Friulian language series: Esodo 32, vidiel d’aur

The thirty-second chapter of the book of Exodus tells of the golden calf: il vidiel d’aur. Also from the subject heading: si torne a fâ il pat (the covenant is renewed).

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Read Esodo 32

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Versets 1-6

Vocabulary: il popul (people), viodi (to see), inclapâsi (to be long, to be delayed), vignî jù (to come down), la mont (mount, mountain), dâsi dongje di (to gather unto), il diu (god), lâ denant (to go before), fâ saltâ fûr di (to bring out of), la tiere (land), no savê un dret (to know nothing at all), sucedi (to happen, to occur), rispuindi (to respond), gjavâ (to remove, to take off), un anel (ring), d’aur (of gold), la orele (ear), la femine (wife), il fi (son), la fie (daughter), la int (people), puartâ (to bring), cjapâ (to take), fâ fondi (to meld, to cast), il stamp (mould), la statue (statue), il vidiel (calf), tirâ fûr di (to bring out of), un altâr (altar), un ordin (order), doman (tomorrow), la fieste (feast), tal indoman (the day after), jevâ (to arise), denant dì (in the early morning), ufrî (to offer), un olocaust (burnt offering), il sacrifici (sacrifice), la comunion (communion), comodâsi a mangjâ (to sit down to eat), bevi (to drink), jevâ sù (to rise, to get up), divertîsi (to amuse oneself, to revel).

Verse 1: Cuant che il popul al viodè (when the people saw) che Mosè si jere inclapât (that Moses had been delayed) e che nol vignive mai jù de mont (and that he was not ever coming down from the mountain), si dè dongje di Aron e i disè (they gathered unto Aaron and said to him): dài mo (now then; come now; go to then), fâsinus un diu (make us a god) che al ledi denant di nô (that may go before us) parcè che chest Mosè (for this Moses), l’om che nus à fats saltâ fûr de tiere dal Egjit (the man who brought us forth from [made us come out of] Egypt), no si sa un dret ce che i è sucedût (nothing is known whatsoever about what has befallen him; it is not known in the least what has happened to him).

Verse 2: Aaron responds to them: gjavait i anei d’aur (take off the gold rings) des orelis des vuestris feminis (from the ears of your wives), dai vuestris fîs (of your sons) e des vuestris fiis (and of your daughters), e puartaitmai (and bring them to me). Gjavait and puartait are both second-person plural imperatives, from gjavâ and puartâ. Puartaitmai is a contraction of puartait + mi + ju (bring + unto me + them).

Verse 3: Dute la int si gjavà i anei d’aur (all the people took off their rings [from unto themselves all the people took off the rings]) che a vevin tes orelis (which they had [were having] in their ears) e jai puartarin a Aron (and brought them to Aaron). Jai is a contraction of i + ju (unto him + them).

Verse 4: Lui al cjapà l’aur che i vevin puartât (he took the gold that they had brought to him), lu fasè fondi intun stamp (cast it in a mould) e al fasè une statue di vidiel (and made a statue of a calf). Alore a diserin (then they said): ve chi, Israel, il to Diu (this, O Israel, is your God), chel che ti à tirât fûr de tiere dal Egjit (he who brought you out of the land of Egypt).

Verse 5: Viodint chel tant ({upon} seeing all this), Aron al fasè un altâr (Aaron built [made] an altar) denant de statue (before the statue) e al dè chest ordin (and gave this order): doman, fieste pal Signôr (tomorrow — feast for the Lord).

Verse 6: Tal indoman (the next day) a jevarin denant dì (they arose in the early morning [before day]), a ufririn olocauscj (offered up burnt offerings) e a prepararin sacrificis di comunion (and prepared sacrifices of communion). Il popul si comodà a mangjâ (the people sat down to eat) e a bevi (and to drink) e po a jevarin sù par divertîsi (and then they arose to amuse themselves; and then they got up to revel).

Versets 7-10

Vocabulary: (to say), spesseâ (to make haste, to hurry up), lâ jù (to go down), il popul (people), fâ saltâ fûr di (to bring out of), lâ vie (to go away), il cjâf (head), coventâ (to be necessary, to be required), masse (too much), lâ fûr (to go out), la strade (way, road), il vidiel (calf), il metal (metal), fondût (molten), butâsi in genoglon (to go down [throw oneself] on one’s knees), ufrî (to offer), il sacrifici (sacrifice), tirâ fûr di (to bring out of), la tiere (land), zontâ (to add), tignî di voli (to keep an eye on), cjaviestri (stubborn), la misure (measure), lassâ (to leave), montâ sù (to ascend, to go up), la fumate (smoke {cloud}), montâ sù (to ascend, to go up), fruçâ (to destroy), cence remission (without reserve, without holding back), il popul (people), grant (great).

