Friulian language series: Levitic 26, lis benedizions e lis maludizions

In this twenty-sixth and penultimate chapter of the book of Leviticus, the Lord makes promises of reward in case of obedience; in case of disobedience, threats of punishment are made.

The first-time visitor to this site ought to begin his study of the Friulian language here.

Read Levitic 26

To read the Friulian text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Bibie par un popul and consult Levitic 26. An archived version of the text is found here.

Versets 1-2

Vocabulary: fâsi (to make for oneself), il diu (god), tirâ sù (to draw up), la statue (statue), il colonel (column), meti (to put), la tiere (land), la piere (stone), sculpî (to sculpt), ingenoglâsi (to kneel oneself down), denant di (before), rispietâ (to respect), la sabide (sabbath), (to have), il rivuart (regard), il santuari (sanctuary).

Verse 1: *No stait a* fâsi dius (make not gods for yourselves) ni a tirâ sù statuis o colonei (neither draw up statues or columns); no stait a meti te vuestre tiere pieris sculpidis (put not in your land sculpted stones) par ingenoglâsi denant di lôr (to kneel yourselves down before them), parcè che jo o soi il Signôr, il vuestri Diu (for I am the Lord your God). — *No stait a creates a negated imperative of the second-person plural. Review: no sta fâ (make {thou} not); no stait a fâ (make {ye} not); no stin a fâ (let us make not).

Verse 2: Rispietait lis mês sabidis (respect* ye my sabbaths) e vêt+ rivuart pal gno santuari (and have regard for my sanctuary). Jo o soi il Signôr: I am the Lord. — *as in keep +Of the verb vê, the imperative is as follows: ve (second-person singular); vêt (second-person plural); vin (first-person plural).

Versets 3-8

Vocabulary: rispietâ (to respect), la leç (law), lâ daûr di (to go behind), il comandament (commandment), meti (to put), la pratiche (practice), meti in pratiche (to put into practice), (to give), la ploe (rain), coventâ (to be necessary), la tiere (land), butâ (to cast), il prodot (product), un arbul (tree), la campagne (open country), (to make), la pome (fruit), il bati (threshing), durâ (to endure), fint a (until), la vendeme (vintage), fintremai a (until), il timp (time), semenâ (to sow), mangjâ (to eat), il pan (bread), fin (until), passût (sated), podê (to be able), vivi (to live), la pâs (peace), lâ a durmî (to go sleep), cence (without), nissun (not any), la pôre (fear), di sorte ({not} of any sort), sparî (to vanish), ogni (every), la besteate (savage beast), la spade (sword), passâ par (to pass through), no… gran (not in the least), cori daûr (to run behind), il nemì (enemy), colâ (to fall), denant di (before), sot (under), cinc (five), int (thereof), scjampâ (to flee), dîs mil (ten thousand).

Verses 3-5: Se o rispietarês lis mês leçs (if ye will respect* my laws), se o larês daûr dai miei comandaments (if ye will +go behind+ my commandments) e ju metarês in pratiche (and will put them into practice), jo us darai lis plois (I shall give you the rains) cuant che a coventaran (when they will be necessary) e la tiere e butarà i siei prodots (and the land will cast its products) e i arbui de campagne a fasaran lis lôr pomis (and the trees of the open country will make their fruits), il bati al durarà fint a la vendeme (the threshing will endure until the vintage) e la vendeme fintremai al timp di semenâ (and the vintage until the time of sowing). O mangjarês il vuestri pan fin passûts (ye will eat your bread until sated) e o podarês vivi in pâs te vuestre tiere (and will be able to live in peace in your land). — *as in keep +as in follow

Verse 6: O darai pâs a la vuestre tiere (I shall give peace unto your land); o podarês lâ a durmî cence nissune pôre di sorte (ye will be able to go sleep without any fear of any sort). O fasarai sparî de tiere ogni besteate (I shall make vanish from the land every savage beast) e la spade no passarà gran pe vuestre tiere (and the sword will not pass in the least through your land).

