Friulian language series: Esodo 32, vidiel d’aur

You will now study the Friulian text of Esodo 32, which is the thirty-second chapter of the book of Exodus. The subjects are: il vidiel d’aur (golden calf), si torne a fâ il pat (the covenant is renewed).

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Read Esodo 32

To read the Friulian text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Bibie par un popul and consult Esodo 32. An archived version of the text can be found here.

Versets 1-6

Vocabulary: il popul (people), viodi (to see), inclapâsi (to be long, delayed), vignî jù (to come down), la mont (mountain), dâsi dongje di (to gather unto), lâ denant (to go before), fâ saltâ fûr di (to bring out of), la tiere (land), no savê un dret (to know nothing at all), sucedi (to happen), rispuindi (to answer), gjavâ (to remove, to take off), un anel (ring), d’aur (of gold), la orele (ear), la femine (wife), il fi (son), la fie (daughter), la int (people), puartâ (to bring), cjapâ (to take), fâ fondi (to meld, to cast), il stamp (mould), la statue (statue), il vidiel (calf), tirâ fûr di (to bring out of), fâ un altâr (to build an altar), un ordin (order), doman (tomorrow), la fieste (feast), tal indoman (the day after), jevâ (to arise), denant dì (in the early morning), ufrî (to offer), un olocaust (burnt offering), il sacrifici di comunion (sacrifice of communion), comodâsi a mangjâ (to sit down to eat), bevi (to drink), jevâ sù (to rise, to get up), divertîsi (to enjoy oneself, to have a good time).

Verse 1: Che Mosè si jere inclapât: that Moses had been delayed; that Moses was long in the coming. Nol vignive mai jù de mont: he was not coming down from the mountain; literally, he was never coming down from the mountain. Si dè dongje di Aron: one gathered unto Aaron; that is, they gathered unto Aaron. The people say to Aaron: dài mo (come now), fâsinus un diu (make us a god) che al ledi denant di nô (who shall go before us) parcè che chest Mosè (because that man Moses; literally, because this Moses), l’om che nus à fats saltâ fûr de tiere dal Egjit (the man who brought us out of the land of Egypt), no si sa un dret ce che i è sucedût (one does not know at all what has happened to him; that is, we have not any idea what has happened to him). Of the verb fâ, review the following imperative forms: fâs! (make!), fâsinus! (make [for] us!). Note the use of the impersonal in this verse: si dè dongje (one gathered, one came together), no si sa (one does not know).

Verse 2: Gjavait and puartait are both second-person plural imperatives, from gjavâ and puartâ. Aaron says to the people: gjavait i anei d’aur des orelis (take off the golden rings on [from] your ears) des vuestris feminis, dai vuestris fîs e des vuestris fiis (from your wives, your sons and your daughters), e puartaitmai (and bring them to me). Puartaitmai is a contraction of puartait + mi + ju (bring + unto me + them).

Verse 3: Dute la int (all the people) si gjavà i anei d’aur (took off [from themselves] the golden rings) che a vevin tes orelis (that they had on their [in the] ears) e jai puartarin a Aron (and brought them to Aaron). In verse 2, you encountered gjavâ i anei d’aur (to take off the golden rings); in verse 3, you find the reflexive gjavâsi i anei d’aur (to take off the golden rings from oneself). Compare: gjavait i anei d’aur des vuestris feminis (take off the golden rings from your wives); la int si gjavà i anei d’aur (the people took off the golden rings from themselves; that is, the people took off their [own] golden rings). In jai puartarin a Aron, jai is a contraction of i + ju (unto him + them).

Verse 4: Lu fasè fondi intun stamp: he cast it in a mould. Al fasè une statue di vidiel: he made a statue of a calf. The people say: ve chi, Israel, il to Diu (this, oh Israel, is your God), chel che ti à tirât fûr de tiere dal Egjit (the one who brought you forth from the land of Egypt). Of interest here is the masculine noun stamp, meaning mould; you will recall from the beginning of your study in Gjenesi 1:27 that man was made sul stamp di Diu (literally, on [after] the stamp of God), which is how Friulian expresses the notion of in the image of God, in the likeness of God.