Verse 7: To Moses the Lord says: spessee (make haste); va jù (go down), parcè che il to popul (for your people), che tu âs fat saltâ fûr dal Egjit (whom you brought forth from [made come out of] Egypt), al va vie di cjâf (have taken leave of their senses [is going out of its (going away from) head]). Spessee: this is second person-singular imperative of spesseâ. Lâ vie di cjâf: the sense of this expression is to take leave of one’s senses; it translates literally as to go away from head, which is to say, to go out of one’s head (or mind). You also encountered this expression in Gjenesi 34:8: gno fi Sichem al va vie di cjâf par vuestre fie.

Verse 8: No ur à coventât masse (they were quick [unto them not too much was required]) par lâ fûr de strade (to go off the way [to go out of the way]) che jo ur vevi dit di lâ (that I had told them to follow [that I had told them to go {on}]). Si àn fat un vidiel (they have made a calf for themselves) cul metal fondût (with molten metal) e si son butâts in genoglon denant di lui (and have gone down [thrown themselves] on their knees before it). I àn ufrît sacrificis (they have offered sacrifices to it) e i àn dit (and have said to it): ve chi, Israel, il to Diu (this, O Israel, is your God), che ti à tirât fûr de tiere dal Egjit (who brought you out of the land of Egypt). Lâ fûr de strade: the sense of this is to sin; it translates literally as to go out of the way, which is to say, to go off the way.

Verse 9: Il Signôr al zontà (the Lord added): lu ài tignût di voli chest popul (I have kept my eye on this people): al è un popul cjaviestri fûr di misure (this is a stubborn people beyond all measure).

Verse 10: Cumò lassimai a mi (leave them now to me): mi è montade sù une fumate (wrath has come upon me [unto me a wrath (smoke) has ascended]) che ju fruci cence remission ({such} that I will destroy them [I destroy them] without reserve): ma o fasarai di te un popul grant (but I will make of you a great nation). Lassimai (leave them to me) is a contraction of lasse (second-person singular imperative) + mi (unto me) + ju (them); mi and ju come together to form mai, and lasse becomes lassi when mai is attached. Fumate (smoke) is used figuratively here in the sense of anger, wrath.

Versets 11-13

Vocabulary: impussibil (impossible), bonâ (to pacify, to calm, to placate), vê di (must, to have to), cjapâse (to become angered), il popul (people), fâ saltâ fûr (to bring forth), la fuarce (force, might), la man (hand), trement (fearsome, formidable), (to say), la tristerie (wickedness, wretchedness), crepâ (to die), framieç di (amongst), la mont (mount, mountain), scancelâ (to annihilate, to blot out), la face de tiere (face of the earth), smamîsi (to simmer/die down, to fade away), la fote (fury, rage, wrath), boli (to boil; also bulî), lassâ pierdi (to renounce, to drop, to abandon), il mâl (harm, ill), il cjâf (head), il popul (people), visâsi di (to remember), il famei (servant), zurâ (to swear), multiplicâ (to multiply, to increase), la gjernazie (offspring), la stele (star), il cîl (heaven, sky), fevelâ (to speak), vê in ereditât (to inherit), par in eterni (for ever, for all time).

Verse 11: Mosè al fasè l’impussibil (Moses strove [did the impossible]) par bonâ il Signôr so Diu (to pacify the Lord his God), e i disè (and said to him): parcè mo, Signôr (why then, O Lord), varessistu di cjapâte cussì cun chest popul (should you [would you have to] became angered so with this people) che propit tu tu âs fat saltâ fûr dal Egjit (whom you yourself brought forth from [made come out of] Egypt) cu la tô grande fuarce (with your great might) e cu la tô man tremende? (and with your formidable hand?). Vê di means must, to have to; here, you find tu tu varessis (you would have; second-person singular of the condizionâl presint) in interrogative form as varessistu (would you have?): parcè varessistu di cjapâte (why should [why would you have to] become angered). Cjapâte is a contraction of cjapâ + ti + la.

