Friulian language series: Levitic 11, il mont e il soç

The eleventh chapter of the book of Leviticus treats of clean and unclean animals. From the chapter headings: regulis a rivuart dal mont e dal soç (rules regarding the clean and the unclean); nemâi di tiere (animals of the land; land animals); nemâi di aghe (animals of the water; water animals); nemâi che a svolin (animals that fly); nemâi che si strissinin (animals that slither); regulis gjenerâls (general rules); conclusion (conclusion).

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Read Levitic 11

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Versets 1-8

Vocabulary: fevelâ (to speak), (to say), il fi (son), la bestie (beast), la tiere (earth, ground, land), il nemâl (animal), mangjâ (to eat), rumiâ (to ruminate, to chew the cud), la talpe (leg <foot>; of animal), a forcjàs (divided), la ongule (hoof), sclapât (parted), podê (may, can, to be able), il camêl (camel), soç (unclean), il tac (badger), il jeur (hare), il purcit (pig), la cjar (flesh), vê di (must, to have to), tocjâ (to touch), il cadavar (cadaver, carcass, corpse).

Verses 1-3: Il Signôr i fevelà a Mosè e a Aron (the Lord spoke to Moses and Aaron): disêt ai fîs di Israel (say to the sons of Israel): di dutis lis bestiis che a son su la tiere (of all the beasts that are upon the earth), i nemâi che o podês mangjâju a son chescj (the animals that you may eat are these): o podês mangjâ ogni nemâl che al rumìe (you may eat every animal that ruminates) e che al à la talpe* +a forcjàs+ (and that has a divided foot) e la ¬ongule sclapade¬ (and a parted hoof). *Up to this point, I have always rendered the Friulian talpe as leg, but here it is question of the foot. +A forcjàs: where the foot is divided into wholly separated toes or claws, as much below as above; no membrane on lower side of foot. This can be seen, for instance, in the goat. ¬Ongule sclapade: a foot that parts, but does not necessarily result in wholly separated toes or claws. The camel, for instance, has a foot that parts (seen from above, toes can be distinguished) but does not divide (the bottom surface of the foot is not split; the toes are joined). The goat, on the other hand, would be said to have both an ongule sclapade and a talpe a forcjàs.

Verses 4-7: Dai nemâi che a rumiin e* che a àn la talpe a forcjàs (of the animals that ruminate or have a divided foot) no podês mangjâ (you may not eat): il camêl, parcè che al rumìe ma nol à la talpe a forcjàs e par vualtris al è soç (the camel, for it ruminates but does not have a divided foot and is unclean for you); il tac, parcè che al rumìe ma nol à la talpe a forcjàs e par vualtris al è soç (the badger, for it ruminates but does not have a divided foot and is unclean for you); il jeur, parcè che al rumìe ma nol à la talpe a forcjàs e par vualtris al è soç (the hare, for it ruminates but does not have a divided foot and is unclean for you); il purcit, parcè che al à la talpe a forcjàs e la ongule sclapade ma nol rumìe e par vualtris al è soç (the pig, for it has a divided foot and a parted hoof but does not ruminate and is unclean for you). *The Friulian uses e here, but this must be taken as meaning or because none of the animals listed fulfil both conditions.

Verse 8: *La lôr cjar no vês di mangjâle* (you are not to eat their flesh) e no vês di tocjâ i lôr cadavars (and are not to touch their carcasses); par vualtris a son soçs (they are unclean for you). *See the notes at verse 9.

Versets 9-12

Vocabulary: il nemâl (animal), la aghe (water), mangjâ (to eat), la pine (fin), la scae (scale; also scaie), il mâr (sea), il flum (river), podê (may, can, to be able), la magne (snake), vivi (to live), soç (unclean), la robate (reprehensible thing), la cjar (flesh), considerâ (to consider), il cadavar (cadaver, carcass, corpse).

Verse 9: Di ducj i nemâi che a son ta l’aghe (of all the animals that are in the water), o mangjarês chescj (you shall eat these): ducj chei che a àn pinis e scais (all those that have fins and scales), tant tai mârs che tai flums (whether in seas or in rivers), o podês mangjâju* (you may eat). *Mangjâju: rendered literally, this is, of course, the Friulian for to eat them; the direct object them (which stands in for ducj chei che a àn pinis e scais [all those that have fins and scales]) need not be carried over into the translation here as this is a particularity of Friulian redundant in English. See also verse 8, with its direct object le in: la lôr cjar no vês di mangjâle: literally, their flesh you have not to eat it, which is to say, you are not to eat their flesh.

