Friulian language series: Levitic 19, regulis cultuâls e morâls

The nineteenth chapter of the book of Leviticus treats of: regulis cultuâls e morâls (cultic and moral rules). Given that the text uses now the second-person singular imperative, now the plural, an increased inclusion in the English renderings of thou and ye following the English imperative has been made, that it should be clear which form is employed in the Friulian.

The first-time visitor to this site ought to begin his study of the Friulian language here.

Read Levitic 19

To read the Friulian text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Bibie par un popul and consult Levitic 19. An archived version of the text is found here.

Versets 1-10

Vocabulary: fevelâ (to speak), (to say), dut (all), la comunitât (community), il fi (son), viodi di (to see unto), jessi (to be), sant (holy), ognidun (each), vê di (to have to), onorâ (to honour), la mari (mother), il pari (father), rispietâ (to respect), la sabide (sabbath), butâsi (to cast oneself), il diu (god), fâsi (to make for oneself), il metal (metal), fondût (cast), ufrî (to offer), la vitime (victim), il sacrifici (sacrifice), la comunion (communion), in mût che ({in order} that), a grât (in favour), mangjâ (to eat), stes (same), la dì (day), sacrificâ (to sacrifice), tal indoman (next day), vanzâ (to be remanent), fint a (until, so far as), tierç (third), brusâ (to burn), il fûc (fire), se invezit (if on the other hand), la robate (wicked matter), paiâ (to pay), la tristerie (wickedness), profanâ (to profane), un om (man), li (there), cjonçâ vie di (to cut off from), il popul (people), taiâ (to cut), il forment (wheat), la tiere (land), un ôr (edge), il cjamp (field), cjapâ sù (to take up), il spi (spike), restâ (to remain), dopo (after), seselâ (to reap), cussì (so), il vignâl (vineyard), vendemâ (to pick), il grignel (grain), un àsin (grape), colâ (to fall), lassâ (to leave), il puar (poor man), il forest (foreigner).

Verses 1-2: Il Signôr i fevelà a Mosè e i disè (the Lord spoke unto Moses and said unto him): dîsii a dute la comunitât dai fîs di Israel (say unto all the community of the sons of Israel): viodêt di jessi sants (see ye unto being holy), parcè che jo, il Signôr, il vuestri Diu, o soi sant (for I the Lord your God am holy).

Verse 3: Ognidun al à di onorâ sô mari e so pari (each is to honour his mother and his father) e di rispietâ lis mês sabidis (and to respect* my sabbaths). Jo o soi il Signôr, il vuestri Diu: I am the Lord your God. — *as in keep

Verse 4: No stait a butâsi cui dius (cast not yourselves unto gods) e no stait a fâsi dius di metal fondût (and make not for yourselves gods of cast metal). Jo o soi il Signôr, il vuestri Diu: I am the Lord your God.

Verse 5: Cuant che i ufrissarês al Signôr une vitime come sacrifici di comunion (when ye will offer unto the Lord a victim as a sacrifice of communion), o vês di ufrîje in mût che le vedi a grât (ye are to offer it him that he may have it in favour).

Verse 6: O vês di mangjâle te stesse dì che le vês sacrificade e tal indoman (ye are to eat it in the same day when ye have sacrificed it and next day); ce che al vanzarà fint a la tierce dì lu brusarês tal fûc (that which will be remanent until the third day shall ye burn in fire).

Verse 7: Se invezit o vessis di mangjânt la tierce dì (if on the other hand ye were to eat thereof {on} the third day), e sarès une robate (it would be a wicked matter); il sacrifici nol sarès a grât (the sacrifice would not be in favour).

Verse 8: Chel che int mangjarès (that one who will eat thereof), al varès di paiâ pe sô tristerie (ought to pay for his wickedness), parcè che al profanarès ce che al è sant pal Signôr (for he would profane that which is holy for the Lord); chel om li al sarès cjonçât vie dal so popul (that man there would be cut off from his people).