Verse 12: Parcè varessino di dî i egjizians (why should the Egyptians say [why would the Egyptians have to say]): ju à fats saltâ fûr par tristerie (he brought them forth out of wickedness [by wickedness]), par fâju crepâ framieç des monts (so as to kill them [make them die] in the mountains) e scancelâju de face de tiere? (and annihilate them from the face of the earth?). Lasse che si smamissi la fote che ti bôl dentri vie (let the wrath that boils away inside you simmer down) e lasse pierdi il mâl (and renounce the harm) che tu vevis tal cjâf (that you had in mind [were having in the head]) di fâi al to popul (to do to your people). The verb smamî means to fade, to abate, to diminish; supplementary examples: il timp nol à smamît il lôr amôr (time has not diminished their love); il soreli al à fâ smamî il colôr dal len (the sun has faded the colour of the wood). The third-person singular of the presint indicatîf is al smamìs. In the text of this verse, you find the reflexive smamîsi (to simmer/die down, to fade away); si smamìs (it simmers/dies down); lasse che si smamissi (let it simmer/die down [let that it simmer/die down]).

Verse 13: Visiti dai tiei fameis Abram, Isac e Jacop (remember your servants Abraham, Isaac and Jacob), che tu ur âs zurât sun te (to whom you swore by [on] your own self) e che tu ur âs dit (and to whom you said): o multiplicarai la vuestre gjernazie (I will multiply your offspring) tant che lis stelis dal cîl (like the stars of the heaven [as much as the stars of the heaven]), e dute cheste tiere che us ài fevelât (and all this land of which I spoke to you) us e darai a la vuestre gjernazie (I will give it to your offspring) e le varan in ereditât par in eterni (and they shall inherit it for ever). Us e darai: I will give it you; us e is a contraction of us (unto you; second-person plural) + le (it), where le stands in for the feminine tiere.

Versets 14-18

Vocabulary: lassâ pierdi (to renounce, to drop, to abandon), il mâl (harm, ill), minaçâ (to threaten, to menace; also menaçâ), il popul (people), voltâsi (to turn round), tornâ jù (to go back down), la mont (mount, mountain), la lastre (tablet), il pat (pact, covenant), la man (hand), scrivi (to write), la bande (side), la scriture (writing), picâ (to incise), sintî (to hear), il cancan (racket, noise), il berli (outcry, yell), petâ un berli (to make an outcry, to let out a yell), il campament (camp), la vuere (war), il sunsûr (sound), la cjante di vitorie (victory tune), la int (people), fuî (to flee), dâ sù (to raise one’s voice, to exclaim), rispuindi (to respond).

Verse 14: E il Signôr al lassà pierdi dut il mâl (and the Lord renounced the harm) che al veve minaçât al so popul (with which he had threatened his people).

Verse 15: Mosè alore si voltà (Moses then turned round) e al tornà jù de mont (and came back down from the mountain) cu lis dôs lastris dal pat in man (with the two tablets of the pact in his hands [in hand]), lastris scritis di dôs bandis (tablets written on both sides), scritis di une bande e di chê altre (written on one side and on the other).

Verse 16: Lis lastris lis veve fatis Diu (God had made the tablets) e la scriture e jere chê di Diu (and the writing was that of God), picade su lis lastris (incised upon the tablets).

Verse 17: Gjosuè al sintì il cancan dal popul (Joshua heard the noise of the people) che al petave berlis (who were crying out; who were letting out shouts) e i disè a Mosè (and said to Moses): tal campament si sintin berlis di vuere (cries of war are heard in the camp).

Verse 18: Ma Mosè i rispuindè (but Moses responded to him): nol è sunsûr di cjantis di vitorie (it is not the sound of victory tunes) e nancje berlis di int ch’e fuìs (or even outcries of people who flee); il berli di un pôcs che a dan sù (the outcry of some who raise their voice) e di altris che a rispuindin (and of others who respond) jo o sint (do I hear). It is question here of answering responsively in song. E fuìs is the feminine, third-person singular of the presint indicatîf of the verb fuî (to flee).

Versets 19-24

Vocabulary: rivâ dongje (to come near), il campament (camp), il vidiel (calf), il coro (chorus; also côr), il balarin (dancer), no viodi plui nuie (to become enraged), brincâ (to seize, to grasp), la lastre (tablet), il toc (piece, bit), parâ a tocs (to smash, to shatter), dapît di (at the bottom/foot of), la mont (mount, mountain), cjapâ (to take), brusâ (to burn), il fûc (fire), fintremai che (until), ridusi (to reduce), ridusisi (to get reduced), il pulvin (powder, dust), fin (fine), scjernâ (to scatter, to strew; also sgjarnâ), parsore vie di (over top), la aghe (water), bevi (to drink), il popul (people), la schene (back; of human body), dâ su pe schene (to burden, to charge), il pecjadat (great sin), orent (horrible, horrendous), il paron (lord), cjapâse (to become angered), la intate (wicked people), lâ denant di (to go before), fâ saltâ fûr (to bring forth), la tiere (land), savê (to know), sucedi (to happen, to occur), l’aur (gold), cedi (to cede, to turn/hand over), butâ (to throw, to cast), vignî fûr (to come out).

