Matthew 1:18-25 in Friulian (version Pieri Dal Poç, 1860)

Vanzeli seont Matieu 1:18-25
Version Pieri Dal Poç (1860)

Selected reading

Below is the text of the gospel according unto Matthew 1:18-25, in its Friulian version as rendered by Pieri Dal Poç (in Italian, Pietro Dal Pozzo), published at London in 1860, under the Italian title: il vangelo di S. Matteo, volgarizzato in dialetto friuliano dal conte Pietro Dal Pozzo (the gospel of St Matthew, vulgarised into the Friulian dialect by count Pietro Dal Pozzo), with the Friulian subtitle: lu sant vanzèli di Jèsu Crist seònd Matìe (the holy gospel of Jesus Christ according unto Matthew). The reader will find this same passage in its contemporary Friulian form here.

The text is first presented on its own, whereafter it is followed by commentary. The employment of the grave accent (à, ò, etc.) was observed in the 1860 publication to assist the unitiated, non-Friulian reader of the time, that he might understand where the tonic stress of a word fell; I have retained all such accents, for this is how the text appeared at its time of publishing, and is, moreover, yet of great utility to the unitiated reader of today. In my commentary, I employ the abbreviation CS, which is put for ‘contemporary standard’, whereby I mean the variety of Friulian found today in its standardised form. For the purpose of this page, all instances of the 1860 Friulian text are black-boldfaced; standardised contemporary Friulian is grey-boldfaced.

So does Matthew 1:18-25 read in Friulian, according unto the form it took in its 1860 publication by Pieri Dal Poç: 18 La generaziòn po di Crist fo cussì: Avìnd la màri di lui, Marìe, sposàd Josèff, devànt che lèssin insième, si scuvierzè gràvide par virtùd de lu Spìritu sant. 19 Josèff po so spôs, jessìnd om just, e non volìnd infamàle, al volève licenziàle segretamèntri. 20 Mèntri al stève Josèff pensànd, cenonè i comparè un àgnul dal Signòr, disìnji: Josèff fi di Dàvid, no stà a temè di tignì cun tè Marìe to spòse: parcechè chell, che al è concepìd tal so vìntri, al ven da lu Spìritu sant. 21 Jê parturirà un fi, che tu clamarâs cul nom di Jèsu. Lui po al salvarà lu so pòpul dai siei peçhàds. 22 Dutt chest al sucedè, parchè si complìss cè, cu disè lu Signòr mediànt lu profète, che al dis: 23 Eco che ùne vèrgine concepirà, e parturirà un fi, cu sarà clamàd Emanuèll, ch’al ven a dì: Dio cun nô. 24 Svejàd po Josèff dal sium, al fasè còme che i comandà lu àgnul dal Signòr, e al tignì cun sè le so spòse. 25 E lui no le cognoscè fintinemài che jê no parturì lu so fi unigènit, che lu clamà cul nom di Jèsu.

Commentary

18 La generaziòn po di Crist fo cussì (now the generation of Christ was so): Avìnd la màri di lui, Marìe, sposàd Josèff (in having the mother of him, Mary, espoused Joseph), devànt che lèssin insième (before they went together), si scuvierzè gràvide (she was discovered heavy) par virtùd de lu Spìritu sant (by virtue of the Holy Spirit).

Avìnd sposàd means in having espoused (CS: vint sposât). Gràvide is necessarily the feminine form of adjective; it means heavy, as in heavy with child, pregnant. Si scuvierzè gràvide means she was discovered heavy, as in she was found to be heavy. Par virtùd di, meaning by virtue of, has the sense of at the instance of; virtùd takes the form virtût in CS. The reader will note the absence of atonic particles: la generaziòn po di Crist fo cussì (CS: la gjenerazion po di Crist e fo cussì); devànt che lèssin insième (CS: devant che a lessin insiemi). Of note is the employment of the masculine definite article lu (CS: il). Other examples: lu fi (the son; CS: il fi); lu pòpul (the people; CS: il popul); lu profète (the prophet; CS: il profete). De lu Spìritu sant means of the Holy Spirit. Di (of) and lu (the) contract to form dal (for instance, un àgnul dal Signòr [an angel of the Lord], at verse 20 of this passage) – with a couple instances of del also being found in the 1860 version (for instance, volontàd del Pàri vuèstri [will of your Father] at 18:14 of this same gospel) – or, as in the text of the current verse, de lu before the sp consonant cluster of Spìritu; in CS, only the form dal, being the contraction of di and il (or of di and l’), is retained: dal Signôr (of the Lord); dal Spirtu Sant (of the Holy Spirit); dal Spirtussant (of the Holy Spirit); volontât dal Pari vuestri (will of your Father). Josèff of the 1860 version takes the form Josef in the contemporary version of the Bible.