Verse 10: Ducj chei che no àn ni pinis ni scais (all those that have neither fins nor scales), tai mârs e tai flums (in seas and in rivers), dutis lis *magnis di aghe* (all creatures that snake about in the water [all water snakes]), e dut ce che al vîf ta l’aghe (and all that lives in the water) par vualtris al è soç (is unclean for you). *Magnis di aghe: I have understood this to be a broader reference to include eels, lampreys and such-like creatures, which take the appearance of snakes.

Verse 11: Par vualtris a saran une robate (they shall be a reprehensible thing for you); no mangjarês la lôr cjar (you shall not eat their flesh) e o considerarês une robate i lôr cadavars (and shall consider their carcasses a reprehensible thing).

Verse 12: Dut ce che, ta l’aghe, nol à ni pinis ni scais (all that which, in the water, has neither fins nor scales) vualtris lu considerarês une robate (shall you consider a reprehensible thing).

Versets 13-23

Vocabulary: riguardâ (to regard, to concern), un ucel (bird; also uciel), considerâ (to consider), la robate (reprehensible thing), mangjâ (to eat), il riviel (revulsion, repugnance), fâ riviel (to be repugnant), la acuile (eagle), il pufin (shearwater), la acuile di mâr (osprey), il voltori (vulture), la raze (kind, sort), il falcuç (falcon), la sorte (kind, sort), il corvat (raven), il strus (ostrich), il barbezuan (barn owl), il cocâl (seagull), un ucelat (bird of prey), il çus (true owl), un alcion (kingfisher), un ibis (ibis), il cign (swan), il pelican (pelican), la folaghe (coot), la cicogne (stork), un airon (heron), la creste (crest), l’ucel de biele creste (hoopoe), il gnotul (bat), vê di (must, to have to), un inset (insect), la ale (wing), cjaminâ (to walk), cuatri (four), il pît (foot), podê (may, can, to be able), la talpe (leg; of animal), parsore di (over, above), saltâ (to leap, to jump), la tiere (earth, ground, land), partant (therefore), la raze (kind, sort), la cavalete (grasshopper), il zupet (locust), il zupiot (small locust), il gri (cricket).

Verses 13-19: Par chel che al riguarde i ucei (for that which concerns birds), o considerarês une robate e no varês di mangjânt (you shall consider a reprehensible thing and shall not eat thereof), parcè che a fasin riviel (for they are repugnant): l’acuile, il pufin* e l’acuile di mâr (the eagle, the shearwater and the osprey), il voltori e ogni raze di falcuç (the vulture and every sort of falcon), ogni sorte di corvat (every sort of raven), il strus, il barbezuan+, il cocâl e ogni raze di ucelat (the ostrich, the barn owl, the seagull and every sort of bird of prey), il çus, l’alcion, l’ibis (the true¬ owl, the kingfisher, the ibis), il cign, il pelican, la folaghe (the swan, the pelican, the coot), la cicogne, ogni raze di airon, l’ucel de biele creste e il gnotul (the stork, every sort of heron, the hoopoe and the bat). *Pufin: from genus name puffinus. +Barbezuan: literally, uncle John (barbe Zuan). ¬True, to distinguish it from the barn owl; il çus is the true or typical owl (family Strigidae), whereas il barbezuan is the barn owl (family Tytonidae).

Verse 20: O vês di considerâ une robate (you are to consider a reprehensible thing) ancje ogni sorte di inset* cu lis alis (also every sort of insect with wings) e che al cjamine sun *cuatri pîts* (and that walks on four feet). *An insect has six legs and not four; the two pairs of legs found ahead of the hindlegs in grasshoppers, locusts and crickets are referred to in the Friulian as ‘feet’ (cuatri pîts [four feet]), whereas the hind pair are called ‘legs’ (dôs talpis [two legs]; see verse 21), amounting to six.

