Friulian language series: Esodo 34, lastris de leç

In the thirty-fourth chapter of the book of Exodus, God commands Moses to carve two new tablets identical to the first ones that he had shattered. From the subject headings of the chapter: si torne a fâ il pat (the covenant is renewed); lis lastris de leç (tablets of the law).

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Read Esodo 34

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Versets 1-4

Vocabulary: (to say), taiâ fûr (to carve), la lastre (tablet), la piere (stone), compagn di (identical to), di prime (from before), lâ sù (to go up), la mont (mount, mountain), tornâ a fâ (to do again), scrivi (to write), la peraule (word), spacâ (to smash, to shatter), tignîsi pront (to be ready), la buinore (morning), vignî sù (to come up), denant dì (in the early morning), spietâ (to await, to wait for), la spice (top, peak), nissun (no one), viodi (to see), la anime (soul), vîf (alive, living), nancje (not even), il besteam (livestock), minût (small, little), grant (great, big, large), passâ denant di (to pass before), taiâ (to cut), edentic (identical; also identic), jevâ (to rise, to get up), ordenâ (to order, to command), cjapâ (to take), la man (hand).

Verse 1: Il Signôr i disè a Mosè (the Lord said to Moses): tae fûr dôs lastris di piere (carve two tablets of stone) compagnis di chês di prime (identical to those from before) e anìn sù su la mont (and go up on the mountain). O tornarai a scrivi su lis lastris (on the tablets will I write again) lis peraulis che a jerin su lis lastris di prime (the words that were on the tablets from before), che tu tu lis âs spacadis (which you shattered).

Verse 2: Tegniti pront a buinore (be ready in the morning), ven sù denant dì su la mont dal Sinai (come up on mount Sinai in the early morning [come up before day on mount Sinai]) e spietimi li (and wait for me there; and await me there), su la spice de mont (on the top of the mountain). Denant dì: literally, before day; this refers to the dark, very early morning hours before the rising of the sun. The verb spietâ can be rendered as to await or to wait for; spietimi = spiete (await; wait for; second-person singular imperative) + mi (me).

Verse 3: Nol à di vignî sù nissun cun te (no one is to come up with you); in dute la mont (on all the mountain) no à di fâsi viodi anime vive (not a living soul is to be seen). Nancje il besteam, minût o grant, nol à di passâ denant di cheste mont: not even flocks or herds are (not even livestock, small or large is [has]) to pass before this mountain. Consider the following: viodi (to see); fâ viodi (to cause to be seen); fâsi viodi (to cause oneself to be seen); as used in this verse, to cause oneself to be seen is to present oneself, to show up. Nol à di is masculine in form (agrees here with nissun in its first instance, and with besteam in its second), whereas no à di (agrees with anime vive) is feminine. Review: Present indicative of .

Verse 4: Alore al taià dôs lastris di piere (so he cut two tablets of stone), edentichis di chês di prime (identical to the ones from before), e, jevât denant dì (and, having risen in the early morning [before day]), Mosè al lè su la mont dal Sinai (Moses went up on mount Sinai), come che i veve ordenât il Signôr (as the Lord had commanded him [had commanded unto him]), e al cjapà te sô man (and took in his hand) lis dôs lastris di piere (the two tablets of stone).

Versets 5-7

Vocabulary: vignî jù (to come down, to descend), il nûl (cloud), fermâsi (to halt, to come to a standstill), clamâ (to call), il non (name), passâ denant di (to pass before), berlâ (to proclaim, to call out), bon (good), cence (without), il fin (end), stentâ a fâ (to struggle to do, to find difficult to do, to be slow to do), inrabiâsi (to become angered), plen di (filled with, full of), il boncûr (mercy, grace), fedêl (faithful, loyal), mantignî (to maintain, to keep), il bonvolê (goodwill), un miâr (about a thousand), sapuartâ (to endure; also sopuartâ), il fal (transgression, offence, error), la tristerie (wickedness, iniquity), il pecjât (sin), lassâ (to allow, to permit), fâle francje (to get away with it, to go unpunished), cjastiâ (to punish), il pari (father), il fi (son), il nevôt (grandson), fint a (as far as), tierç (third), cuart (fourth), la gjenerazion (generation).

