Leviticus 11 in Friulian

The eleventh chapter of the book of Leviticus treats of clean and unclean animals. From the chapter headings: regulis a rivuart dal mont e dal soç (rules in regard unto the clean and the unclean); nemâi di tiere (land animals); nemâi di aghe (water animals); nemâi che a svolin (animals which fly); nemâi che si strissinin (animals which drag themselves); regulis gjenerâls (general rules); conclusion (conclusion).

The first-time visitor to this site ought to begin his study of the Friulian language here.

Read Levitic 11

To read the Friulian text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Bibie par un popul and consult Levitic 11. An archived version of the text is found here.

Versets 1-8

Vocabulary: fevelâ (to speak), (to say), il fi (son), dut (all), la bestie (beast), la tiere (earth), il nemâl (animal), podê (may), mangjâ (to eat), ogni (every), rumiâ (to ruminate), la talpe (foot), a forcjàs (forked), la ongule (hoof), sclapât (parted), il camêl (camel), soç (unclean), il tac (badger), il jeur (hare), il purcit (pig), la cjar (flesh), vê di (to have to), tocjâ (to touch), il cadavar (cadaver).

Verses 1-3: Il Signôr i fevelà a Mosè e a Aron (the Lord spoke unto Moses and Aaron): disêt ai fîs di Israel (say ye unto the sons of Israel): di dutis lis bestiis che a son su la tiere (of all the beasts which are on the earth), i nemâi che o podês mangjâju a son chescj (the animals which ye may eat are these): o podês mangjâ ogni nemâl che al rumìe (ye may eat every animal which ruminateth) e che al à la talpe *a forcjàs* (and which hath a forked foot) e la +ongule sclapade+ (and a parted hoof). — *A forcjàs: where the foot is divided into wholly separated toes or claws, as much below as above; no membrane on the lower side of the foot. This is seen, for instance, in the goat. +Ongule sclapade: a foot which parts but may not necessarily result in wholly separated toes or claws. The camel, for instance, has a foot which parts (seen from above, toes are distinguished) but forks not (the bottom surface of the foot is not split; the toes are joined). The goat, on the other hand, would be said to have both ongule sclapade and talpe a forcjàs.

Verses 4-7: Dai nemâi che a rumiin e che a àn la talpe a forcjàs (of the animals which ruminate or* which have a forked foot) no podês mangjâ (ye may not eat): il camêl, parcè che al rumìe ma nol à la talpe a forcjàs e par vualtris al è soç (the camel, for it ruminateth but hath not a forked foot and for you it is unclean); il tac, parcè che al rumìe ma nol à la talpe a forcjàs e par vualtris al è soç (the badger, for it ruminateth but hath not a forked foot and for you it is unclean); il jeur, parcè che al rumìe ma nol à la talpe a forcjàs e par vualtris al è soç (the hare, for it ruminateth but hath not a forked foot and for you it is unclean); il purcit, parcè che al à la talpe a forcjàs e la ongule sclapade ma nol rumìe e par vualtris al è soç (the pig, for it hath a forked foot and a parted hoof but ruminateth not and for you it is unclean). — *The Friulian here employs e (and), but this must be taken as or, for none of the listed animals fulfil both conditions.

Verse 8: La lôr cjar no vês di mangjâle (their flesh are ye not to eat) e no vês di tocjâ i lôr cadavars (and ye are not to touch their cadavers); par vualtris a son soçs (for you they are unclean).

Versets 9-12

Vocabulary: dut (all), il nemâl (animal), la aghe (water), mangjâ (to eat), la pine (fin), la scae (scale), tant… che (as much… as), il mâr (sea), il flum (river), podê (may), la magne (snake), vivi (to live), soç (unclean), la robate (wicked matter), la cjar (flesh), considerâ (to consider), il cadavar (cadaver).