Verse 5: Viodint chel tant: seeing all this. Doman, fieste pal Signôr: tomorrow (shall be a) feast for the Lord.

Verse 6: Tal indoman a jevarin denant dì: they arose early the next morning. Comodâsi a mangjâ e a bevi: to sit down to eat and drink. Jevâ sù par divertîsi: to get up and have a good time; to arise and enjoy oneself. The people got up to sing and dance.

Versets 7-10

Vocabulary: spesseâ (to make haste, to hurry up), lâ jù (to go down), fâ saltâ fûr di (to bring out of), lâ vie di cjâf (to take leave of one’s senses, to lose control of oneself), coventâ (to be necessary, to be needed), lâ fûr de strade (to go off the way; to sin), il vidiel (calf), il metal (metal), fondût (molten), butâsi in genoglon (to go down on one’s knees), ufrî (to offer), il sacrifici (sacrifice), tirâ fûr di (to bring out of), zontâ (to add), tignî di voli (to keep an eye on), cjaviestri (stubborn), fûr di misure (exceedingly, beyond measure), lassâ (to leave), montâ sù une fumate (to become angered), fruçâ (to destroy), cence remission (without reserve, without holding back), il popul (people), grant (great).

Verse 7: Spessee: this is second person-singular imperative of spesseâ; it can be taken as meaning make haste, hurry up. Al va vie di cjâf: The Israelites had begun to act basely; this is communicated in the Friulian with the expression lâ vie di cjâf, which conveys the sense of to take leave of one’s senses, to lose control of oneself. You have seen this expression before (Gjenesi 34:8): gno fi Sichem al va vie di cjâf par vuestre fie.

Verse 8: No ur à coventât masse (not too much was needed unto them) par lâ fûr de strade (to go off the way) che jo ur vevi dit di lâ (which I had told them to go [on]); that is, they were quick to turn aside from the way that I had told them to follow. Si àn fat un vidiel cul metal fondût: they have made themselves a calf of molten metal.

Verse 9: Al è un popul cjaviestri fûr di misure: they are an exceedingly stubborn people; they are a stubborn people beyond all measure.

Verse 10: Lassimai a mi: leave them to me; lassimai is a contraction of lasse (second-person singular imperative) + mi (unto me) + ju (them); lasse becomes lassi with the addition of mai to it. In conjunction with lassimai, you find a mi, for emphasis: lassimai a mi. Mi è montade sù une fumate: I have become angered. Che ju fruci cence remission: that I shall destroy them without reserve.

Versets 11-13

Vocabulary: fâ l’impussibil (to strive; to do the impossible), bonâ (to appease, to pacify), vê di (must, to have to), cjapâse (to become angry, to get upset), la fuarce (force, might), la man (hand), trement (fearsome, formidable), la tristerie (wickedness, iniquity), fâ crepâ (to kill), framieç di (amongst), la mont (mount, mountain), scancelâ (to annihilate), la face de tiere (face of the earth), smamîsi (to die down, to fade away), la fote (fury, rage), boli (to boil; also bulî), lassâ pierdi (to renounce, to turn away from), il mâl (harm, ill), il cjâf (head), il popul (people), visâsi di (to remember), il famei (servant), zurâ (to swear), multiplicâ (to multiply, to increase), la gjernazie (offspring), la stele (star), il cîl (heaven, sky), fevelâ (to speak), vê in ereditât (to inherit), par in eterni (forever).

Verse 11: Mosè al fasè l’impussibil par bonâ il Signôr so Diu: Moses strove (did the impossible) to pacify the Lord his God; the sense of fâ l’impussibil here is to strive, to make great efforts. Moses asks the Lord: parcè mo, Signôr, varessistu di cjapâte cussì cun chest popul […]? (why then, O Lord, should you become angered thus with this people?). Recall that vê di means must, to have to; here, you find tu tu varessis (you would have; second-person singular of the condizionâl presint) in interrogative form as varessistu (would you have): parcè varessistu di cjapâte (why would you have to get angry; that is, why should you get angry). Cjapâte is a contraction of cjapâ + ti + la.

