Friulian language series: Esodo 32, vidiel d’aur

The thirty-second chapter of the book of Exodus tells of the golden calf: il vidiel d’aur. Also found in the subject headings: si torne a fâ il pat (the pact is made again).

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Read Esodo 32

To read the Friulian text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Bibie par un popul and consult Esodo 32. An archived version of the text is found here.

Versets 1-6

Vocabulary: il popul (people), viodi (to see), inclapâsi (to become held up), vignî jù (to come down), mai (not ever), la mont (mountain), dâsi dongje di (to draw oneself together), (to say), dài mo (come then), (to make), il diu (god), lâ denant (to go before), un om (man), saltâ fûr (to come forth), la tiere (land), no savê un dret (to know not in the least), sucedi (to befall), rispuindi (to respond), gjavâ (to withdraw), un anel (ring), l’aur (gold), la orele (ear), la femine (wife), il fi (son), la fie (daughter), dut (all), la int (people), puartâ (to bear), la int (people), cjapâ (to take), fondi (to cast), il stamp (form), la statue (statue), il vidiel (calf), tirâ fûr (to draw forth), chel tant (such thing), un altâr (altar), denant di (before), (to give), un ordin (order), doman (tomorrow), la fieste (feast), tal indoman (next day), jevâ (to arise), denant dì (before day), ufrî (to offer), un olocaust (holocaust), preparâ (to prepare), il sacrifici (sacrifice), la comunion (communion), comodâsi (to put oneself at ease), mangjâ (to eat), bevi (to drink), po (then), jevâ sù (to arise), divertîsi (to entertain oneself).

Verse 1: Cuant che il popul al viodè (when the people saw) che Mosè si jere inclapât (that Moses had become held up) e che nol vignive mai jù de mont (and that he was not ever coming down from the mountain), si dè dongje di Aron e i disè (they drew themselves together unto Aaron and said to him): *dài mo* (come then), fâsinus un diu (make for us a god) che al ledi denant di nô (which may go before us) parcè che chest Mosè (for this Moses), l’om che nus à fats saltâ fûr de tiere dal Egjit (the man who made us come forth from the land of Egypt), no si sa un dret ce che i è sucedût (it is not known in the least that which has befallen him). — *This is an interjection employed to encourage a one to go to. Moreover, although dài is here spelt with the accented à, the unaccented dai has also been employed in this Bible (for instance, at Gjenesi 11:3). The justification for the accent is to distinguish this interjection from the masculine plural preposition dai; that said, rare indeed must the instances be where the two are at risk of confusion.

Verse 2: Aron ur rispuindè (Aaron responded to them): gjavait* i anei d’aur (withdraw the rings of gold) des orelis des vuestris feminis (from the ears of your wives), dai vuestris fîs (of your sons) e des vuestris fiis (and of your daughters), e puartaitmai* (and bear them unto me). — *Gjavait and puartait are both second-person plural imperatives, from gjavâ and puartâ. Puartaitmai is the contraction of puartait + mi + ju (bear + unto me + them).

Verse 3: *Dute la int si gjavà i anei d’aur* (all the people withdrew their rings of gold) che a vevin tes+ orelis (which they had on [in] their ears) e jai¬ puartarin a Aron (and bore them unto Aaron). — *Taken apart: dute la int (all the people) si gjavà (withdrew unto themselves) i anei d’aur (the rings of gold). +Regarding this use of the preposition in (tes orelis: literally, in the ears), see the notes at Gjenesi 24:22-23. ¬Jai is the contraction of i + ju (unto him + them).

Verse 4: Lui al cjapà l’aur che i vevin puartât (he took the gold which they had borne unto him), lu fasè fondi intun stamp (had it cast in a form) e al fasè une statue di vidiel (and made a statue of a calf). Alore a diserin (then they said): ve chi, Israel, il to Diu (here, Israel, is thy God), chel che ti à tirât fûr de tiere dal Egjit (that which drew thee forth from the land of Egypt).

Verse 5: Viodint chel tant (in seeing such thing), Aron al fasè un altâr denant de statue (Aaron made an altar before the statue) e al dè chest ordin (and gave this order): doman, fieste pal Signôr (tomorrow — feast for the Lord).

Verse 6: Tal indoman a jevarin denant dì (next day they arose before day), a ufririn olocauscj (offered holocausts) e a prepararin sacrificis di comunion (and prepared sacrifices of communion). Il popul si comodà a mangjâ (the people put themselves at ease to eat) e a bevi (and to drink) e po a jevarin sù par divertîsi (and then they arose to entertain themselves).