Verse 9: Di ducj i nemâi che a son ta l’aghe (of all the animals which are in the water), o mangjarês chescj (ye shall eat these): ducj chei che a àn pinis e scais (all those which have fins and scales), tant tai mârs che tai flums (as much in the seas as in the rivers), o podês mangjâju (ye may eat them).

Verse 10: Ducj chei che no àn ni pinis ni scais (all those which have neither fins nor scales), tai mârs e tai flums (in the seas and in the rivers), dutis lis magnis di aghe (all water snakes), e dut ce che al vîf ta l’aghe (and all that which liveth in the water) par vualtris al è soç (for you is unclean).

Verse 11: Par vualtris a saran une robate (for you shall they be a wicked matter); no mangjarês la lôr cjar (ye shall not eat their flesh) e o considerarês une robate i lôr cadavars (and ye shall consider a wicked matter their cadavers).

Verse 12: Dut ce che, ta l’aghe, nol à ni pinis ni scais (all that which, in the water, hath neither fins nor scales) vualtris lu considerarês une robate (shall ye consider a wicked matter).

Versets 13-23

Vocabulary: riguardâ (to regard), un ucel (bird), considerâ (to consider), la robate (wicked matter), vê di (to have to), mangjâ (to eat), (to make), il riviel (repugnance), la acuile (eagle), il pufin (shearwater), il mâr (sea), la acuile di mâr (osprey), il voltori (vulture), ogni (every), la raze (kind), il falcuç (falcon), la sorte (sort), il corvat (raven), il strus (ostrich), il barbezuan (barn owl), il cocâl (seagull), un ucelat (bird of prey), il çus (true owl), un alcion (kingfisher), un ibis (ibis), il cign (swan), il pelican (pelican), la folaghe (coot), la cicogne (stork), un airon (heron), biel (fine), la creste (crest), l’ucel de biele creste (hoopoe), il gnotul (bat), vê di (to have to), un inset (insect), la ale (wing), cjaminâ (to walk), cuatri (four), il pît (foot), però (but), podê (may), dôs (f., two), la talpe (leg), parsore di (over), saltâ (to leap), la tiere (earth), partant (therefore), chei chi (those here), la cavalete (grasshopper), il zupet (locust), il zupiot (little locust), il gri (cricket), altri (other).

Verses 13-19: Par chel che al riguarde i ucei (for that which regardeth birds), o considerarês une robate e no varês di mangjânt (ye shall consider a wicked matter and shall not eat thereof), parcè che a fasin riviel (for they make repugnance): l’acuile, il pufin* e +l’acuile di mâr+ (the eagle, the shearwater and the osprey), il voltori e ogni raze di falcuç (the vulture and every kind of falcon), ogni sorte di corvat (every sort of raven), il strus, il barbezuan,¬ il cocâl e ogni raze di ucelat (the ostrich, the barn owl, the seagull and every kind of bird of prey), il çus, l’alcion, l’ibis (the true° owl, the kingfisher, the ibis), il cign, il pelican, la folaghe (the swan, the pelican, the coot), la cicogne, ogni raze di airon, #l’ucel de biele creste# e il gnotul (the stork, every kind of heron, the hoopoe and the bat). — *Pufin: shearwater; from genus name puffinus. +Acuile di mâr: osprey; literally, sea eagle. ¬Barbezuan: barn owl; literally, uncle John (barbe Zuan). °True, to distinguish it from the barn owl; il çus is the true or typical owl (family Strigidae), whereas il barbezuan is the barn owl (family Tytonidae). #Ucel de biele creste: hoopoe; literally, bird of the fine crest.

Verse 20: O vês di considerâ une robate (ye are to consider a wicked matter) ancje ogni sorte di inset* cu lis alis (also every sort of insect with wings) e che al cjamine sun *cuatri pîts* (and which walketh on four feet). — *An insect has six legs and not four; the two pairs of legs found ahead of the hindlegs in grasshoppers, locusts and crickets are referred to in the Friulian as ‘feet’ (cuatri pîts: four feet), whereas the hind pair are called ‘legs’ (dôs talpis: two legs; see verse 21), amounting to six.