Verse 5: Il Signôr al vignì jù intun nûl (the Lord descended [came down] in a cloud) e si fermà cun lui (and came to a standstill with him). Al clamà il non dal Signôr: he called out the name of the Lord.

Verses 6-7: Il Signôr al passà denant di lui e al berlà (the Lord passed before him and proclaimed): il Signôr, il Signôr (the Lord, the Lord), Diu bon cence fin (God most good [God endlessly good (God good without end)]), che al stente a inrabiâsi (who is slow to anger) e che al è plen di boncûr (and who is filled with mercy) e fedêl (and {is} faithful), che al manten il so bonvolê (who maintains his goodwill) cun miârs di lôr (with thousands of them), che al sapuarte i fai, la tristerie e il pecjât (who endures transgressions, iniquity and sin) ma che nol lasse che nissun no le fasi francje (but who allows no one {who has sinned} to go unpunished) e al cjastie i pecjâts dai paris (and punishes the sins of the parents [fathers]) sui fîs e sui nevôts (upon the children [sons] and the grandchildren [grandsons]), fint a la tierce e a la cuarte gjenerazion (as far as the third and fouth generations [generation]). Cence fin: literally, without end; the sense of this is to the highest degree. Supplementary examples of the verb stentâ: al stente in matematiche (he struggles in mathematics); o stenti a crodi ce che tu mi âs dit (I have trouble believing what you told me); al stente a cjaminâ (he has difficulty walking).

Versets 8-10

Vocabulary: ingenoglâsi (to kneel down; also inzenoglâsi), svelt (fast, quick, quickly), butâsi (to throw oneself), par tiere (on the ground), il cjâf (head), se propit (if indeed), vê a grât (to have in one’s favour), vignî vie cun (to come along with), seben (even though, although), dûr (hard), vê il cjâf dûr (to be stubborn, to be obstinate), perdonâ (to pardon, to forgive), la tristerie (wickedness, iniquity), il pecjât (sin), la ereditât (inheritance), il pat (pact, covenant), denant di (before, in front of), fâ un spieli (to perform a marvel), compagn (identical), la part (part), il mont (world), la gjernazie (line, lineage), jessi a stâ (to dwell), cumò (now), viodi (to see), la vore (work, labour), la robe (thing), trement (tremendous, awesome).

Verse 8: Mosè si ingenoglà svelt (Moses knelt down quickly) e si butà cul cjâf par tiere (and went down with his head to the ground [threw himself with his head on the ground]).

Verse 9: Po al disè (then he said): se propit tu mi âs a grât, Signôr (if indeed you have me in your favour, O Lord), che il gno Signôr al vegni vie cun nô (let my Lord come along with us), seben che chest popul al à il cjâf dûr (even though this people is stubborn [has the hard head]); perdone la nestre tristerie e i nestris pecjâts (pardon our iniquity and our sins) e fâs di nô la tô ereditât (and make of us your inheritance).

Verse 10: Al disè (he said): o fâs un pat cun te (I {hereby} make a covenant with you): denant dal to popul o fasarai spiei (before your people will I perform marvels) che no ’nd è stâts di compagns (the likes whereof have not {ever} been) in nissune part di mont e in nissune gjernazie (in any part of the world or in any nation [or in any line]). Il popul che tu sês a stâ cumò (the people in whose midst you now dwell [the people where you dwell now]) al viodarà la vore dal Signôr (shall see the work of the Lord), parcè che e je une robe tremende (for it is an awesome thing) ce che jo o fasarai cun te (that which I will do with you).

Versets 11-16

Vocabulary: stâ atent (to pay attention, to pay heed), ordenâ (to order, to command), vuê (today), fâ cori (to drive out), metisi in societât cun (to associate with, to go into partnership with), la int (people), la tiere (land), stâ par fâ (to be about to do), jentrâ (to enter, to go/come in), deventâ (to become), la palisse (snare, trap), sdrumâ (to tear down), un altâr (altar), parâ (to send, to drive), il toc (piece, bit), parâ a tocs (to smash, to shatter), il colonel (pillar), cjonçâ (to cut down; also çoncjâ), il pâl (post), sacrâl (sacral, sacred), butâsi in genoglon (to go down on one’s knees; also zenoglon), nissun altri (no other), il diu (god), il non (name), gjelôs (jealous; also zelôs), il pat (pact, covenant), il puest (place), butâsi (to throw oneself), il braç (arm), sigûr che (it is certain that), invidâ (to invite), mangjâ (to eat), il sacrifici (sacrifice), cjoli (to take), la fie (daughter), il fi (son), dâsi vie (to submit oneself, to give oneself away), la porcarie (despicable act).

