Roberto Polesello

On this site, I am creating a resource that will help you to read the Bible through the following languages:

Lenghe furlane Lenghe furlane
Friulian language
Język friulski
polski-01 Język polski
Polish language
Lenghe polache

I post detailed notes relating to Friulian and Polish using, as source texts, books of the Bible. These notes will assist you in understanding what you read on your own and help you to acquire the language. Use the index to find all available study material.

I am currently working on the following:


  • Gjenesi (Genesis)
  • Esodo (Exodus)
  • Levitic (Leviticus)
  • Numars (Numbers)
  • Deuteronomi (Deuteronomy)


  • Ks. Rodzaju (Genesis)
  • Ks. Wyjścia (Exodus)
  • Ks. Kapłańska (Leviticus)
  • Ks. Liczb (Numbers)
  • Ks. Powtórzonego Prawa (Deuteronomy)

If you have some experience with languages, you can use the Bible to start learning Friulian and Polish even as a complete beginner. If you are unconvinced by this, make the attempt nonetheless. Start at Gjenesi 1:1 for Friulian, or Rdz 1:1 for Polish; study the language of the verses with the aid of the notes, and listen to the audio. It may be the case at the beginning of your study that the language of certain passages is beyond your understanding: consult a translation of the passage in your own language such that you understand the meaning of it, then continue in your study. You are in this for the long term, and you can return to previous passages as many times as necessary; indeed, as your language skills strengthen, you will wish to reread earlier chapters. With time, the earlier bits whose meaning once escaped you will come into focus.

You will not find the complete text of the verses reproduced on my site; to read the verses in their entirety, you must consult the Bible on the official sites or the pages that have been archived here: Friulian, Polish. What you will find on my site is a discussion of the vocabulary and grammar appearing in the verses, and a reproduction of certain verses only — usually in part, sometimes in whole. The passages that are reproduced here are ones that I consider difficult or that help to elucidate some language point to be made, the explanation or translation of which I hope will help you to advance in your independent study.

Vocabulary lists are included for each of the groupings of verses under consideration. In the Polish, I have separated new vocabulary from that already encountered; in the Friulian, everything (new and review) is gathered together in one. These lists get longer as the amount of vocabulary to be retained becomes greater. Some of you may find the review parts of these lists repetitive and unnecessary; I have nonetheless seen fit to include vocabulary already met for the following reasons: in the case of Friulian, you will not have access to an advanced bilingual Friulian-English dictionary coming anywhere close to your needs for this study (none exist), and so I have chosen to err on the side of caution and provide the words many times; in the case of Polish, the vocabulary may be so foreign to you that a constant reminder of its meaning seems only beneficial.

I would like to express my hope that these notes in some way assist Friulians and Poles born abroad to reacquire their ancestral language by way of a reading of the Bible. Friulian and Polish each present their own challenges to the learner (for the first, an almost complete lack of resources; for the second, a higher level of difficulty), but there is not much that the human mind cannot come to grips with after sufficient time and focus.

In addition to publishing new posts, I am also returning to older ones to make improvements to the notes. This is a lengthy process, however — if there is a specific section that you consider requires my attention or does not resolve a doubt that you may have, let me know so that I might address it sooner than later.

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To contact me with comments, please send an email to the address shown below.

Roberto Polesello