Verse 21: Però dai insets cu lis alis e che a cjaminin sun cuatri pîts (but of the insects with wings and that walk on four feet), o podarês mangjâ chei che a àn *dôs talpis parsore dai pîts* (you may [shall be able to] eat those that have two legs above their feet), par saltâ su la tiere (to leap on the ground). *Dôs talpis parsore dai pîts: a pair of longer hindlegs in grasshoppers, locusts and crickets (see verse 22) which, when the insect is in resting position, rise above its other legs (or above its ‘four feet’).

Verse 22: Partant o podarês mangjâ chei chi (you may therefore [shall therefore be able to] eat these): ogni raze di cavaletis (every sort of grasshoppers) e ogni raze di zupets (and every sort of locusts) e ogni raze di zupiots (and every sort of small locusts) e ogni raze di grîs (and every sort of crickets).

Verse 23: Ogni altri inset cu lis alis e cun cuatri pîts (every other insect with wings and with four feet) o vês di considerâlu une robate (are you to consider a reprehensible thing).

Versets 24-28

Vocabulary: la colpe (fault, blame), par colpe di (because of, on account of), il nemâl (animal), deventâ (to become), soç (unclean), tocjâ (to touch), il cadavar (cadaver, carcass, corpse), restâ (to remain), fintremai (until), la sere (evening), sore sere (towards evening), traspuartâ (to carry), lavâ (to wash), la munture (garments, clothing; also monture), considerâ (to consider), la ongule (hoof), cence (without), il sclap (part), rumiâ (to ruminate, to chew the cud), cuatri (four), la talpe (leg; of animal), cjaminâ (to walk), la plante dal pît (flat/sole of the foot).

Verses 24-25: Par colpe di chescj nemâi (on account of these animals) o deventarês soçs (shall you become unclean): chel che al tocjarà il lôr cadavar (he who touches [will touch] their carcass) al restarà soç fintremai sore sere (shall remain unclean until towards evening) e chel che al traspuartarà i lôr cadavars (and he who carries [will carry] their carcasses) al varà di *lavâsi la munture* (shall wash [shall have to wash] his garments) e al restarà soç fintremai sore sere (and shall remain unclean until towards evening). *Note the construction lavâsi la munture (to wash one’s garments); other examples: lavâsi i cjavei (to wash one’s hair); lavâsi lis mans (to wash one’s hands); laviti lis mans (wash your hands; second-person singular imperative).

Verse 26: O vês di considerâ soç (you are to consider unclean) ogni nemâl che al à lis ongulis cence sclap (every animal that has unparted hooves [hooves without part]) e che nol rumìe (and that does not ruminate): chel che ju tocjarà al sarà soç (he who touches [will touch] them shall be unclean).

Verse 27: O vês di considerâ soçs (you are to consider unclean) ducj i nemâi cun cuatri talpis (all animals with four legs) che a cjaminin su la plante dai pîts (that walk on the flat of the foot [feet]); chel che al tocjarà il lôr cadavar (he who touches [will touch] their carcass) al restarà soç fin sore sere (shall remain unclean until towards evening).

Verse 28: Chel che al traspuartarà i lôr cadavars (he who carries [will carry] their carcasses) al varà di lavâsi la munture (shall wash [shall have to wash] his garments) e al restarà soç fintremai sore sere (and shall remain unclean until towards evening). Chescj nemâi o vês di considerâju soçs: these animals are you to consider unclean.

Versets 29-31

Vocabulary: il nemâl (animal), strissinâsi (to slither), vê di (must, to have to), soç (unclean), il farc (mole), la surîs (mouse), la raze (kind, sort), la liserte (lizard; also lisierte), la tarantule (tarantula), il musan (shrew), la salmandrie (salamander), il sborf (green lizard), il camaleont (chameleon), tocjâ (to touch), muart (dead), restâ (to remain), fint a (until), la sere (evening).

Verses 29-30: Ducj i nemâi che si strissinin (all animals that slither) o vês di considerâju soçs (are you to consider unclean): il farc, la surîs e ogni raze di liserte (the mole, the mouse and every sort of lizard), la tarantule, il musan, la salmandrie, il sborf e il camaleont (the tarantula, the shrew, the salamander, the green lizard and the chameleon).