Verse 21: Però dai insets cu lis alis e che a cjaminin sun cuatri pîts (but of the insects with wings and which walk on four feet), o podarês mangjâ chei che a àn *dôs talpis parsore dai pîts* (ye shall be able to eat those which have two legs over their feet), par saltâ su la tiere (to leap on the earth). — *Dôs talpis parsore dai pîts: a pair of longer hindlegs in grasshoppers, locusts and crickets (see verse 22) which, when the insect is in resting position, rise over its other legs (or over its ‘four feet’).

Verse 22: Partant o podarês mangjâ chei chi (therefore ye shall be able to eat those here): ogni raze di cavaletis (every kind of grasshoppers) e ogni raze di zupets (and every kind of locusts) e ogni raze di zupiots (and every kind of little locusts) e ogni raze di grîs (and every kind of crickets).

Verse 23: Ogni altri inset cu lis alis e cun cuatri pîts (every other insect with wings and with four feet) o vês di considerâlu une robate (are ye to consider a wicked matter).

Versets 24-28

Vocabulary: la colpe (fault), il nemâl (animal), deventâ (to become), soç (unclean), tocjâ (to touch), il cadavar (cadaver), restâ (to remain), fintremai (until), la sere (evening), sore sere (towards evening), traspuartâ (to transport), lavâ (to wash), la munture (raiment), vê di (to have to), considerâ (to consider), ogni (every), la ongule (hoof), cence (without), il sclap (parting), rumiâ (to ruminate), cuatri (four), la talpe (leg), cjaminâ (to walk), la plante (plant), il pît (foot).

Verses 24-25: Par colpe di chescj nemâi (by fault of these animals) o deventarês soçs (shall ye become unclean): chel che al tocjarà il lôr cadavar (that one who will touch their cadaver) al restarà soç fintremai sore sere (shall remain unclean until towards evening) e chel che al traspuartarà i lôr cadavars (and that one who will transport their cadavers) al varà di lavâsi la munture (shall have to wash his raiment) e al restarà soç fintremai sore sere (and shall remain unclean until towards evening).

Verse 26: O vês di considerâ soç (ye are to consider unclean) ogni nemâl che al à lis ongulis cence sclap (every animal which hath hooves without parting) e che nol rumìe (and which ruminateth not): chel che ju tocjarà al sarà soç (that one who will touch them shall be unclean).

Verse 27: O vês di considerâ soçs (ye are to consider unclean) ducj i nemâi cun cuatri talpis (all animals with four legs) che a cjaminin su la plante dai pîts (which walk on the plant of the feet); chel che al tocjarà il lôr cadavar (that one who will touch their cadaver) al restarà soç fin sore sere (shall remain unclean until towards evening).

Verse 28: Chel che al traspuartarà i lôr cadavars (that one who will transport their cadavers) al varà di lavâsi la munture (shall have to wash his raiment) e al restarà soç fintremai sore sere (and shall remain unclean until towards evening). Chescj nemâi o vês di considerâju soçs: these animals are ye to consider unclean.

Versets 29-31

Vocabulary: dut (all), il nemâl (animal), strissinâsi (to drag oneself), vê di (to have to), considerâ (to consider), soç (unclean), il farc (mole), la surîs (mouse), ogni (every), la raze (kind), la liserte (lizard), la tarantule (tarantula), il musan (shrew), la salmandrie (salamander), il sborf (green lizard), il camaleont (chameleon), tocjâ (to touch), muart (dead), restâ (to remain), fint a (until), la sere (evening).

Verses 29-30: Ducj i nemâi che si strissinin (all animals which drag themselves) o vês di considerâju soçs (are ye to consider unclean): il farc, la surîs e ogni raze di liserte (the mole, the mouse and every kind of lizard), la tarantule, il musan, la salmandrie, il sborf e il camaleont (the tarantula, the shrew, the salamander, the green lizard and the chameleon).