19 Josèff po so spôs (now Joseph her husband), jessìnd om just (in being a righteous man), e non volìnd infamàle (and in willing not infame her), al volève licenziàle segretamèntri (would dismiss her secretly).

Po is employed here to mark a transition in the narrative. The present participle jessìnd (in being) takes the form jessint in CS, whereas volìnd (in willing) takes in CS the form volint. Non volìnd means in willing not, which takes the form no volint in CS. Of interest is the difference in the handling of the words for husband and wife between the 1860 version and the contemporary version; in the 1860 version, the reader finds spôs (husband; v. 19) and spòse (wife; vv. 20, 24), whereas the contemporary version employs om (man) for husband and femine (woman) for wife. In the 1860 version is found both husband and man in this verse (Josèff po so spôs, jessìnd om just [now Joseph her husband, in being a righteous man]), but the contemporary version, in employing only one word for husband and man, omits man before righteous: Josef, il so om, che al jere just (Joseph her husband, who was righteous).

20 Mèntri al stève Josèff pensànd (whilst Joseph was thinking), cenonè i comparè un àgnul dal Signòr (so it is that appeared unto him an angel of the Lord), disìnji (in saying unto him): Josèff fi di Dàvid (Joseph son of David), no stà a temè di tignì cun tè Marìe to spòse (fear not to keep with thyself Mary thy wife): parcechè chell, che al è concepìd tal so vìntri (for that which is conceived in her womb), al ven da lu Spìritu sant (cometh from the Holy Spirit).

Al stève pensànd is the masculine, third-person singular of the imperfect indicative (he was thinking); this takes the form al stave pensant in CS. That whereabout Joseph was thinking was his intention to dismiss Mary. Cenonè, translated so it is that, takes the rendering ve che in the contemporary version of this verse, which has the same meaning. Whereas the 1860 version employs the simple past form comparè in the third-person singular, the contemporary version employs comparì. Disìnji (in saying unto him) is the contraction of the present participle disìnd (in saying) and i (unto him), with the final d of disìnd having been dropped and a j interposed; disìnji takes the form disintji in CS. A difference in tonic stress is noted in the matter of the Friulian meaning for, because between the 1860 version and the contemporary: parcechè (1860 version); parcè che (contemporary version). Chell (that) takes the spelling chel in CS. Concepìd is a past participle meaning conceived; in CS, this takes the form concepît, from the verb concepî (to conceive). The masculine noun vìntri means womb; the contemporary version of the Bible prefers the masculine grim meaning the same, but use thereof was not made in the text of this verse. Whereas at verse 18 the reader encounters de lu Spìritu sant, he now meets at verse 20 with da lu Spìritu sant; a distinction is observed in these instances between di (of, from) and da (from, by, at the instance of). This distinction is not observed in CS. Consider: batijàd da lui (baptised by him; 1860 version at 3:13 of this same gospel); batiât di Zuan (baptised by John; contemporary version at Marc 1:9).

21 Jê parturirà un fi (she will bear a son), che tu clamarâs cul nom di Jèsu (whom thou shalt call by the name of Jesus). Lui po al salvarà lu so pòpul (for he will save his people) dai siei peçhàds (from their sins).