Verse 11: Sta atent, alore (pay heed, then), a ce che ti ordeni vuè (to that which I command you today). O fasarai cori denant di te (I will drive out [I will make run] before you) i amoreus, i cananeus, i itits, i perissits, i eveus e i gjebuseus (the Amorites, the Canaanites, the Hittites, the Perizzites, the Hivites and the Jebusites).

Verse 12: Viôt di no metiti in societât (see that you do not go into partnership) cu la int de tiere che tu stâs par jentrâ (with the people of the land that you are about to enter), par no ch’e deventi une palisse par te (lest they become a snare for you [in order that they not become a snare for you]). Observe: la int e devente (the people become); par no che la int e deventi (lest the people become [in order that the people not become]).

Verse 13: O sdrumarês i lôr altârs (you shall tear down their altars), o pararês a tocs i lôr colonei (shall smash [shall send into bits] their pillars) e o cjonçarês i lôr pâi sacrâi (and shall cut down their sacred posts).

Verse 14: No tu ti butarâs in genoglon (you shall not go down on your knees) denant di nissun altri diu (before any other god), parcè che il Signôr al à non Gjelôs (for the Lord is named Jealous [for the Lord has {the} name Jealous]): al è un Diu gjelôs (he is a jealous God).

Verses 15-16: No sta fâ nissun pat cu la int dal puest (do not make a covenant with the people of the place), parcè che cuant che lôr si butaran tai braçs dai lôr dius (for when they throw [will throw] themselves into the arms of their gods), sigûr che ti invidaran (it is certain that they will invite you; they will certainly invite you) e tu mangjarâs dal lôr sacrifici (and you will eat of their sacrifice), tu cjolarâs lis lôr fiis pai tiei fîs (you will take their daughters for your sons), lis lôr fiis si daran vie ai lôr dius (their daughters will give themselves away to their gods; their daughters will submit themselves to their gods) e ur fasaran fâ porcariis ancje ai tiei fîs cui lôr dius (and will cause also your sons to commit despicable acts with their gods).

Versets 17-22

Vocabulary: il diu (god), il metal (metal), fondût (molten), rispietâ (to respect), la fieste (feast), il pan (bread), cence (without), il levan (leaven), siet (seven), il dì, la dì (day), mangjâ (to eat), ordenâ (to order, to command), il timp (time), distinât (designated; also destinât), il mês (month), saltâ fûr (to come forth), vierzi la nature (to open the womb), il mascjo (male), il primarûl (firstborn), il besteam (livestock), piçul (small, little), grant (great, big, large), prin (first), il mus (ass, donkey), parturî (to deliver, to give birth), sfrancjarâ (to redeem), il cjâf (head), minût (small, little), la robe minude (beast of the flock), sfracaiâ (to break), la cope (nape, back of the neck), il prin nassût (firstborn), il fi (son), vignî (to come), la man (hand), spacant (ashake), lavorâ (to work), sîs (six), setim (seventh), polsâ (to rest), ce cu sedi (any, whatever, whatsoever), il lavôr (labour, work), seselâ (to harvest, to reap), la setemane (week), vadì (which is to say), lis primiziis (firstfruits), il forment (wheat, grain), la ricolte (harvest; also racuelte), tornâ (to turn), un an (year).

Verse 17: No sta fâ nissun diu di metal fondût: do not make any god of molten metal.

Verse 18: Rispiete la fieste dal pan cence levan: observe the feast of unleavened bread (respect the feast of the bread without leaven). Par siet dîs tu mangjarâs pan cence levan (for seven days shall you eat unleavened bread [bread without leaven]), come che ti ài ordenât (as I have commanded you), tal timp distinât tal mês di Abib (at the designated time of the month of Abib), parcè che tu tu sês saltât fûr dal Egjit tal mês di Abib (for you came forth from Egypt in the month of Abib).