Verse 31: Di ducj chei che si strissinin (of all those that slither), chescj nemâi par vualtris a saran soçs (these animals shall be unclean for you); chel che ju tocjarà di muarts (he who touches [will touch] them {when they are} dead) al restarà soç fint a la sere (shall remain unclean until evening).

Versets 32-36

Vocabulary: la robe (thing, matter), colâ (to fall), muart (dead), cualchidun (someone, somebody), soç (unclean), tratâsi di (to be a matter of, to be question of), un imprest (instrument, tool, utensil), il len (wood), i vistîts (garments, clothing), la piel (skin), il sac (sack), cualunchi (any, whatever, whichever), altri (other), doprâ (to use, to employ), vê di (must, to have to), meti in muel (to soak), la aghe (water), restâ (to remain), fintremai (until), la sere (evening), sore sere (towards evening), mont (clean), il crep (earthen vessel), dentri (inside), rompi (to break), mangjâ (to eat), parsore (atop), bevi (to drink), la part (part, portion), il cadavar (cadaver, carcass, corpse), il fôr (oven), il fornel (stove), crevâ (to break apart), considerâ (to consider), malmont (unclean), la risultive (spring), la poç (well), vadì (which is to say), racuei (to gather, to collect), tocjâ (to touch).

Verse 32: Ogni robe (everything) là che al colarà muart cualchidun di lôr (where one of them falls [will fall] dead) e sarà soce (shall be unclean); che si trati di imprescj di len (whether it be question of wooden utensils) o di vistîts (or of clothing) o di piel (or of skin{s}) o di sac (or of sack{s}) o di cualunche altre robe che si doprile (or of any other thing that gets used [or of any other thing which one uses]); si varà di metile in muel ta l’aghe (it shall be soaked in water [one shall have to soak it in water]) e e restarà soce fintremai sore sere (and shall remain unclean until towards evening). Po e sarà monde: then it shall be clean.

Verse 33: Se al cole tun crep (if it falls into an earthen vessel), dut ce che al è dentri al sarà soç (all that is therein shall be unclean) e o varês di rompi il crep (and you shall break [shall have to break] the earthen vessel).

Verse 34: Dut ce che o mangjais (all that you eat), se i cole parsore chê aghe (if that water falls atop it), al sarà soç (shall be unclean); dut ce che o bevês (all that you drink), ducj i creps che o doprais (all the earthen vessels that you use), a saran soçs (shall be unclean). For clarity: anything that you eat shall become unclean if any of that water falls on it; anything that you drink and any earthen vessels that you use shall become unclean.

Verse 35: Ogni robe che i colarà parsore une part dal lôr cadavar (everything atop which falls [will fall] a part of their carcass), e sarà soce (shall be unclean); il fôr e il fornel si varà di crevâju (an oven and a stove shall be broken apart [the oven and the stove shall one have to break apart]): a son soçs (they are unclean) e o vês di considerâju malmonts (and unclean are you to consider them).

Verse 36: Però une risultive o une poce (but a spring or a well), vadì là che si racuei l’aghe (which is to say, where water is gathered together), e sarà monde (shall be clean); ma chel che al tocjarà i lôr cadavars (but he who touches [will touch] their carcasses) al sarà soç (shall be unclean).

Versets 37-43

Vocabulary: la part (part, portion), il cadavar (cadaver, carcass, corpse), colâ (to fall), la semence (seed), semenâ (to sow), mont (clean), strucjâ (to pour), la aghe (water), dentri (inside), alc (something, anything), vê di (must, to have to), considerâ (to consider), soç (unclean), murî (to die), il nemâl (animal), podê (may, can, to be able), mangjâ (to eat), tocjâ (to touch), restâ (to remain), fintremai (until), la sere (evening), sore sere (towards evening), lavâ (to wash), la munture (garments, clothing; also monture), puartâ vie (to take/carry away), strissinâsi (to slither), la tiere (earth, ground, land), la robate (reprehensible thing), cjaminâ (to walk), la panze (belly), cuatri (four), il pît (foot), cetant (many, numerous), deventâ (to become), la porcarie (dirt, filth), la persone (person), nissun (no, none, not any), la colpe (fault, blame), par colpe di (because of, on account of), infetât (contaminated).

