Friulian language series: Esodo 34, lastris de leç

In the thirty-fourth chapter of the book of Exodus, God commands Moses to carve two new tablets identical to the first ones that he had shattered. From the subject line of the chapter: si torne a fâ il pat (the covenant is renewed); lis lastris de leç (tablets of the law).

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Read Esodo 34

To read the Friulian text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Bibie par un popul and consult Esodo 34. An archived version of the text can be found here.

Versets 1-4

Vocabulary: taiâ fûr (to carve), la lastre (tablet), la piere (stone), compagn di (identical to), di prime (before), la mont (mount, mountain), scrivi (to write), la peraule (word), spacâ (to smash, to shatter), tignîsi pront (to be ready), a buinore (in the morning), denant dì (in the early morning), spietâ (to await, to wait for), la spice (top, peak), fâsi viodi (to make oneself seen), la anime (soul), vîf (alive, living), il besteam grant (large livestock, oxen, herds), il besteam minût (small livestock, sheep, flocks), passâ denant di (to pass before), taiâ (to cut), edentic (identical; also identic), jevâ (to rise), ordenâ (to command), cjapâ (to take), la man (hand).

Verse 1: Tae fûr dôs lastris di piere compagnis di chês di prime e anìn sù su la mont: carve two tablets of stone identical to the ones from before and go up on the mount. Chês di prime (the ones from before) refers to the first pair of tablets that Moses smashed at the foot of the mountain when he saw the molten calf and dancing of the people (see Esodo 32:19, where the expression used was parâ a tocs, meaning to smash, to shatter). The Lord continues: o tornarai a scrivi su lis lastris (I shall write again on the tablets) lis peraulis che a jerin su lis lastris di prime (the words that were on the tablets from before), che tu tu lis âs spacadis (which you shattered). Both parâ a tocs (literally, to send into bits) and spacâ can be taken as meaning to smash, to shatter.

Verse 2: Tegniti pront a buinore: be ready in the morning; be ready by morning. Denant dì: in the early morning. Spietimi li: wait for me there. La spice de mont: the top of the mountain. Where English says to wait for, Friulian says spietâ without a preposition: spietimi (wait for me); that is, do not include the preposition par (for) as in English.

Verse 3: Nol à di vignî sù nissun cun te: nobody must come up with you. In dute la mont no à di fâsi viodi anime vive: not a living soul must be seen anywhere on the mountain. If viodi means to see, then fâ viodi is to make seen, and the reflexive fâsi viodi is to make oneself seen; the sense, however, of fâsi viodi is to be visible, to be seen. You find in this verse the expression vê di, meaning must, to have to; note that nol à di is masculine in form (its subject is nissun), whereas no à di is feminine (its subject is anime vive). Review: Present indicative of . Passâ denant di cheste mont: to pass before this mountain.

Verse 4: Jevât denant dì: having arisen in the early morning.

Versets 5-7

Vocabulary: vignî jù (to come down), il nûl (cloud), fermâsi (to halt, to come to a standstill), clamâ (to call), berlâ (to proclaim, to call out), bon (good; see notes at verse 6), cence fin (endlessly, without end), stentâ a fâ (to struggle to do, to find difficult to do), inrabiâsi (to become angry), plen di (full of), il boncûr (mercy, grace), fedêl (faithful, loyal), mantignî (to maintain, to keep), il bonvolê (goodwill), un miâr (about a thousand), sapuartâ (to endure; also sopuartâ), il fal (transgression, offence, error), la tristerie (wickedness, iniquity), il pecjât (sin), lassâ (to allow, to permit), fâle francje (to get away with it), cjastiâ (to punish), il pari (father), il fi (son), il nevôt (grandson), fint a (as far as), tierç (third), cuart (fourth), la gjenerazion (generation).

Verse 5: Vignî jù intun nûl: to come down in a cloud.

Verse 6: The Lord proclaims: il Signôr, Diu bon cence fin; where the Hebrew has compassionate and gracious, the Friulian has bon cence fin. In addition to good, bon can also take on any of these senses in Friulian: tender, tolerant, merciful, benevolent, gracious. Taken literally, bon cence fin translates as good without end (that is, endlessly good); it might also be rendered infinitely good, infinite in goodness, etc. The sense of the verb stentâ is to have difficulty, to struggle, to have trouble. From this verse, stentâ a inrabiâsi would be rendered well as to be slow to anger. Supplementary examples: al stente in matematiche (he struggles in mathematics); o stenti a crodi ce che tu mi âs dit (I have trouble believing what you told me); al stente a cjaminâ (he has difficulty walking).