Verse 12 (first sentence): Parcè varessino di dî i egjizians: why should the Egyptians have to say; the sense here is why should you give reason to the Egyptians to say. A varessin is the third-person plural of the condizionâl presint of the verb vê: a varessin (they would have); a varessin di dî (they would have to say); parcè varessino di dî (why would they have to say; that is, why should they say). See also the related notes at verse 11 above. Moses tells the Lord not to give the Egyptians cause to say the following: ju à fats saltâ fûr par tristerie (he brought them forth out of wickedness), par fâju crepâ (so as to kill them) framieç des monts (in [amidst] the mountains) e scancelâju de face de tiere (and annihilate them from the face of the earth).

Verse 12 (second sentence): Moses implores God to pacify his anger: lasse che si smamissi (let die down; let abate) la fote che ti bôl dentri vie (the fury that boils away inside you) e lasse pierdi il mâl (and renounce the harm) che tu vevis tal cjâf (that you had [were having] in your head; that is, that you had in mind, that you had planned) di fâi al to popul (to do to your people). The verb smamî means to fade, to abate, to diminish; supplementary examples: il timp nol à smamît il lôr amôr (time has not diminished their love); il soreli al à fâ smamî il colôr dal len (the sun has faded the colour of the wood). The third-person singular of the presint indicatîf is al smamìs. In the text, you find the reflexive smamîsi (to die down, to fade away); si smamìs (it dies down); lasse che si smamissi (let it die down).

Verse 13: Visiti dai tiei fameis: remember your servants. Che tu ur âs zurât sun te: to whom you swore by (on) yourself. Che tu ur âs dit: to whom you said. Dute cheste tiere che us ài fevelât: all this land of which I have spoken to you. Us e darai a la vuestre gjernazie: I shall give it to your offspring.

Versets 14-18

Vocabulary: lassâ pierdi (to renounce, to turn away from), il mâl (harm, ill), minaçâ (to threaten, to menace; also menaçâ), voltâsi (to turn around), tornâ jù (to go back down), la lastre (tablet), il pat (covenant), in man (in hand), scrivi (to write), la bande (side), la scriture (writing), picâ (to cut, to incise), sintî (to hear), il cancan (racket, noise), il berli (outcry, yell), petâ un berli (to make an outcry, to let out a yell), il campament (camp), la vuere (war), il sunsûr (sound), la cjante di vitorie (victory tune), la int (people), fuî (to flee), dâ sù (to exclaim), rispuindi (to respond).

Verse 14: E il Signôr al lassà pierdi dut il mâl (and the Lord turned away from all the harm) che al veve minaçât al so popul (with which he had threatened [menaced] his people; that he had planned for his people).

Verse 15: Not only does the Friulian pat translate as covenant, it can also be rendered as the English pact, with which it is cognate: lastris dal pat (tablets of the covenant, tablets of the pact). Also: lastris scritis di dôs bandis (tablets written on both [two] sides), scritis di une bande e di chê altre (written on one side and on the other). Recall that the past participle of the verb scrivi (to write) is scrit.

Verse 16: E jere chê di Diu: it was that of God. Picade su lis lastris: incised on the tablets.

Verse 17: Gjosuè al sintì il cancan dal popul (Joshua heard the racket of the people) che al petave berlis (who were yelling out; who were making outcries). Joshua says: tal campament (in the camp) si sintin berlis di vuere (cries of war are heard); that is, one (or you) can hear cries of war in the camp.

Verse 18: Nol è sunsûr di cjantis di vitorie (it is neither the sound of victory tunes) e nancje berlis di int ch’e fuìs (nor outcries of people who flee); il berli di un pôcs che a dan sù (the outcry of some who exclaim) e di altris che a rispuindin (and of others who respond) jo o sint (I hear). It is question here of answering responsively in song. Reworded slightly, this passage can be understood as follows: it is not the sound of victory tunes or outcries of fleeing people; it is the sound of those who exclaim and others who respond that I hear.