Verses 7-8: Ur corarês daûr ai vuestris nemîs (ye will *run behind* your enemies) e chei a colaran denant di vualtris sot de spade (and those will fall before you under the sword); in cinc di vualtris int fasarês scjampâ dîs mil (+by five of you will ye thereof make flee ten thousand+), e i vuestris nemîs a colaran denant di vualtris sot de spade (and your enemies will fall before you under the sword). — *as in pursue +I have rendered into English the wording of the Friulian, but the Friulian appears to be a mistranslation and ought instead to read so: in cinc di vualtris int fasarês scjampâ cent, in cent di vualtris int fasarês scjampâ dîs mil (by five of you will ye thereof make flee one hundred, by one hundred of you will ye thereof make flee ten thousand).

Versets 9-13

Vocabulary: voltâsi (to turn oneself), viers di (unto), (to make), cressi (to increase), multiplicâ (to multiply), confermâ (to affirm), il pat (pact), mangjâ (to eat), la ricolte (harvest), vieri (old), durâ (to endure), tant a lunc che (so long as), tocjâi a (to fall unto the lot of), parâ (to drive), la bande (side), parâ in bande (to drive aside), la place (place), gnûf (new), meti (to put), la cjase (house), framieç di (amongst), butâ (to cast), lontan di (far from), cjaminâ (to walk), il popul (people), saltâ fûr (to come forth), la tiere (land), crevâ (to break off), il jôf (yoke), lâ indenant (to go forwards), il cjâf (head), alt (high).

Verse 9: Jo mi voltarai viers di vualtris (I shall turn myself unto you), us fasarai cressi e multiplicâ (shall make you increase and multiply) e o confermarai il gno pat fat cun vualtris (and shall affirm my pact made with you).

Verse 10: O mangjarês la ricolte viere (ye will eat the old harvest), ch’e durarà tant a lunc che us tocjarà (which will endure so long as it will fall unto your lot) di parâ in bande la ricolte viere (to drive aside the old harvest) par fâi place a di chê gnove (to make place for that new one).

Verse 11: O metarai la mê cjase framieç di vualtris (I shall put my house amongst you) e no us butarai lontan di me (and shall not cast you far from me).

Verse 12: O cjaminarai framieç di vualtris (I shall walk amongst you); o sarai il vuestri Diu (I shall be your God) e vualtris o sarês il gno popul (and ye will be my people).

Verse 13: Jo o soi il Signôr, il vuestri Diu (I am the Lord your God), che us à fats saltâ fûr de tiere dal Egjit (who made you come forth from the land of Egypt); o ài crevât il vuestri jôf (I have broken off your yoke) e us ài fats lâ indenant cul cjâf alt (and have made you go forwards with your head {carried} high).

Versets 14-17

Vocabulary: scoltâ (to hearken), meti (to put), la pratiche (practice), meti in pratiche (to put into practice), dut (all), chest (this), un ordin (order), butâ (to cast), la bande (side), butâ di bande (to cast aside), la leç (law), rifudâ (to refuse), il comandament (commandment), cence (without), meti in vore (to put unto task), ordenâ (to order), ridusi (to reduce), nuie (not a thing), il pat (pact), ve ce che (this is that which), (to do), cjastiâ (to punish), la pôre (fear), il mancjament (lack), la fiere (fever), consumâ (to consume), il voli (eye), cjonçâ (to cut off), il flât (breath), semenâ (to sow), dibant (for naught), la semence (seed), mangjâ (to eat), il nemì (enemy), voltâ (to turn), la muse (face), cuintri di (against), fruçâ (to smite), vê in asse (to have in hatred), tibiâ (to downtrod), scjampâ (to flee), nissun (not a one), cori daûr (to run behind).