Verse 31: Di ducj chei che si strissinin (of all those which drag themselves), chescj nemâi par vualtris a saran soçs (these animals for you shall be unclean); chel che ju tocjarà di muarts (that one who will touch them dead) al restarà soç fint a la sere (shall remain unclean until evening).

Versets 32-36

Vocabulary: ogni (every), la robe (matter), colâ (to fall), muart (dead), cualchidun (a one), soç (unclean), tratâsi di (to be question of), un imprest (instrument), il len (wood), il vistît (garment), la piel (skin), il sac (sack), cualunche (whichsoever), altri (other), doprâ (to use), vê di (to have to), meti in muel (to souse), la aghe (water), restâ (to remain), fintremai (until), la sere (evening), sore sere (towards evening), po (then), mont (clean), il crep (earthen vessel), dut (all), dentri (inside), rompi (to break), mangjâ (to eat), parsore (atop), bevi (to drink), la part (part), il cadavar (cadaver), il fôr (oven), il fornel (stove), crevâ (to break apart), considerâ (to consider), malmont (not clean), però (but), la risultive (spring), la poce (pool), vadì (which is to say), racuei (to gather), tocjâ (to touch).

Verse 32: Ogni robe là che al colarà muart cualchidun di lôr (every matter whereon a one of them will fall dead) e sarà soce (shall be unclean); che si trati di imprescj di len (be it question of instruments of wood) o di vistîts (or of garments) o di piel (or of skin) o di sac (or of sack) o di cualunche altre robe che si doprile (or of whichsoever other matter which is used); si varà di metile in muel ta l’aghe (it shall have to be soused in water) e e restarà soce fintremai sore sere (and shall remain unclean until towards evening). Po e sarà monde: then it shall be clean.

Verse 33: Se al cole tun crep (if it fall into an earthen vessel), dut ce che al è dentri al sarà soç (all that which is therein shall be unclean) e o varês di rompi il crep (and ye shall have to break the earthen vessel).

Verse 34: Dut ce che o mangjais (all that which ye eat), se i cole parsore chê aghe (if that water fall thereatop), al sarà soç (shall be unclean); dut ce che o bevês (all that which ye drink), ducj i creps che o doprais (all the earthen vessels which ye use), a saran soçs (shall be unclean).

Verse 35: Ogni robe che i colarà parsore une part dal lôr cadavar (every matter whereatop will fall a part of their cadaver), e sarà soce (shall be unclean); il fôr e il fornel si varà di crevâju (an oven and a stove shall have to be broken apart): a son soçs e o vês di considerâju malmonts (they are unclean and ye are to consider them not clean).

Verse 36: Però une risultive o une poce (but a spring or a pool), vadì là che si racuei l’aghe (which is to say, where water gathereth itself), e sarà monde (shall be clean); ma chel che al tocjarà i lôr cadavars (but that one who will touch their cadavers) al sarà soç (shall be unclean).

Versets 37-43

Vocabulary: la part (part), il cadavar (cadaver), colâ (to fall), la semence (seed), semenâ (to sow), mont (clean), strucjâ (to pour), la aghe (water), dentri (inside), alc (anything), vê di (to have to), considerâ (to consider), soç (unclean), murî (to die), il nemâl (animal), podê (may), mangjâ (to eat), tocjâ (to touch), restâ (to remain), fintremai (until), la sere (evening), sore sere (towards evening), lavâ (to wash), la munture (raiment), fin (until), puartâ vie (to bear away), ogni (every), strissinâsi (to drag oneself), la tiere (earth), la robate (wicked matter), dut (all), nissun (not any), cjaminâ (to walk), la panze (belly), cuatri (four), il pît (foot), cetant (so much), (to make), deventâ (to become), la porcarie (filth), la persone (person), la colpe (fault), infetât (contaminated).