Verse 7: Cun miârs di lôr: by the thousands of them. I fai, la tristerie e il pecjât: transgressions, iniquity and sin; the plural of fal is fai. The sense of fâle francje is to get away with it, to get off scot-free, to go unpunished; ma che nol lasse che nissun no le fasi francje can be taken as but who does not allow anybody (who has sinned) to go unpunished. Also: al cjastie i pecjâts dai paris (he punishes the sins of fathers) sui fîs e sui nevôts (upon their sons and grandsons); that is, he brings punishment for fathers’ sins down upon his sons and grandsons.

Versets 8-10

Vocabulary: ingenoglâsi (to kneel down; also inzenoglâsi), svelt (fast, quick[ly]), butâsi par tiere (to take to the ground), il cjâf (head), se propit (if indeed), vê a grât (to have in one’s favour), vignî vie cun (to come away with, to leave with), seben (even though), dûr (hard), vê il cjâf dûr (to be stubborn), perdonâ (to pardon, to forgive), la tristerie (wickedness, iniquity), il pecjât (sin), la ereditât (inheritance), fâ un pat (to make a covenant), denant di (before, in front of), fâ un spieli (to perform a marvel), compagn (identical), la part (part), il mont (world), la gjernazie (offspring), jessi a stâ (to live, to dwell), cumò (now), viodi (to see), la vore (work), la robe (thing), trement (tremendous, awesome).

Verse 8: Mosè si ingenoglà svelt (Moses knelt down quickly) e si butà cul cjâf par tiere (and went down with his head to the ground [threw himself with his head on the ground]).

Verse 9: Seben che chest popul al à il cjâf dûr: even if this people is stubborn (hard-headed); to have a “hard head” (vê il cjâf dûr) is to be stubborn, obstinate. Fâs di nô la tô ereditât: make of us your inheritance.

Verse 10: O fasarai spiei (I shall perform marvels) che no ’nd è stâts di compagns (the likes of which have never been seen [of which there have not been any identical]) in nissune part di mont (in any part of the world) e in nissune gjernazie (or in any nation [offspring]). Il popul che tu sês a stâ cumò: the people with whom you dwell now.

Versets 11-16

Vocabulary: stâ atent (to pay attention, to pay heed), ordenâ (to command), vuê (today), fâ cori (to drive out), metisi in societât cun (to associate with, to go into partnership with), la int (people), la tiere (land), stâ par fâ (to be about to do), jentrâ (to enter, to go in), deventâ (to become), la palisse (snare, trap), sdrumâ (to tear down), un altâr (altar), parâ a tocs (to smash, to shatter), il colonel (pillar), cjonçâ (to cut down; also çoncjâ), il pâl (post), sacrâl (sacral, sacred), butâsi in genoglon (to go down on one’s knees; also zenoglon), nissun altri (no other), gjelôs (jealous; also zelôs), il puest (place, spot), il braç (arm), butâsi tai braçs di (to throw oneself into the arms of), sigûr che (it is certain that), invidâ (to invite), mangjâ (to eat), il sacrifici (sacrifice), cjoli (to take), la fie (daughter), il fi (son), dâsi vie (to submit oneself, to give oneself away), la porcarie (filth, dirt), fâ porcariis (to commit despicable acts).

Verse 11: Sta atent, alore, a ce che ti ordeni vuè: pay heed then to what I command you today. O fasarai cori denant di te: I shall drive out [make run] before you. Names of peoples: see Esodo 33:2.

Verse 12: Viôt di no metiti in societât (see that you do not go into partnership) cu la int de tiere che tu stâs par jentrâ (with the people of the land that you are about to enter), par no ch’e deventi une palisse par te (so that they do not become a snare for you). Observe: la int e devente (the people become); par no che la int e deventi (so that the people do not become).

Verse 13: O sdrumarês: you shall tear down. O pararês a tocs: you shall smash. O cjonçarês: you shall cut down. The verb cjonçâ was first met in Esodo 15:15: la pôre ur cjonce lis gjambis. The plural of colonel (pillar) is colonei; the plural of pâl sacrâl (sacred post) is pâi sacrâi.