Verse 19: E cuant che al rivà dongje dal campament (and when he came near the camp), al viodè il vidiel (he saw the calf) e i coros dai balarins (and the choruses of dancers). Alore nol viodè plui nuie (he then became enraged [he then saw no more]): al brincà lis lastris (he took hold of the tablets) e lis parà a tocs dapît de mont (and shattered them [sent them into bits] at the foot of the mountain). Nol viodè plui nuie (he became enraged) translates literally as he saw no more; he saw no longer; the sense here is one of becoming enfuriated to the point of losing one’s sight. As for parâ a tocs (to smash, to shatter), this can be taken literally as to send into bits, where the masculine noun toc means bit, piece, and the verb parâ means to send, to drive.

Verse 20: Al cjapà il vidiel che a vevin fat (he took the calf that they had made) e lu brusà tal fûc (and burnt it in the fire) fintremai che no si ridusè in pulvin fin fin (until it was reduced to a very fine powder) che al scjernè parsore vie da l’aghe (which he scattered over top the water) e ur fasè bevi ai fîs di Israel (and made the sons of Israel drink [and made drink unto the sons of Israel]). Pulvin fin fin: literally, powder fine fine, where the doubled fin fin can be rendered in English as very fine.

Verse 21: Moses says to Aaron: ce ti àial fat chest popul (what did this people do to you) di dâi su pe schene (that you should make them bear [as to put (give) upon the back unto them]) un pecjadat cussì orent? (such a horribly great sin [a great sin so horrible]?). The feminine schene is the Friulian for back (of the human body). Dâ su pe schene can be taken more literally as to put upon one’s back; the sense here is that of placing a burden on one’s back so as to be borne. The Friulian for sin is the masculine pecjât; as for pecjadat found in this verse, it means great sin. See verse 22 ahead for more notes on this.

Verse 22: Aaron responds: che il gno paron no se cjapi cun me (let not my lord be angered with me): tu sâs ancje tu ce intate ch’e je cheste (you yourself know what a wicked people this is). La int is the Friulian for people; intate can be taken as wicked people, base people. Consider intate alongside pecjadat from verse 21 above. Intate and pecjadat express possession of a worse nature than the one conveyed by the base form from which they derive (int and pecjât); this worse nature is conveyed through the masculine ending at and the feminine ending ate: pecjât > pecjadat; int > intate.

Verse 23: Mi àn dit (they said to me): fâsinus un diu (make us a god) che al ledi denant di nô (that may go before us) parcè che Mosè (for Moses), l’om che nus à fats saltâ fûr de tiere dal Egjit (the man who brought us forth from [made us come out of] Egypt), no savìn ce che i pò jessi sucedût (we do not know what may have befallen him; we do not know what could have happened to him). The verb sucedi takes jessi as its auxiliary; observe the following: al è sucedût (it has happened); jessi sucedût (to have happened); al pò jessi sucedût (it may/could have happened); ce che i pò jessi sucedût (what may/could have happened to him). An example using instead the auxiliary vê: al à dit (he has said); vê dit (to have said); al pò vê dit (he may/could have said); ce che i pò vê dit (what he may/could have said to him).

Verse 24: Alore jo ur ài dit (so I said to them): chel che al à aur che lu cedi (let he who has gold hand it over [cede it]). E lôr mal àn dât: and they gave it to me. Jo lu ài butât tal fûc (I threw it into the fire) e al è vignût fûr chest vidiel culì (and this very calf [this calf here] came out). Mal is a contraction of mi + lu (unto me + it), where lu stands in the for the masculine vidiel: lôr (they) mal (unto me + it) àn dât (gave [have given]).

Versets 25-29

Vocabulary: viodi (to see), il popul (people), discjadenâsi (to lose control, to come unhinged), bandonâ (to leave, to desert), la vergogne (derision, shame, embarrassment), il nemì (enemy, foe), metisi (to place/position oneself), la puarte (gate, door), il campament (camp), il fi (son), dâsi dongje tor di (to gather round, to rally unto), (to say, to tell), ognidun (each one), la spade (sword), il flanc (side), (to go), jentrâ (to enter), copâ (to kill), ce… ce… ce… (whether… or… or…), il fradi (brother), un amì (friend), il prossim (neighbour, fellow man), la int (people), maçâ (to kill, to slay), la dì (day), un tremil (some three thousand), un om (man), vuê (today), la inviestidure (investiture), cui… cui… (some… others…), a cost di (at the cost/expense of), in mût che (so that), benedî (to bless).