Verses 14-16: Ma se no mi scoltarês (but if ye will not hearken unto me) e se no metarês in pratiche ducj chescj miei ordins (and will not put into practice all these mine orders), se o butarês di bande lis mês leçs (if ye will cast aside my laws) e se o rifudarês i miei comandaments (and if ye will refuse my commandments) cence meti in vore dut ce che us ài ordenât (without putting unto task all that which I have ordered you) e ridusint a nuie il gno pat (and in reducing unto not a thing my pact), ve ce che us fasarai jo de mê bande (this is that which I shall do you *for my part*): us cjastiarai cu la pôre (I shall punish you with fear), cul mancjament (with lack) e cu la fiere (and with fever), che a consumin i vôi (which consume the eyes) e che a cjoncin il flât (and which cut off the breath). O semenarês dibant la vuestre semence (ye will sow for naught your seed); se+ mangjaran i vuestris nemîs (your enemies will eat it for themselves). — *literally, on my side or from my side +contraction of si + le (unto themselves + it)

Verse 17: O voltarai la mê muse cuintri di vualtris (I shall turn my face against you) e o sarês fruçâts dai nemîs (and ye will be smitten by the enemies); chei che us àn in asse us tibiaran (those who have you in hatred will downtrod you) e o scjamparês cence che nissun no us cori daûr (and ye will flee *even when* not a one +runneth behind+ you). — *I have rendered cence che (literally, without) as even when for clarity. So does the Friulian read literally: and ye will flee without a one’s running behind you; such wording lends itself to confusion, for this could be interpreted erroneously as meaning that they would be able to flee without being pursued. The correct sense is that they would ever take to flight even when pursued by none. +as in pursueth

Versets 18-22

Vocabulary: scoltâ (to hearken), nancjemò no (not yet even), cjastiâ (to punish), siet (seven), une volte (one time), di plui (more), la colpe (fault), il pecjât (sin), crevâ (to break apart), la fuarce (might), tignîi a (to be attached unto), tant (so), (to make), deventâ (to become), il cîl (heaven), compagn di (like), il fier (iron), la tiere (land), precîs di (just like), il ram (copper), consumâsi (to be consumed), lis fuarcis (forces), dibant (for naught), butâ (to cast), nuie (not a thing), un arbul (tree), la campagne (open country), la pome (fruit), metisi (to put oneself), cuintri di (against), pestâ (to crush), a rate purizion (proportionately), stiçâ (to incite), la besteate (savage beast), puartâ vie (to bear away), i canais (little ones), fiscâ (to destroy), il nemâl (animal), ridusi (to reduce), il troput (little flock), la strade (way), desert (deserted).

Verse 18: Se no mi scoltarês nancjemò no (if ye will not even yet hearken unto me), us cjastiarai siet voltis di plui (I shall punish you seven times more), par colpe dai vuestris pecjâts (by fault of your sins).

Verse 19: O crevarai la vuestre fuarce (I shall break apart your might) che i tignîs tant (whereunto ye are so attached), o fasarai deventâ il cîl compagn dal fier (and I shall make the heaven become like iron) e la tiere precise dal ram (and the land just like copper).

Verse 20: Lis vuestris fuarcis si consumaran dibant (your forces will be consumed for naught), parcè che la vuestre tiere no butarà nuie (for your land will not cast a thing) e i arbui de campagne no fasaran pomis (and the trees of the open country will not make fruits).

Verse 21: Se si metarês cuintri di me (if ye will put yourselves against me) e no mi scoltarês (and will not hearken unto me), us pestarai siet voltis di plui (I shall crush you seven times more), a rate purizion dai vuestris pecjâts (proportionately unto your sins).

Verse 22: O stiçarai cuintri di vualtris lis besteatis de campagne (I shall incite against you the savage beasts of the open country), che us puartaran vie i canais (which will bear away from you your little ones), che a fiscaran i vuestris nemâi (which will destroy your animals) e che us ridusaran a di un troput (and which will reduce you unto a little flock), e lis vuestris stradis a deventaran desertis (and your ways will become deserted).

Versets 23-26

Vocabulary: cun dut chest (for all this), lassâsi (to let oneself), nancjemò no (not yet even), coregi (to correct), tornâ di (to return unto), metisi (to put oneself), cuintri di (against), pestâ (to crush), siet (seven), une volte (one time), di plui (more), la colpe (fault), il pecjât (sin), mandâ (to send), la spade (sword), (to make), la vendete (vengeance), il pat (pact), ingrumâsi (to gather oneself), la citât (city), la peste (pestilence), meti (to put), la man (hand), il nemì (enemy), tirâ vie (to draw away), il sostentament (sustenance), il pan (bread), dîs (ten), la femine (woman), cuei (to bake), il fôr (oven), sôl (single), (to give), tant (so), misurâ (to measure), mangjâ (to eat), rivâ (to be able to), passisi (to sate oneself).