Versets 7-10

Vocabulary: alore (then), (to say), spesseâ (to hurry along), lâ jù (to go down), il popul (people), saltâ fûr (to come forth), lâ vie di cjâf (to go off one’s head), coventâ (to be necessary), masse (much), (to go), fûr di strade (off the way), (to tell, to say), (to make), il vidiel (calf), il metal (metal), fondût (cast), butâsi in genoglon (to cast oneself on one’s knees), ufrî (to offer), il sacrifici (sacrifice), tirâ fûr (to draw forth), la tiere (land), zontâ (to add), tignî di voli (to keep one’s eye on), cjaviestri (stubborn), fûr di (out of), la misure (measure), cumò (now), lassâ (to leave), montâ sù (to ascend), la fumate (smoke haze), fruçâ (to smite), cence (without), la remission (remission), grant (great).

Verse 7: Alore il Signôr i disè a Mosè (then the Lord said to Moses): spessee (hurry along); va jù (go down), parcè che il to popul (for thy people), che tu âs fat saltâ fûr dal Egjit (whom thou madest come forth from Egypt), al va vie di cjâf (are going off their head).

Verse 8: No ur à coventât masse (unto them was much not necessary) par lâ fûr de strade (to go off the way) che jo ur vevi dit di lâ (whereon I had told them to go). Si àn fat un vidiel cul metal fondût (they have made for themselves a calf with cast metal) e si son butâts in genoglon denant di lui (and have cast themselves on their knees before it). I àn ufrît sacrificis (they have offered sacrifices to it) e i àn dit (and have said to it): ve chi, Israel, il to Diu (here, Israel, is thy God), che ti à tirât fûr de tiere dal Egjit (which drew thee forth from the land of Egypt).

Verse 9: Il Signôr al zontà (the Lord added): lu ài tignût di voli chest popul (I have kept my eye on this people): al è un popul cjaviestri fûr di misure (it is a stubborn people out of measure).

Verse 10: Cumò lassimai* a mi (now leave them to me): mi è montade sù une fumate (unto me has wrath [a smoke haze] ascended) che ju fruci cence remission (that I {shall} smite them without remission): ma o fasarai di te un popul grant (but I shall make of thee a great people). — *Lassimai is the contraction of lasse (second-person singular imperative) + mi (unto me) + ju (them); mi and ju come together to form mai, and lasse becomes lassi when mai is attached thereto.

Versets 11-13

Vocabulary: (to do, to make), l’impussibil (impossible), bonâ (to propitiate), (to say), vê di (to have to), cjapâse (to take it unto oneself), cussì (so), il popul (people), propit (squarely), saltâ fûr (to come forth), grant (great), la fuarce (might), la man (hand), trement (awesome), la tristerie (wickedness), crepâ (to die), framieç di (amidst), la mont (mountain), scancelâ (to blot out), la face (face), la tiere (earth), lassâ (to let), smamîsi (to die down), la fote (wrath), boli (to boil), dentri vie (within), pierdi (to lose), il mâl (ill), (to have), il cjâf (head), il popul (people), visâsi di (to remember), il famei (servant), zurâ (to swear), multiplicâ (to multiply), la gjernazie (line), tant che (like), la stele (star), il cîl (heaven), dut (all), fevelâ (to speak), (to give), la ereditât (inheritance), par in eterni (for all time).

Verse 11: Mosè al fasè l’impussibil (Moses did the impossible) par bonâ il Signôr so Diu (to propitiate the Lord his God), e i disè (and said to him): parcè mo, Signôr (why then, O Lord), varessistu di cjapâte cussì cun chest popul (oughtest thou take it unto thyself so with this people) che propit tu tu âs fat saltâ fûr dal Egjit (whom squarely thou madest come forth from Egypt) cu la tô grande fuarce (with thy great might) e cu la tô man tremende? (and with thine awesome hand?).

Verse 12: Parcè varessino di dî i egjizians (why ought the Egyptians say): ju à fats saltâ fûr par tristerie (he made them come forth by wickedness), par fâju crepâ framieç des monts (to make them die amidst the mountains) e scancelâju de face de tiere? (and to blot them out from the face of the earth?). Lasse che si smamissi* la fote che ti bôl dentri vie (let that the wrath which boils within thee may die down) e lasse pierdi il mâl (and drop [+let lose+] the ill) che tu vevis tal cjâf (which thou hadst in thy head) di fâi al to popul (to do to thy people). — *Note the employment of the subjunctive following lasse che. Consider: si smamìs (it dies down); lasse che si smamissi (let that it may die down). +Let lose is the literal rendering of lassâ pierdi; to ‘let lose’ a thing — and to be perfectly clear, it is let lose, not let loose — is to let such thing come lost, which is to say, be dropped, from one’s attention.