Verses 9-10: Cuant che o taiarês il forment de vuestre tiere (when ye will cut the wheat from your land), no vês di taiâlu fint ad ôr dal cjamp (ye are not to cut it so far as the edge of the field) ni di cjapâ sù i spîs che a restin dopo seselât (neither take up the spikes which remain after having reaped); cussì tal to vignâl no sta vendemâ ducj i grignei (so in thy vineyard pick thou not all the grains) ni cjapâ sù i àsins colâts (neither take up the fallen grapes); tu jai lassarâs al puar e al forest (thou shalt leave them unto the poor man and the foreigner). Jo o soi il Signôr, il vuestri Diu: I am the Lord your God.

Versets 11-19

Vocabulary: robâ (to rob), doprâ (to use), un ingjan (trickery), la falsetât (falsity), il damp (damage), zurâ (to swear), il fals (falsehood), il non (name), profanâ (to profane), tibiâ (to downtrod), il prossim (neighbour), puartâ vie (to bear away), il so (that which is one’s own), il salari (salary), la zornade (day), sot di (under), vê di (to have to), restâ (to remain), li (there), fintremai (until), tal indoman (next day), sbeleâ (to defame), il sort (deaf man), meti (to put), il stralenc (stumbling-block), denant di (before), il vuarp (blind man), viodi di (to see unto), la teme (fear), la injustizie (unrighteousness), il judizi (judgement), la diference (difference), il biât (sorry man), lassâ (to let), inceâ (to dazzle), il grant (great man), judicâ (to judge), la justizie (righteousness), lâ ator (to go about), semenâ (to sow), lis cjàcaris (idle talkings), framieç di (amongst), la int (people), presentâsi (to present oneself), il judiç (judge), domandâ (to ask {for}), il cjâf (head), la asse (hatred), il cûr (heart), cuintri di (against), il fradi (brother), la corezion (correction), la muse (face), cussì (so), cjamâsi (to charge oneself), il pecjât (sin), par vie di (on account of), cirî (to seek), il svindic (vengeance), tignî (to keep), il rusin (grudge), il fi (son), il popul (people), amâ (to love), la persone (person), meti (to put), la pratiche (practice), la leç (law), incubiâ (to couple), doi (m., two), il nemâl (animal), diferent (different), il cjamp (field), dôs (f., two), la semence (seed), puartâ (to bear), il vistît (garment), il tiessût (fabric).

Verse 11: No stait a robâ (rob ye not) ni a doprâ ingjan o falsetât (neither use trickery or falsity) un a damp di chei altris (the one unto damage of those others).

Verse 12: No stait a zurâ il fals (swear ye not a falsehood), doprant il gno non (in using my name), parcè che tu profanaressis il non dal to Diu (for thou wouldest profane the name of thy God). Jo o soi il Signôr: I am the Lord.

Verse 13: No sta tibiâ il to prossim (downtrod thou not thy neighbour) e no sta puartâi vie il so (and bear thou not away from him that which is his); il salari di chel che al è a zornade sot di te (the salary of that one *who is by the day* under thee) nol à di restâ li di te (is not to remain there with thee), fintremai tal indoman (until next day). — *as in who is a day labourer

Verse 14: No sta sbeleâ il sort (defame thou not the deaf man) e no sta meti stralencs denant dal vuarp (and put thou not stumbling-blocks before the blind man), ma viôt di vê teme dal to Diu (but see thou unto having fear of thy God). Jo o soi il Signôr: I am the Lord.

Verse 15: No sta fâ injustiziis in judissi* (make thou not unrighteousnesses in judgement); no sta fâ diferencis cul biât (make thou not differences+ with the sorry man) e no sta lassâti inceâ dal grant (and let not thyself be dazzled by the great man), ma viôt di judicâ il to prossim cun justissie¬ (but see thou unto judging thy neighbour with righteousness). — *variant spelling of judizi +as in distinctions ¬variant spelling of justizie

Verse 16: No sta lâ ator semenant cjàcaris framieç de int (go thou not about in sowing idle talkings amongst the people) e no sta presentâti dal judiç a domandâ il cjâf dal to prossim (and present not thyself unto a judge to ask for the head of thy neighbour). Jo o soi il Signôr: I am the Lord.

Verse 17: No sta vê asse tal to cûr cuintri di to fradi (have thou not hatred in thy heart against thy brother); fâsii al to prossim une corezion su la muse (make thou unto thy neighbour a correction on the face), cussì no tu ti cjamarâs di un pecjât par vie di lui (so wilt thou not charge thyself with a sin on account of him).