Versets 19-24

Vocabulary: rivâ dongje (to come near), il campament (camp), il vidiel (calf), il coro (chorus; also côr), il balarin (dancer), no viodi plui nuie (to become enraged), brincâ (to seize, to grasp), la lastre (tablet), parâ a tocs (to smash, to shatter), dapît di (at the bottom of), la mont (mount, mountain), cjapâ (to take), brusâ (to burn), il fûc (fire), fintremai che (until), ridusi (to reduce; ridusisi, to get reduced), il pulvin (powder, dust), fin (fine), scjernâ (to scatter, to strew; also sgjarnâ), parsore vie di (upon), la aghe (water), bevi (to drink), dâ su pe schene (to burden, to charge), il pecjadat (great sin), orent (horrible, horrendous), il paron (lord), cjapâse (to get angry, to get upset), la intate (wicked people), lâ denant di (to go before), fâ saltâ fûr (to bring forth), savê (to know), sucedi (to happen), l’aur (gold), cedi (to cede, to hand over), butâ (to throw), vignî fûr (to come forth).

Verse 19: Al viodè il vidiel e i coros dai balarins: he saw the calf and the choruses of dancers. Upon seeing them, Moses becomes enfuriated: alore nol viodè plui nuie (he then became enraged): al brincà lis lastris (he took hold of the tablets) e lis parà a tocs dapît de mont (and he smashed them at the foot of the mountain). Nol viodè plui nuie (he became enraged) translates literally as he could not (did not) see anything more; the sense here is one of becoming enfuriated to the point of losing the capacity of sight. As for parâ a tocs (to smash, to shatter), this can be taken more literally as to send into bits, where the masculine noun toc means bit, piece, and the verb parâ means to send, to drive.

Verse 20: Fintremai che no si ridusè in pulvin fin fin: until it was reduced to a very fine powder. Che al scjernè parsore vie da l’aghe: which he scattered upon the water. [Che] ur fasè bevi ai fîs di Israel: which he made the sons of Israel drink. Bevi means to drink; fâ bevi means to make drink, to cause to drink. Friulian says to make drink (something) unto someone: che ur fasè bevi ai fîs di Israel translates literally as which he made drink unto the sons of Israel. Note the repetition of fin for emphasis: pulvin fin fin.

Verse 21: Ce ti àial fat chest popul (what ever did this people do to you) di dâi su pe schene (so that you should make them bear) un pecjadat cussì orent? (such a horribly great sin?). The feminine noun schene means back (that is, the back of the human body); dâ su pe schene evokes the image of placing a burden on one’s back. The Friulian for sin is the masculine pecjât; as for pecjadat found in this verse, it means great sin. See verse 22 ahead for more notes on this.

Verse 22: Che il gno paron no se cjapi cun me (may my lord not become angry with me): tu sâs ancje tu ce intate ch’e je cheste (you yourself know what wicked people these are; literally, you know even [also] you what [a] wicked people is this one). La int is the Friulian for people; intate can be taken as wicked people, base people. Compare intate with pecjadat from verse 21 above. Pecjadat and intate convey the possession of a worse nature as compared to the one conveyed by the base form from which they derive; that is, intate are worse than regular int, and a pecjadat is worse than a regular pecjât. Note also: in colloquial language, intate might even be rendered riff-raff.

Verse 23: No savìn ce che i pò jessi sucedût: we do not know what may have happened to him. The verb sucedi takes jessi as its auxiliary; observe the following: al è sucedût (it has happened); jessi sucedût (to have happened); al pò jessi sucedût (it may have happened); ce che i pò jessi sucedût (what may have happened to him). An example using instead the auxiliary vê: al à dit (he has said), vê dit (to have said); al pò vê dit (he may have said); ce che i pò vê dit (what he may have said to him).