Verses 23-24: Se cun dut chest (if for all this) no si lassarês nancjemò no coregi (ye will not even yet let yourselves be corrected) tornant di me (in returning unto me) ma si metarês cuintri di me (but ye will put yourselves against me), ancje jo mi metarai cuintri di vualtris (also I shall put myself against you) e us pestarai siet voltis di plui par colpe dai vuestris pecjâts (and shall crush you seven times more by fault of your sins).

Verse 25: O mandarai cuintri di vualtris la spade (I shall send against you the sword), ch’e fasarà vendete dal gno pat (which will make vengeance of my pact). Si ingrumarês tes citâts (ye will gather yourselves into the cities) e jo o mandarai cuintri di vualtris la peste (and I shall send pestilence against you) e o sarês metûts tes mans dai vuestris nemîs (and ye will be put into the hands of your enemies).

Verse 26: Cuant che us tirarai vie il sostentament dal pan (when I shall draw away from you the sustenance of bread), dîs feminis a cuearan il lôr pan tun fôr sôl (ten women will bake their bread in a single oven) e us daran il pan tant misurât (and will give you bread so measured) che o mangjarês cence rivâ a passisi (that ye will eat without being able to sate yourselves).

Versets 27-33

Vocabulary: cun dut chest (for all this), volê (to will), scoltâ (to hearken), metisi (to put oneself), cuintri di (against), la ire (ire), cjastiâ (to punish), siet (seven), une volte (one time), di plui (more), la colpe (fault), il pecjât (sin), ridusisi (to come reduced), mangjâ (to eat), la cjar (flesh), il fi (son), la fie (daughter), fiscâ (to destroy), il lûc (place), alt (high), (to go), preâ (to pray), sdrumâ (to tear down), un altâr (altar), sgnacâ (to heave), il cadavar (cadaver), parsore di (over), il diu (god), jessî (to go forth), il voli (eye), ridusi (to reduce), la citât (city), il desert (desert), il santuari (sanctuary), nulî (to smell), no… plui (no more), il bonodôr (pleasant scent), l’incens (incense), in persone (in person), splantâ (to unplant), la tiere (land), parfin (even), il nemì (enemy), sistemâsi (to settle oneself), restâ (to remain), scaturît (disconcerted), sparniçâ (to scatter), framieç di (amongst), il popul (people), cori daûr (to run behind), cun tant di (complete with), la spade (sword), la desolazion (desolation).

Verses 27-28: Se cun dut chest (if for all this) no volarês scoltâmi (ye will not hearken unto me) ma si metarês cuintri di me (but will put yourselves against me), ancje jo mi metarai cuintri di vualtris (also I shall put myself against you) cun dute la mê ire (with all mine ire) e us cjastiarai siet voltis di plui (and shall punish you seven times more) par colpe dai vuestris pecjâts (by fault of your sins).

Verse 29: Si ridusarês a mangjâ la cjar dai vuestris fîs (ye will come reduced unto eating the flesh of your sons) e a mangjâ la cjar des vuestris fiis (and unto eating the flesh of your daughters).

Verse 30: O fiscarai i lûcs alts che o lais a preâ (I shall destroy the high places whither ye go pray), o sdrumarai i vuestris altârs (shall tear down your altars), o sgnacarai i vuestris cadavars parsore dai cadavars dai vuestris dius (shall heave your cadavers over the cadavers of your gods) e mi jessarês dai vôi (and ye will go forth from mine eyes).

Verse 31: O ridusarai lis vuestris citâts a desert (I shall reduce your cities unto a desert), o fiscarai i vuestris santuaris (shall destroy your sanctuaries) e no nulissarai plui il bonodôr dal vuestri incens (and shall smell no more the pleasant scent of your incense).

Verse 32: Jo in persone o splantarai* la vuestre tiere (I in person shall unplant your land), e parfin i vuestris nemîs (and even your enemies), che si sistemaran li di vualtris (who will settle themselves there with you), a restaran scaturîts (will remain disconcerted). — *Regarding splantâ (to unplant), see the notes at Gjenesi 13:10.

