various terms are traditionally rendered in English.

It is my hope that these notes in some way assist Friulians and Poles born abroad to acquire their ancestral language by way of a reading of the Bible. These two languages present their own challenges to the learner (for the first, an almost complete lack of resources; for the second, a higher level of difficulty), but there is not much with which the human mind cannot come to grips after sufficient time and focus.

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Roberto Polesello