Verse 24: Chel che al à aur (whoever has gold; he who has gold) che lu cedi (may he hand it over; let him surrender it). In the following, mal is a contraction of mi + lu (unto me + it): e lôr mal àn dât (and they gave it to me). Aaron also says: jo lu ài butât tal fûc (I threw it in the fire) e al è vignût fûr chest vidiel culì (and this calf came forth; and out came this calf). Note the use of culì (here) for emphasis or clarity: chest vidiel culì (this [here] calf).

Versets 25-29

Vocabulary: discjadenâsi (to lose control, to come unhinged), bandonâ (to leave, to desert), la vergogne (shame, embarrassment), il nemì (enemy), metisi (to place oneself), la puarte (gate; door), il campament (camp), il fi (son), dâsi dongje tor di (to gather round, to rally unto), ognidun (each one), la spade (sword), il flanc (side), (to go), jentrâ (to enter), copâ (to kill), ce… ce… ce… (whether… or… or…), il fradi (brother), un amì (friend), il prossim (neighbour), maçâ (to kill, to slay), la dì (day), un tremil (some three thousand), un om (man), vuê (today), la inviestidure (ordination, investiture), cui… cui… (some… others…), a cost di (at the expense of), in mût che (so that), benedî (to bless).

Verse 25: Si jere discjadenât: had lost control.

Verse 26: Metisi su la puarte dal campament: to place oneself at the gate of the camp. Chel che al è pal Signôr, cun me: he who is for the Lord, [come] with me. Dâsi dongje tor di lui: to rally unto him, to gather round him.

Verse 27: Ognidun che al meti la sô spade sul so flanc: may each one [of you] put your sword on your side. Di puarte in puarte: from gate to gate. Copait ce il vuestri fradi, ce il vuestri amì, ce il vuestri prossim: kill whether your brother, whether your friend, whether your neighbour; the sense of this is kill (each offender, regardless of) whether (or not he is) your brother, friend or neighbour.

Verse 28: De int (of the people), a forin maçâts (were slain) ta chê dì (on that day) un tremil oms (some three thousand men).

Verse 29: Cui a cost di so fi (some at the expense of your son), cui a cost di so fradi (others at the expense of your brother).

Versets 30-35

Vocabulary: tal indoman (the next day), fâ un pecjât (to commit a sin), grant (great), tornâ di (to return unto), salacor (perhaps), podê (can, to be able), il perdon (pardon, forgiveness), vê il perdon (to obtain a pardon), sicheduncje (therefore), joi (alas), d’aur (golden), perdonâ (to forgive), instes (nonetheless, all the same), senò (otherwise), parâ jù (to eliminate, to exclude), par plasê (please), il libri (book), scrivi (to write), rispuindi (to reply), cuintri di (against), menâ (to lead, to conduct), un agnul (angel), cjastiâ (to punish), paiâ (to pay), par vie che (because, on account of the fact that), il vidiel (calf).

Verse 30: Vualtris o vês fat un pecjât di chei grancj: you have committed a great sin; literally, you have done a sin from (amongst) those (that are) great. Vê il perdon means to be forgiven, or, more literally, to obtain a pardon; fâ vê il perdon means to cause to obtain a pardon, to cause to be forgiven. You read: salacor o podarai fâus vê il perdon (perhaps I may be able to have you forgiven; literally, perhaps I shall be able to make you obtain a [the] pardon).

Verse 32: Ma se tu podessis perdonâur instes il lôr pecjât: but if you could nonetheless forgive them their sin; the sense of this is but if you could nonetheless forgive them their sin, (that would be good). Friulian says to forgive something unto someone: perdonâur il lôr pecjât (to forgive unto them their sin). Moses also says: senò parimi jù (otherwise exclude me), par plasê (please), dal libri che tu âs scrit (from the book that you have written).

Verse 33: Chel che si è metût cuintri di me: he who has sinned (gone) against me.

Verse 34: Cumò va, mene il popul là che ti ài dit: now go, lead the people where I have told you. In chê dì che o larai a cjastiâju: on the day when I go to punish them. Ur fasarai paiâ il lôr pecjât: I shall make them pay for their sin.

Verse 35: Par vie che a vevin fat il vidiel: owing to (the fact) that they had made the calf; on account of their having made the calf.