Verse 19: Dut ce che al vierç la nature al è gno (all that opens the womb is mine): ogni mascjo (every male), ogni primarûl dal to besteam piçul e grant (every firstborn of your flocks and herds [of your small and large livestock]).

Verse 20: I prins mus parturîts tu ju sfrancjarâs (the first asses delivered shall you redeem) cuntun cjâf di robe minude (with a head of beast from the flock) e, se no tu lu sfrancjis (and if you do not redeem it), tu i sfracaiarâs la cope (you shall break its nape [unto it shall you break the nape]). Ducj i prins nassûts dai tiei fîs tu ju sfrancjarâs: all the firstborn of your sons shall you redeem. Nissun nol vignarà denant di me (no one shall come before me) cu lis mans spacant (empty-handed [with hands ashake]).

Verse 21: Tu lavorarâs par sîs dîs (you shall work for six days), ma la setime dì tu polsarâs (but {on} the seventh day shall you rest); che tu vedis ce cu sedi lavôr o di seselâ (no matter what labour or harvesting you are to do), tu polsarâs (you shall rest). Tu tu vedis is the second-person singular of the presint coniuntîf of the verb vê; taken more literally: che tu vedis (whether you may have) ce cu sedi lavôr (whatever labour) o di seselâ (or {whether you may have} to harvest).

Verse 22: Tu fasarâs la fieste des setemanis (you shall observe [shall do] the feast of weeks), vadì des primiziis dal forment (which is to say, of the firstfruits of wheat) e la fieste de ricolte (and the feast of harvest) cuant che al torne l’an (at the turn of the year [when the years turns]).

Verse 23-28

Vocabulary: trê (three), un viaç (time), un an (year), il mascjo (male), presentâsi (to present oneself), spodestî (to oust), il popul (people), slargjâ (to enlarge, to extend), il cunfin (confine, border; also confin), smicjâ (to eye up, to have one’s eye on), la tiere (land), lâ sù (to go up), ufrî (to offer), il sanc (blood), la vitime (victim), il pan (bread), jevât (risen), la fieste (feast), la pasche (passover), vanzâ (to be left over, to remain in excess), pal indoman (for the next day), il miôr (the best, the most choice), lis primiziis (firstfruits), il teren (ground, soil), puartâ (to bring), la cjase (house), fâ boli (to boil [make boil]), il cjavret (kid, goatling), la mari (mother), meti par scrit (to write down, to put in writing), la peraule (word), midiant di (by way of), il pat (pact, covenant), lassù (up there), corante (forty; also cuarante), il dì (day), la gnot (night), mangjâ (to eat), bevi (to drink), scrivi (to write), la lastre (tablet), dîs (ten).

Verse 23: Tre viaçs ad an (three times a year), ducj i mascjos si presentaran denant dal Signôr Diu (all males shall present themselves before the Lord God), Diu di Israel ({the} God of Israel).

Verse 24: O spodestissarai i popui denant di te (I will oust the peoples before you) e o slargjarai i tiei cunfins (and will extend your borders) e nissun nol smicjarà la tô tiere (and none shall eye up your land) cuant che tu larâs sù (when you go [will go] up) a presentâti denant dal Signôr to Diu (to present yourself before the Lord your God) trê viaçs ad an (three times a year).

Verse 25: No tu ufrissarâs il sanc de mê vitime (you shall not offer the blood of my victim) cul pan jevât (with leavened [risen] bread) e la vitime de fieste di pasche no varà di vanzâ pal indoman (and the victim of the feast of passover shall not be left over for the next day).

Verse 26: Il miôr des primiziis dal to teren tu i es puartarâs (the most choice of the firstfruits of your ground shall you bring) a la cjase dal Signôr to Diu (to the house of the Lord your God) e no tu fasarâs boli un cjavret tal sanc di sô mari (and you shall not boil [shall not make boil] a kid in its mother’s milk). I es: also written jes, this is a contraction of i + lis (unto it + them), where lis stands in for the feminine plural primiziis. Review the contractions produced when the indirect object pronouns in purple come into contact with the direct object pronouns in blue:

lu le ju lis
mi mal me mai mes
ti tal te tai tes
i jal je jai jes
si sal se sai ses
nus nus al nus e nus ai nus es
us us al us e us ai us es
ur ur al ur e ur ai ur es

Verse 27: Il Signôr i disè a Mosè (the Lord said to Moses): met par scrit chestis peraulis (put these words in writing) parcè che al è midiant di chestis peraulis (for it is by way of these words) che jo o ài fat il gno pat cun te e cun Israel (that I have made my covenant with you and with Israel).