Verse 14: Il Signôr al à non Gjelôs: the Lord’s name is Jealous.

Verse 15: La int dal puest: the people of the place. Sigûr che ti invidaran: it is certain that they will invite you; they will certainly invite you. Tu mangjarâs dal lôr sacrifici: you will eat of their sacrifice.

Verse 16: Tu cjolarâs lis lôr fiis pai tiei fîs (you will take their daughters for your sons), lis lôr fiis si daran vie ai lôr dius (and their daughters will submit themselves [give themselves away] to their gods) e ur fasaran fâ porcariis ancje ai tiei fîs cui lôr dius (and will cause even your sons to commit despicable acts with their gods). The feminine noun porcarie was also met in Gjenesi 39:9 and Esodo 29:14.

Versets 17-22

Vocabulary: il metal (metal), fondût (molten), rispietâ (to observe, to keep; to respect), la fieste (feast), il pan (bread), il levan (leaven), par siet dîs (for seven days), mangjâ (to eat), ordenâ (to command), il timp (time), distinât (designated; also destinât), il mês (month), saltâ fûr (to come forth), vierzi la nature (to open the womb), il mascjo (male), il primarûl (firstborn), il besteam (livestock), piçul (small), grant (large), prin (first), il mus (ass, donkey), parturî (to deliver, to give birth), sfrancjarâ (to redeem), un cjâf di (a head of), minût (small), la robe minude (sheep), sfracaiâ (to break), la cope (nape, back of the neck), il prin nassût (firstborn), il fi (son), cu lis mans spacant (empty-handed), lavorâ (to work), par sîs dîs (for six days), setim (seventh), polsâ (to rest), ce cu sedi (any, whatever, whatsoever), il lavôr (labour), seselâ (to harvest), la setemane (week), vadì (that is to say), lis primiziis (firstfruits), il forment (wheat, grain), la ricolte (harvest; also racuelte), tornâ (to turn), un an (year).

Verse 17: No sta fâ nissun diu di metal fondût: do not make any gods of molten metal.

Verse 18: Recall that the verb rispietâ (to respect) is used, in reference to feasts, holy days, etc., in the sense of to observe, to keep: rispietâ la fieste dal pan cence levan (to observe the feast of unleavened bread). Mês di Abib: see also Esodo 13:4Esodo 23:15.

Verse 19: Dut ce che al vierç la nature al è gno: everything that opens the womb is mine. Regarding vierzi la nature, see also Esodo 13:2. Regarding the feminine noun nature in reference to sexual organs (such as in ultime piel de nature which refers to the foreskin), see: Gjenesi 17:11, Esodo 4:25.

Verse 20: I prins mus parturîts: the first asses delivered; that is, the firstborn asses. Sfrancjâ cuntun cjâf di robe minude: to redeem with a sheep. Sfracaiâi la cope: to break its nape. Nissun nol vignarà denant di me cu lis mans spacant: nobody shall come before me empty-handed.

Verse 21: Che tu vedis ce cu sedi lavôr (whether you have whatever labour) o di seselâ (or [have] to harvest); that is, no matter what labour you have or harvesting you must do. Tu tu vedis is the second-person singular of the presint coniuntîf of the verb vê; che tu vedis can be taken in the sense of no matter if you have, whether or not you have. You have here both vê ce cu sedi lavôr (to have whatever labour) and vê di seselâ (to have to harvest, must harvest).

Verse 22: Tu fasarâs la fieste des setemanis (you shall observe [do] the feast of weeks), vadì des primiziis dal forment (that is to say, of the firstfruits of the wheat) e la fieste de ricolte (and the feast of harvest) cuant che al torne l’an (at the turn of the year [when the year turns]).