Whereas I have rendered po as now at verse 19, for there it marks a transition in the narrative, here I have it rendered as for, as the name Jesus was given him on account of this, that he is the Saviour. No feminine atonic pronoun is present before parturirà, whereas it is required in CS: e parturirà (or e parturissarà, which is the verb form preferred in the contemporary version of the Bible). The masculine noun nom in the 1860 version means name; the CS form is non. The Friulian for sin is the masculine noun pecjât in CS, which, in the 1860 version, takes the form peçhàd. The contemporary Friulian name for Jesus is either Gjesù or Jesù, with tonic stress on the final syllable; the 1860 version employs Jèsu, with tonic stress on the first syllable.

22 Dutt chest al sucedè (all this is come to pass), parchè si complìss cè (that it might be fulfilled that), cu disè lu Signòr mediànt lu profète (which the Lord said by way of the prophet), che al dis (who saith):

Dutt (all) takes the spelling dut in CS. Si complìss is the third-person singular of the imperfect subjunctive; it takes the form si cumplìs in CS, from the verb cumplîsi (to be fullfilled). That said, the contemporary version of this verse instead employs si colmàs, as in par che si colmàs (that it might be fulfilled), from the verb colmâsi (to be fulfilled). Cu disè from the 1860 version takes the same meaning as the CS form che al disè (which he said). Whensoever cu is employed, the atonic pronoun thereafter is dropped, for instance: cu è stad fatt (= che al è stât fat [which hath been done]). Mediànt takes the form midiant in CS.

23 Eco che ùne vèrgine concepirà (lo, a virgin will conceive), e parturirà un fi (and will bear a son), cu sarà clamàd Emanuèll (who will be called Emmanuel), ch’al ven a dì (which signifieth): Dio cun nô (God with us).

Rather than èco che, the contemporary version of this verse employs ve. La feminine noun vèrgine takes the form virgjine in the contemporary version of this verse. Before concepirà and parturirà, the 1860 version omits any feminine atonic pronoun; in CS, these are expressed e concepirà (she will conceive) and e parturirà (she will bear); that said, the contemporary version of this verse instead employs e cjaparà sù (she will conceive; literally, she will take up) and e parturissarà (she will bear; alternate form of e parturirà). Cu sarà clamàd means the same as the CS form che al sarà clamât (who will be called); the atonic pronoun is omitted after cu. It is not for the presence of cu in the 1860 version that che cannot be used; ch’al ven a dì (which signifieth; literally, which cometh to say) employs not cu but che. Emanuèll of the 1860 version takes the spelling Emanuel in the contemporary version; neither is the form Dio (God) to be found in the contemporary version, which instead employs Diu.

24 Svejàd po Josèff dal sium (now Joseph awoken from the dream), al fasè còme che i comandà lu àgnul dal Signòr (he did as had commanded him the angel of the Lord), e al tignì cun sè le so spòse (and kept with himself his wife).

The past participle svejàd (awoken) takes the form sveât in CS. With the reading now Joseph awoken from the dream, I have reproduced the Friulian manner; however, this is better expressed in English as now after Joseph’s awakening from the dream. The reader will note the employment of lu àgnul (CS: l’agnul); see the notes at verse 18 regarding the definite article lu. At verse 19, so spôs (her husband) is not preceded by any definite article, neither is so spòse (his wife) at verse 20 preceded by any definite article; however, at verse 24, le so spòse (his wife) is encountered, with use of the feminine definite article made. Moreover, whereas le so spòse employs the feminine definite article under the form le, it is found under the form la at verse 18 (la generaziòn, la màri).

25 E lui no le cognoscè (and he knew her not) fintinemài che jê no parturì lu so fi unigènit (until she had borne her only-begotten son), che lu clamà cul nom di Jèsu (whom he called by the name of Jesus).

Through the use of the adjective unigènit (CS: unigjenit), meaning only-begotten, the 1860 text of Pieri Dal Poç categorically puts forth that Mary bore no other children to Joseph apart from Jesus; the contemporary version of this verse in Friulian makes no such assertion: ma nol lè dongje di jê fintremai a la nassite dal fi (but he went not alongside her until the birth of the son). The simple past form cognoscè is expressed in CS as cognossè; that said, although the verb cognossi (to know) in its biblical sense can indeed be found in the contemporary version of the Bible in Friulian, it is not employed at this verse, where the reading he went not alongside her was instead preferred.

Related reading: Contemporary Friulian text of this same passage.