Verse 33: Vualtris us sparniçarai framieç dai popui (you shall I scatter amongst the peoples) e us corarai daûr cun tant di spade (and I shall run behind you complete with sword); la vuestre tiere e sarà une desolazion (your land will be a desolation) e lis vuestris citâts un desert (and your cities a desert).

Versets 34-35

Vocabulary: alore (then), dut (all), il timp (time), la desolazion (desolation), la tiere (land), gjoldi (to relish), la sabide (sabbath), il nemì (enemy), polsâ (to rest), la polse (rest), podê (can), intant di (during), jessi a stâ (to dwell), achenti (here).

Verse 34: Alore (then), par dut il timp de desolazion (for all the time of the desolation), la tiere e gjoldarà lis sôs sabidis (the land will relish its sabbaths) e vualtris o sarês te tiere dai vuestris nemîs (and ye will be in the land of your enemies); alore la tiere a polsarà e a gjoldarà lis sôs sabidis (then the land will rest and will relish its sabbaths). — *Although the word sequence e e (atonic feminine pronoun e of the third-person singular + e meaning and) be not impossible in Friulian, the text has here been written to avoid it, which is to say: la tiere a polsarà e a gjoldarà, rather than la tiere e polsarà e e gjoldarà. In the printed version of this Bible from 2018, the editors have modified the text to read la tiere e polsarà e e gjoldarà, given that the use of a for the atonic feminine pronoun of the third-person singular is not retained in standard Friulian. This change to the text is somewhat unfortunate, seeing as the original wording la tiere a polsarà e a gjoldarà both looks better in print and sounds better to the ear, and is certainly understood by all speakers.

Verse 35: Par dut il timp de desolazion (for all the time of the desolation), e gjoldarà di chê polse (it will relish that rest) che no à podût gjoldi (which it could not relish) intant des vuestris sabidis (during your sabbaths), cuant che o jeris vualtris a stâ achenti (when ye yourselves were dwelling here).

Versets 36-39

Vocabulary: restâ (to remain), ancjemò (yet), la vite (life), semenâ (to sow), il terôr (terror), il cûr (heart), la tiere (land), il nemì (enemy), il criç (crackle), la fuee (leaf), movisi (to move oneself), (to make), scjampâ (to flee), come che (as), denant di (before), la spade (sword), colâ (to fall), cence che (without), nissun (not a one), cori daûr (to run behind), inçopedâsi (to stumble), tor di (round), altri (other), cjatâsi (to be found), rivâ (to be able to), tignî (to keep), la teste (head), pierdisi vie (to come lost), framieç di (amongst), il popul (people), la tiere (land), gloti (to swallow), scapolâle (to get away), consumâsi (to be consumed), la colpe (fault), il pecjât (sin), i vons (forefathers), lâ a finîle (to go finish off), malamentri (in a bad way).

Verse 36: A di chei che a restaran ancjemò in vite (unto those who will remain yet in life), ur semenarai il terôr tal lôr cûr (I shall sow terror into their heart), cuant che a saran te tiere dai lôr nemîs (when they will be in the land of their enemies): il criç di une fuee che si môf ju fasarà scjampâ (the crackle of a leaf which moveth itself will make them flee); a scjamparan come che si scjampe denant de spade (they will flee as one fleeth before the sword) e a colaran cence che nissun no ur cori daûr (and will fall *even when not a one runneth behind them*). — *see notes at verse 17

Verse 37: S’inçopedaran un tor di chel altri (they will stumble the one round that other), come se si cjatassin denant de spade (as though they were found before the sword) e a colaran cence che nissun no ur cori daûr (and will fall *even when not a one runneth behind them*). No rivarês a tignîur teste ai vuestris nemîs: ye will not be able to hold head unto your enemies. — *see notes as verse 17

Verse 38: Si pierdarês vie framieç dai popui (ye will come lost amongst the peoples); la tiere dai vuestris nemîs us glotarà (the land of your enemies will swallow you).