Verse 28: Mosè al restà lassù (Moses remained up there), cul Signôr (with the Lord), corante dîs e corante gnots (forty days and forty nights). Nol mangjà e nol bevè (he did not eat and he did not drink) e al scrivè su lis lastris lis peraulis dal pat (and on the tablets he wrote the words of the covenant), lis dîs peraulis (the ten words).

Verse 29-35

Vocabulary: tornâ jù (to go/come back down), la mont (mount, mountain), la lastre (tablet), il pat (pact, covenant), la man (hand), savê (to know), la piel (skin), la muse (face), lusî (to shine, to radiate), fevelâ (to speak), viodi (to see), sflandorâ (to radiate, to shine), vê rivuart a fâ (to be apprehensive about doing, to shrink away from doing), lâ dongje (to go near, to approach), clamâ (to call), il sorestant (chief), svissinâsi (to approach, to come/draw near; also svicinâsi), il fi (son), ordenâ (to order, to command), finî di fâ (to finish doing), taponâ (to cover), il vêl (veil), jentrâ (to enter, to go/come in), tratâ cun (to speak with), gjavâ (to remove, to take off), fin cuant che (until), tornâ fûr (to go/come back out), (to say), saltâ fûr (to come out).

Verse 29: Cuant che Mosè al tornà jù de mont dal Sinai (when Moses came back down from mount Sinai), lis dôs lastris dal pat a jerin te man di Mosè (the two tablets of the pact were in the hand of Moses) cuant che al tornà jù de mont (when he came back down from the mountain), nol saveve che la piel de sô muse e lusive (he did not know [was not knowing] that the skin of his face was shining) parcè che al veve fevelât cun lui (for he had spoken with him).

Verse 30: Aron e ducj i israelits a vioderin Mosè (Aaron and all the Israelites saw Moses): la piel de sô muse e sflandorave (the skin of his face was radiating) e lôr a vevin rivuart a lâj dongje (and they shrank away from drawing near to him; and they were apprehensive about going up to him). The verb sflandorâ (to radiate, to shine) is related the masculine noun sflandôr (splendour) met in Esodo 33:19. Also related to these, but not found here in the text, is the adjective sflandorôs, which can be taken as resplendent, radiant, brilliant. For instance, the skin of Moses might be described as piel sflandorose (resplendent skin, radiant skin). His skin could also be described as piel lusorose (from the adjective lusorôs, which is related to the verb lusî, meaning to shine, to radiate, found in the text of this verse). Lâj dongje: lâj is a variant spelling of lâi. Vê rivuart: see also Gjenesi 2:25, Gjenesi 3:10, Gjenesi 21:23.

Verse 31: Mosè ju clamà (Moses called them) e alore Aron e ducj i sorestants dal popul i lerin dongje (and Aaron and all the chiefs of the people then went up to him) e Mosè ur fevelà (and Moses spoke to them).

Verse 32: Podopo si svissinarin ducj i fîs di Israel (afterwards all the sons of Israel drew near) e lui ur ordenà dut ce che il Signôr i veve fevelât (and unto them did he command all that of which the Lord had spoken to him) su la mont dal Sinai (on mount Sinai).

Verse 33: Cuant che Mosè al finì di fevelâ (when Moses had finished speaking), si taponà la muse cuntun vêl (he covered his face with a veil).

Verses 34-35: Cuant che Mosè al jentrave denant dal Signôr par tratâ cun lui (when Moses would go in before the Lord to speak with him), si gjavave il vêl fin cuant che al tornave fûr (he would take the veil off until he came [was coming] back out). Saltât fûr (having come out), ur diseve ai israelits ce che i jere stât ordenât (he would tell the Israelites what he had been commanded [that which had been commanded unto him]), e i israelits a viodevin la muse di Mosè ch’e lusive (and the Israelites would see the face of Moses which shone [was shining]). Po Mosè al tornave a taponâsi la muse (Moses would then cover his face back up) fin cuant che al jentrave par fevelâ cun lui (until he went in [was going in] to speak with him).