Verses 37-38: Se une part dal lôr cadavar (if a part of their carcass) e cole su la semence di semenâ (falls upon seed for sowing), cheste e sarà monde (this shall be clean); ma se su la semence (but if upon the seed) e je stade strucjade aghe (water has been poured) e al cole dentri alc dai lôr cadavars (and any part of their carcasses falls thereon [and anything of their carcasses falls in]), si varà di considerâle soce (it shall be considered unclean [one shall have to consider it unclean]).

Verse 39: Se al mûr un nemâl che si pò mangjâlu (if animal which may be eaten dies), chel che al tocjarà il so cadavar (he who touches [will touch] its carcass) al restarà soç fintremai sore sere (shall remain unclean until towards evening).

Verse 40: Chel che al mangjarà di chel cadavar (he who eats [will eat] of that carcass) al varà di lavâsi la munture (shall wash [shall have to wash] his garments) e al restarà soç fin sore sere (and shall remain unclean until towards evening); ancje chel che al puartarà vie chel cadavar (he too who carries away [will carry away] that carcass) al varà di lavâsi la munture (shall wash [shall have to wash] his garments) e al restarà soç fin sore sere (and shall remain unclean until towards evening).

Verse 41: Ogni nemâl che si strissine su la tiere (every animal that slithers upon the earth) al è une robate (is a reprehensible thing) e no si à di mangjânt (and one is not to eat thereof).

Verse 42: Ducj i nemâi che si strissinin su la tiere (all animals that slither upon the earth), no vês di mangjânt nissun di chei che a cjaminin cu la panze (are you not to eat any thereof that walk upon [walk with] their belly) o che a cjaminin cun cuatri pîts (or that walk on [walk with] four feet) o cun cetancj pîts (or on many [with many] feet), parcè che a son une robate (for they are a reprehensible thing).

Verse 43: No stait a fâ deventâ une porcarie lis vuestris personis (do not defile [make become a filthiness] your persons) cun nissun di chescj nemâi che si strissinin (with any of these animals that slither); no stait a deventâ soçs par colpe di lôr (do not become unclean on their account), di restâ infetâts (and so remain [as to remain] contaminated).

Versets 44-47

Vocabulary: sant (holy), duncje (therefore), viodi di (to see to), sporcjâsi (to defile/dirty oneself), nissun (no, none, not any), il nemâl (animal), strissinâsi (to slither), la tiere (earth, ground, land), fâ saltâ fûr (to bring forth), la leç (law), a rivuart di (regarding, concerning), cuatri (four), la talpe (leg; of animal), un ucel (bird; also uciel), vivi (to live), movisi (to move about), la aghe (water), strissinâsi (to slither), rivâ a fâ (to be able to do, to manage to do), disserni (to discern), soç (unclean), mont (clean), podê (may, can, to be able), mangjâ (to eat), vê di (must, to have to).

Verse 44: Parcè che jo o soi il Signôr, il vuestri Diu: for I am the Lord your God. Fasêtsi sants duncje (so make yourselves holy) e viodêt di jessi sants (and be sure to be [and see to being] holy), parcè che jo o soi sant (for I am holy); no stait a sporcjâsi cun nissun di chescj nemâi (do not defile yourselves with any of these animals) che si strissinin par tiere (that slither along the earth).

Verse 45: Parcè che jo o soi il Signôr (for I am the Lord), che us ài fats saltâ fûr de tiere dal Egjit (who brought you forth from the land of Egypt), par jessi il vuestri Diu (to be your God); viodêt duncje di jessi sants (so be sure to be [so see to being] holy), parcè che jo o soi sant (for I am holy).

Verses 46-47: Cheste e je la leç (this is the law) a rivuart dai nemâi cun cuatri talpis, dai ucei, di dut ce che al vîf e si môf ta l’aghe e si strissine par tiere (regarding animals with four legs, birds, all that lives and moves about in the water and slithers along the earth), par che o rivais a disserni (that you may be able to discern) ce che al è soç di ce che al è mont (that which is unclean from that which is clean), il nemâl che si pò mangjâlu di chel che no si à di mangjâlu (the animal that may be eaten from the one that is not to be eaten).