Verse 18: No sta cirî svindics (seek thou not vengeances) e no sta tignî rusins cuintri dai fîs dal to popul (and keep thou not grudges against the sons of thy people), ma tu amarâs il to prossim come te in persone (but thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself in person). Jo o soi il Signôr: I am the Lord.

Verse 19: Metêt in pratiche lis mês leçs: put ye into practice my laws. No sta incubiâ doi nemâi diferents (couple thou not two different animals); no sta semenâ tal to cjamp dôs semencis diferentis (sow thou not in thy field two different seeds) e no sta puartâ vistîts di doi tiessûts diferents (and bear thou not garments of two different fabrics).

Versets 20-29

Vocabulary: (to go), la femine (woman), la sclave (maidslave), imprometi (to promise), altri (other), un om (man), vendi (to sell), sfrancjâ (to redeem), cjastiâ (to punish), ducj i doi (both), copâ (to kill), libar (free), menâ (to lead), denant di (before), la jentrade (entrance), la tende (tent), la cunvigne (convocation), il sacrifici (sacrifice), la riparazion (reparation), il roc (ram), il predi (priest), (to make), la funzion (function), la espiazion (expiation), il pecjât (sin), perdonâ (to pardon), jentrâ (to enter), la tiere (land), plantâ (to plant), ogni (every), la sorte (sort), il pomâr (fruit tree), considerâ (to consider), la pome (fruit), la piel (skin), la nature (nature), trê (three), un an (year), la circuncision (circumcision), mangjâ (to eat), cuart (fourth), dut (all), benedî (to bless), il regâl (gift), la fieste (feast), cuint (fifth), un arbul (tree), cussì (so), butâ (to cast), ancjemò (yet), la cjar (flesh), il sanc (blood), il strolegaç (magicwork), un incjantesim (enchantment), rocâ a taront (to round off), il cjâf (head), staronzâ (to round down), un ôr (edge), la barbe (beard), la tae (cut), il cuarp (body), il muart (dead one), tatuâsi (to tattoo oneself), profanâ (to profane), la fie (daughter), lassâ (to let), doprâ (to use), la tiere (land), prostituîsi (to prostitute oneself), jemplâsi (to fill oneself), la porcarie (filthy deed).

Verse 20: Se un al va cuntune femine (if a one go* with a woman) ch’e sedi sclave e imprometude a di un altri om (who is a maidslave or promised unto another man) ma no vendude o sfrancjade (but not sold or redeemed), a saran cjastiâts ducj i doi (they shall both be punished); no però copâts, parcè che jê no je libare (but not killed, for she is not free). — *carnally

Verses 21-22: L’om al menarà denant dal Signôr (the man shall lead before the Lord), te jentrade de tende de cunvigne (unto the entrance of the tent of the convocation), in sacrifici di riparazion (as a sacrifice of reparation), un roc (a ram); cun chest roc il predi al fasarà par lui (with this ram the priest shall make for him) la funzion di espiazion denant dal Signôr pal pecjât che al à fat (the function of expiation before the Lord for the sin which he *hath committed*) e il pecjât i sarà perdonât (and the sin shall be pardoned him). — *literally, hath made

Verse 23: Cuant che o sarês jentrâts te tiere (when ye will be entered into the land) e o varês plantât ogni sorte di pomârs (and will have planted every sort of fruit trees), o considerarês lis lôr pomis tant che la piel de lôr nature (ye shall consider their fruits as the skin of their nature); par trê agns a saran par vualtris cence circuncision (for three years shall they be for you without circumcision); no varês di mangjânt (ye are not to eat thereof).

Verse 24: Il cuart an dutis lis pomis a saran benedidis pal Signôr ({in} the fourth year all the fruits shall be blessed for the Lord), tant che un regâl di fieste (as a gift of feast).

Verse 25: Il cuint an o mangjarês lis pomis di chei arbui ({in} the fifth year shall ye eat the fruits of those trees); cussì a butaran ancjemò par vualtris (so will they cast yet for you). Jo o soi il Signôr, il vuestri Diu: I am the Lord your God.

Verse 26: No stait a mangjâ cjar cul sanc: eat ye not flesh with its blood. No stait a butâsi ni tai strolegaçs (cast not yourselves into magicworks) ni tai incjantesims (neither into enchantments).