Verses 25-26: Mosè al viodè che il popul si jere discjadenât (Moses saw that the people had lost control), parcè che Aron ju veve bandonâts a la vergogne dai lôr nemîs (for Aaron had left them to the derision of their enemies), e alore si metè su la puarte dal campament (and so he positioned himself in the gate of the camp) e al disè (and said): chel che al è pal Signôr, cun me (he who is for the Lord — {come} with me). Ducj i fîs di Levi si derin dongje tor di lui: all the sons of Levi gathered round about him.

Verse 27: Ur disè (he said to them): il Signôr, Diu di Israel, al dîs cussì (thus says the Lord, {the} God of Israel): ognidun che al meti la sô spade sul so flanc (let each of you put his sword on his side); lait (go), jentrait tal campament (enter the camp) di puarte in puarte (from gate to gate) e copait (and kill) ce il vuestri fradi, ce il vuestri amì, ce il vuestri prossim (your brother, your friend and your neighbour alike).

Verse 28: I fîs di Levi a faserin ce che ur veve dit Mosè (the sons of Levi did as Moses had told them) e, de int, a forin maçâts ta chê dì un tremil oms (and, of the people, some three thousand men were killed on that day). Consider: tremil oms (three thousand men); un tremil oms (some three thousand men; about three thousand men).

Verse 29: Moses says: vualtris vuê si vês dade l’inviestidure pal Signôr (today you have given yourselves the investiture for the Lord), cui a cost di so fi (some at the cost of his son), cui a cost di so fradi (others at the cost of his brother), in mût che lui vuê us benedìs (that he may bless you this day).

Versets 30-35

Vocabulary: tal indoman (the next day), dissal (he said), il popul (people), fâ un pecjât (to commit a sin), grant (great), tornâ di (to return unto), salacor (perhaps), podê (may, can, to be able), il perdon (pardon, forgiveness), vê il perdon (to obtain a pardon), sicheduncje (therefore), joi (alas), il diu (god), d’aur (golden), perdonâ (to forgive), instes (neverthetheless, all the same), senò (otherwise), parâ jù (to erase, to eliminate), par plasê (please), il libri (book), scrivi (to write), rispuindi (to respond), cuintri di (against), menâ (to lead, to conduct), un agnul (angel), cjastiâ (to punish), paiâ (to pay), par vie che (because, given that), il vidiel (calf).

Verse 30: Tal indoman (the next day) dissal Mosè al popul (Moses said to the people): vualtris o vês fat un pecjât di chei grancj (you have committed a great sin [you have done a sin from {amongst} those {that are} great]). Jo cumò o torni dal Signôr: I will now return (I now return) to the Lord. Salacor o podarai fâus vê il perdon: perhaps I can have you pardoned (perhaps I shall be able to make you obtain [have] the pardon). In vê il perdon, the sense of is to obtain, to get; another example: o ai vût il perdon (I was forgiven [I obtained the pardon]).

Verses 31-32: Sicheduncje Mosè al tornà dal Signôr e i disè (Moses therefore returned to the Lord and said to him): joi (alas), che chest popul al à fat un pecjât di chei grancj (this people has committed a great sin [done a sin from {amongst} those {that are} great]). Si àn fat un diu d’aur (they have made for themselves a god of gold), ma se tu podessis perdonâur instes il lôr pecjât… (but if you could nevertheless forgive them for their sin [pardon unto them their sin]…). Senò parimi jù (otherwise erase me [drive me down]), par plasê (please), dal libri che tu âs scrit (from the book that you have written). Parâ jù: literally, to drive down, to send down, the sense here of which is to erase, to eliminate. Parimi is a contraction of the the second-person singular pare + mi, where pare becomes pari before the addition of mi.

Verse 33: Il Signôr i rispuindè a Mosè (the Lord responded to Moses): chel che si è metût cuintri di me (he who has gone against me [set himself against me; put himself against me]) lu pararai jù dal gno libri (will I erase [I will erase him] from my book).

Verse 34: Cumò va (now go), mene il popul là che ti ài dit (lead the people where I have told you). Ve che il gno agnul al larà denant di te (behold, my angel will go before you); ma in chê dì che o larai a cjastiâju (but on the day when I go [will go] to punish them), ur fasarai paiâ il lôr pecjât (I will make them pay for their sin).

Verse 35: E il Signôr al cjastià il popul (and the Lord punished the people) par vie che a vevin fat il vidiel (because they had made the calf), chel che al veve fat Aron (the one that Aaron had made).