Verse 39: Chei di vualtris che le scapolaran (those of you who will get away), si consumaran te tiere dai lôr nemîs par colpe dai lôr pecjâts (will be consumed in the land of their enemies by fault of their sins); ancje par colpe dai pecjâts dai lôr vons (also by fault of the sins of their forefathers) a laran a finîle malamentri (will they go finish off in a bad way).

Versets 40-43

Vocabulary: confessâ (to confess), il pecjât (sin), i vons (forefathers), insieme cun (together with), dut (all), un imbroi (deceit), (to make), cuintri di (against), come che (as), metisi (to put oneself), strissinâ (to drag), la tiere (land), il nemì (enemy), salacor (perhaps), la volte (time), il cûr (heart), cence (without), la circuncision (circumcision), rimetisi (to come round), paidî (to suffer for), il pecjât (sin), visâsi di (to remember), il pat (pact), la tiere (land), duncje (therefore), bandonâ (to forsake), restâ (to remain), desert (deserted), gjoldi (to relish), la sabide (sabbath), espiâ (to expiate), dispreseâ (to contemn), il comandament (commandment), stufât (wearied), la leç (law).

Verses 40-41: A confessaran il lôr pecjât (they will confess their sin) e il pecjât dai lôr vons (and the sin of their forefathers) insieme cun ducj i imbrois (together with all the deceits) che a àn fat cuintri di me (which they committed* against me). Come che si son metûts cuintri di me (as they put themselves against me), ancje jo mi metarai cuintri di lôr (also I shall put myself against them) e ju strissinarai te tiere dai lôr nemîs (and shall drag them into the land of their enemies). Salacor in chê volte (perhaps in that time) il lôr cûr cence circuncision si rimetarà (their heart without circumcision will come round) e alore a paidiran il lôr pecjât (and then they will suffer for their sin). — *literally, made

Verse 42: Jo mi visarai dal gno pat cun Jacop, dal pat cun Isac e dal pat cun Abram (I shall remember my pact with Jacob, my pact with Isaac and my pact with Abraham) e mi visarai de tiere (and I shall remember the land).

Verse 43: Cuant che duncje la lôr tiere (when therefore their land), bandonade di lôr e restade deserte (forsaken by them and remained deserted), a gjoldarà lis sôs sabidis cence di lôr (will relish its sabbaths without them), lôr a espiaran il lôr pecjât (they will expiate their sin), par vê dispreseât i miei comandaments (for having contemned my commandments) e par jessi stufâts des mês leçs (and for being wearied by my laws).

Versets 44-46

Vocabulary: cun dut chest (for all this), la tiere (land), il nemì (enemy), rifudâ (to refuse), stufâsi (to grow weary), il pont (point), fruçâ (to smite), dal dut (altogether), rompi (to break), il pat (pact), (to make), l’afiet (affection), visâsi di (to remember), i vons (forefathers), saltâ fûr (to come forth), denant di (before), il popul (people), la leç (law), un ordin (order), la racomandazion (admonition), stabilî (to establish), fra (between), la mont (mountain), midiant di (by way of).

Verse 44: Cun dut chest (for all this), cuant che a saran te tiere dai lôr nemîs (when they will be in the land of their enemies), jo no ju rifudarai (I shall not refuse them) e no mi stufarai di lôr al pont di fruçâju dal dut (and shall not grow weary of them unto the point of smiting them altogether) e di rompi il pat fat cun lôr (and of breaking the pact made with them); parcè che jo o soi il Signôr, il lôr Diu (for I am the Lord their God).

Verse 45: Pal afiet che o ài par lôr (by the affection which I have for them), mi visarai dal pat fat cui lôr vons (I shall remember the pact made with their forefathers), che ju ài fats saltâ fûr de tiere dal Egjit (whom I made come forth from the land of Egypt), denant dai popui (before the peoples), par jessi il lôr Diu (to be their God). Jo o soi il Signôr: I am the Lord.

Verse 46: Chestis a son lis leçs e i ordins e lis racomandazions (these are the laws and the orders and the admonitions) che il Signôr al stabilì fra lui e i fîs di Israel (which the Lord established between him and the sons of Israel) su la mont dal Sinai (on the mountain of Sinai) midiant di Mosè (by way of Moses).