Verses 37-38: Se une part dal lôr cadavar (if a part of their cadaver) e cole su la semence di semenâ (fall upon seed for sowing), cheste e sarà monde (this shall be clean); ma se su la semence (but if upon the seed) e je stade strucjade aghe (water have been poured) e al cole dentri alc dai lôr cadavars (and anything of their cadavers fall therein), si varà di considerâle soce (it shall have to be considered unclean).

Verse 39: Se al mûr un nemâl che si pò mangjâlu (if an animal die which may be eaten), chel che al tocjarà il so cadavar (that one who will touch its cadaver) al restarà soç fintremai sore sere (shall remain unclean until towards evening).

Verse 40: Chel che al mangjarà di chel cadavar (that one who will eat of that cadaver) al varà di lavâsi la munture (shall have to wash his raiment) e al restarà soç fin sore sere (and shall remain unclean until towards evening); ancje chel che al puartarà vie chel cadavar (also that one who will bear away that cadaver) al varà di lavâsi la munture (shall have to wash his raiment) e al restarà soç fin sore sere (and shall remain unclean until towards evening).

Verse 41: Ogni nemâl che si strissine su la tiere (every animal which draggeth itself on the earth) al è une robate (is a wicked matter) e no si à di mangjânt (and one is not to eat thereof).

Verse 42: Ducj i nemâi che si strissinin su la tiere (all animals which drag themselves on the earth), no vês di mangjânt nissun di chei che a cjaminin cu la panze (ye are not to eat thereof any of those which walk with their belly) o che a cjaminin cun cuatri pîts (or which walk with four feet) o cun cetancj pîts (or with so many feet), parcè che a son une robate (for they are a wicked matter).

Verse 43: No stait a fâ deventâ une porcarie lis vuestris personis (make not become a filth your persons) cun nissun di chescj nemâi che si strissinin (with any of these animals which drag themselves); no stait a deventâ soçs par colpe di lôr (become not unclean by fault of them), di restâ infetâts (as to remain contaminated).

Versets 44-47

Vocabulary: (to make), sant (holy), duncje (therefore), viodi di (to see unto), sporcjâsi (to defile oneself), nissun (not any), il nemâl (animal), strissinâsi (to drag oneself), la tiere (earth, land), saltâ fûr (to come forth), jessi (to be), la leç (law), a rivuart di (in regard unto), cuatri (four), la talpe (leg), un ucel (bird), dut (all), vivi (to live), movisi (to move oneself), la aghe (water), rivâ a (to be able to), disserni (to discern), soç (unclean), mont (clean), podê (may), mangjâ (to eat), vê di (to have to).

Verse 44: Parcè che jo o soi il Signôr, il vuestri Diu: for I am the Lord your God. Fasêtsi sants duncje (make yourselves holy therefore) e viodêt di jessi sants (and see unto being holy), parcè che jo o soi sant (for I am holy); no stait a sporcjâsi cun nissun di chescj nemâi (defile not yourselves with any of these animals) che si strissinin par tiere (which drag themselves along the earth).

Verse 45: Parcè che jo o soi il Signôr (for I am the Lord), che us ài fats saltâ fûr de tiere dal Egjit (who made you come forth from the land of Egypt), par jessi il vuestri Diu (to be your God); viodêt duncje di jessi sants (see therefore unto being holy), parcè che jo o soi sant (for I am holy).

Verses 46-47: Cheste e je la leç (this is the law) a rivuart dai nemâi cun cuatri talpis, dai ucei, di dut ce che al vîf e si môf ta l’aghe e si strissine par tiere (in regard unto the animals with four legs, the birds, all that which liveth and moveth itself in the water and draggeth itself along the earth), par che o rivais a disserni (that ye may be able to discern) ce che al è soç di ce che al è mont (that which is unclean from that which is clean), il nemâl che si pò mangjâlu di chel che no si à di mangjâlu (the animal which may be eaten from that one which is not to be eaten).