Verse 23-28

Vocabulary: trê viaçs ad an (three times per year), il mascjo (male), presentâsi (to present oneself), spodestî (to oust), slargjâ (to enlarge, to extend), il cunfin (confine, border; also confin), smicjâ (to eye up, to have one’s eye on; to covet), la tiere (land), ufrî (to offer), il sanc (blood), la vitime (victim), il pan jevât (leavened bread), la fieste (feast), la pasche (passover), vanzâ (to be left over), pal indoman (for the next day), il miôr (the best, the most choice), lis primiziis (firstfruits), il teren (ground, soil), puartâ (to bring), la cjase (house), fâ boli (to boil), il cjavret (kid, goatling; found in the text as the variant cavret), la mari (mother), meti par scrit (to write down, to put in writing), la peraule (word), midiant di (by way of), fâ un pat (to make a covenant), lassù (up there), corante (forty; also cuarante), la dì (day), la gnot (night), mangjâ (to eat), bevi (to drink), scrivi (to write), la lastre (tablet), dîs (ten).

Verse 24: O spodestissarai: I shall oust. O slargjarai: I shall enlarge, I shall extend. Nissun nol smicjarà: none shall eye up your land.

Verse 25: Il sanc de mê vitime: the blood of my sacrifice (victim). La vitime de fieste di pasche: the sacrifice (victim) of the feast of passover. No varà di vanzâ pal indoman: it must not be left over for the next day.

Verse 26: Il miôr des primiziis: the most choice of the firstfruits. Tu i es puartarâs a la cjase dal Signôr to Diu: you shall bring them to the house of the Lord your God. No tu fasarâs boli un cavret tal sanc di sô mari: you shall not boil a kid in its mother’s milk. In tu i es puartarâs a, you find i es, which is a contraction of i + lis (unto it + them); i es is also written jes. Review the contractions produced when the indirect object pronouns in purple come into contact with the direct object pronouns in blue:

lu le ju lis
mi mal me mai mes
ti tal te tai tes
i jal je jai jes
si sal se sai ses
nus nus al nus e nus ai nus es
us us al us e us ai us es
ur ur al ur e ur ai ur es

Verse 27: Met par scrit chestis peraulis: write these words down; put these words into writing.

Verse 28: Lis peraulis dal pat: the words of the covenant.

Verse 29-35

Vocabulary: tornâ jù (to come back down), la mont (mount, mountain), la lastre dal pat (tablet of the covenant), la man (hand), savê (to know), la piel (skin), la muse (face), lusî (to shine, to radiate), fevelâ (to speak), viodi (to see), sflandorâ (to radiate, to shine), vê rivuart a fâ (to be apprehensive about doing, to shrink away from doing), lâ dongje (to go near, to approach), clamâ (to call), il sorestant (chief), svissinâsi (to approach, to come near; also svicinâsi), ordenâ (to command), finî di fâ (to finish doing), taponâ (to cover), il vêl (veil), jentrâ (to go in), tratâ cun (to speak with), gjavâ (to remove, to take off), fin cuant che (until), tornâ fûr (to come back out), saltâ fûr (to come out).

Verse 29: La piel de sô muse e lusive: the skin of his face was shining.

Verse 30: La piel de sô muse e sflandorave: the skin of his face was radiating. Lôr a vevin rivuart a lâj dongje: they were apprehensive about approaching him; they shrank away from going up to him. The verb sflandorâ (to radiate, to shine) is related the masculine noun sflandôr (splendour) met in Esodo 33:19. Also related to these, but not found here in the text, is the adjective sflandorôs, which can be taken as resplendent, radiant, brilliant. For example, we might describe the skin of Moses as piel sflandorose (resplendent skin, radiant skin). His skin could also be described as piel lusorose (from the adjective lusorôs and related to the verb lusî [to shine, to radiate] found in the text). Rivuart in this verse is to be taken as apprehension; vê rivuart a lâj dongje means to be apprehensive about going up to him; to shrink away from approaching him. (Lâj is a variant spelling of lâi.) Regarding rivuart, see also: Gjenesi 2:25, Gjenesi 3:10, Gjenesi 21:23.

Verse 32: Dut ce che il Signôr i veve fevelât: everything about which the Lord had spoken to him.

Verse 33: Finî di fevelâ: to finish speaking. Taponâsi la muse cuntun vêl: to cover one’s face with a veil.

Verse 34: Cuant che Mosè al jentrave denant dal Signôr par tratâ cun lui: whenever Moses went in before the Lord to speak with him. Gjavâsi il vêl: to remove one’s veil. Fin cuant che al tornave fûr: until he came back out. Saltât fûr: having come out. Ce che i jere stât ordenât: that which had been commanded of him.

Verse 35: Tornâ a taponâsi la muse: to cover one’s face back up.