Verse 27: No stait a rocâsi il cjâf a taront (round ye off not your head) e no stait a staronzâ l’ôr de barbe (and round ye down not the edge of your beard).

Verse 28: No stait a fâsi tais sul cuarp par un muart (make ye not cuttings on your body for a dead one) ni a tatuâsi (neither tattoo yourselves). Jo o soi il Signôr: I am the Lord.

Verse 29: No sta profanâ tô fie lassantle doprâ (profane thou not thy daughter in letting her be used), par no che la tiere si prostituissi (that the land may not prostitute itself) e si jempli di porcariis (and fill itself with filthy deeds).

Versets 30-37

Vocabulary: rispietâ (to respect), la sabide (sabbath), il rivuart (regard), il santuari (sanctuary), lâ di (to go unto), clamâ (to call), il muart (dead one), un induvinin (soothsayer), interpelâ (to consult), insoçâsi (to make oneself unclean), la colpe (fault), jevâ in pîts (to arise on one’s feet), la presince (presence), i cjavei (hair), blanc (white), onorâ (to honour), la persone (person), il vieli (old man), vivi (to live), il timôr (fear), il forest (foreigner), stabilîsi (to establish oneself), framieç di (amongst), la tiere (land), (to make), la malegracie (ill manner), vê di (to have to), tratâ (to treat), compagn di (like), nassi (to be born), amâ (to love), la injustizie (unrighteousness), judicâ (to judge), misurâ (to measure), trop che (how much), la robe (matter), lunc (long), pesâ (to weigh), dentri (inside), viodi di (to see unto), la staderie (balance), just (righteous), il pês (weight), un efa (ephah), un hin (hin), saltâ fûr (to come forth), stâ (to dwell), atent (attentive), dut (all), la leç (law), un ordin (order), meti in vore (to put unto task).

Verse 30: O rispietarês lis mês sabidis (ye shall respect* my sabbaths) e o varês rivuart pal gno santuari (and shall have regard for my sanctuary). Jo o soi il Signôr: I am the Lord. — *as in keep

Verse 31: No stait a lâ di chei che a clamin i muarts (go ye not unto those who call the dead) ni dai induvinins (neither unto soothsayers); no stait a interpelâju (consult ye them not) par no insoçâsi par colpe lôr (as not to make yourselves unclean by their fault). Jo o soi il Signôr, il vuestri Diu: I am the Lord your God.

Verse 32: Jeve in pîts (arise thou on thy feet) presince di chel che al à i cjavei blancs ({in} presence of that one who hath white hair); onore la persone dal vieli (honour thou the person of the old man) e vîf tal timôr dal to Diu (and live thou in the fear of thy God). Jo o soi il Signôr: I am the Lord.

Verse 33: Cuant che un forest si stabilissarà framieç di vualtris (when a foreigner will establish himself amongst you), te vuestre tiere (in your land), no stait a fâi malegraciis (make ye not ill manners unto him).

Verse 34: Il forest che al vîf framieç di vualtris (the foreigner who liveth amongst you) o vês di tratâlu compagn di chel nassût framieç di vualtris (are ye to treat like that one born amongst you); tu lu amarâs come te in persone (thou shalt love him as thyself in person), parcè che ancje vualtris o vês stât forescj te tiere dal Egjit (for also ye were foreigners in the land of Egypt).

Verse 35: No stait a fâ injustiziis tal judicâ (make ye not unrighteousnesses in judging), tal misurâ trop che une robe e je lungje (in measuring how much a matter is long), trop ch’e pese (how much it weigheth) e trop che and è dentri (and how much is therein).

Verse 36: Viodêt di vê une staderie juste (see ye unto having a righteous balance), pês juscj (righteous weights), un efa just (a righteous ephah), un hin just (a righteous hin). Jo o soi il Signôr, vuestri Diu (I am the Lord your God), che us ài fats saltâ fûr de tiere dal Egjit (who made you come forth from the land of Egypt).

Verse 37: Stait atents a dutis lis mês leçs (dwell ye attentive unto all my laws) e a ducj i miei ordins (and unto all mine orders) e metêtju in vore (and put ye them unto task). Jo o soi il Signôr: I am the Lord.