Verse 13: Visiti dai tiei fameis Abram, Isac e Jacop (remember thy servants Abraham, Isaac and Jacob), che tu ur âs zurât sun te (to whom thou sworest upon thyself) e che tu ur âs dit (and to whom thou saidest): o multiplicarai la vuestre gjernazie (I shall multiply your line) tant che lis stelis dal cîl (like the stars of the heaven), e dute cheste tiere che us ài fevelât (and all this land whereof I spoke to you) us e darai a la vuestre gjernazie (shall I give to your line) e le varan in ereditât par in eterni (and they will have it in inheritance for all time).

Versets 14-18

Vocabulary: lassâ (to let), pierdi (to lose), dut (all), il mâl (ill), minaçâ (to threaten), il popul (people), alore (then), voltâsi (to turn oneself), tornâ jù (to go back down), la mont (mountain), dôs (f., two), la lastre (table), il pat (pact), la man (hand), scrivi (to write), la bande (side), altri (other), (to make), la scriture (writing), picâ (to cut), sintî (to hear), il cancan (racket), petâ (to strike forth), il berli (outcry), (to say), il campament (encampment), la vuere (war), ma (but), rispuindi (to respond), il sunsûr (noise), la cjante (tune), la vitorie (victory), e nancje (nor), la int (people), fuî (to make off), un pôcs di (some), dâ sù (to exclaim).

Verse 14: E il Signôr al lassà pierdi dut il mâl (and the Lord dropped [*let lose*] all the ill) che al veve minaçât al so popul (which he had threatened unto his people). — *See the note marked + at verse 12.

Verse 15: Mosè alore si voltà (Moses then turned himself) e al tornà jù de mont (and went back down from the mountain) cu lis dôs lastris dal pat in man (with the two tables of the pact in hand), lastris scritis di dôs bandis (tables written on two sides), scritis di une bande e di chê altre (written on the one side and on that other).

Verse 16: Lis lastris lis veve fatis Diu (the tables had God made) e la scriture e jere chê di Diu (and the writing was that of God), picade su lis lastris (cut on the tables).

Verse 17: Gjosuè al sintì il cancan dal popul (Joshua heard the racket of the people) che al petave berlis (who were striking forth outcries) e i disè a Mosè (and said to Moses): tal campament si sintin berlis di vuere (in the encampment are heard outcries of war).

Verse 18: Ma Mosè i rispuindè (but Moses responded to him): nol è sunsûr di cjantis di vitorie (it is not noise of victory tunes) e nancje berlis di int ch’e fuìs (nor outcries of people who make off); il berli di un pôcs che a dan sù (the outcry of some who exclaim) e di altris che a rispuindin (and of others who respond) jo o sint (do I hear).

Versets 19-24

Vocabulary: rivâ dongje di (to arrive alongside), il campament (encampment), viodi (to see), il vidiel (calf), il coro (chorus), il balarin (dancer), alore (then), plui nuie (not a thing more), brincâ (to apprehend), la lastre (table), parâ (to drive), il toc (piece), dapît di (at the foot of), la mont (mountain), cjapâ (to take), (to make), brusâ (to burn), il fûc (fire), fintremai che (until), ridusi (to reduce), ridusisi (to come reduced), il pulvin (dust), fin (fine), scjernâ (to strew), parsore vie di (over above), la aghe (water), bevi (to drink), il fi (son), (to say), il popul (people), (to give), la schene (back), il pecjadat (wicked sin), cussì (so), orent (abhorrent), rispuindi (to respond), il paron (lord), cjapâse (to take it unto oneself), savê (to know), la intate (wicked people), il diu (god), lâ denant di (to go before), saltâ fûr (to come forth), la tiere (land), savê (to know), podê (may), sucedi (to befall), l’aur (gold), cedi (to cede), butâ (to cast), vignî fûr (to come forth), culì (here).

Verse 19: E cuant che al rivà dongje dal campament (and when he arrived alongside the encampment), al viodè il vidiel (he saw the calf) e i coros dai balarins (and the choruses of dancers). Alore nol viodè plui nuie (then he became enraged [*then he saw not a thing more*]): al brincà lis lastris (he apprehended the tables) e lis parà a tocs dapît de mont (and drove them to pieces at the foot of the mountain). — *as in to become enfuriated to the point of losing one’s vision; figurative

Verse 20: Al cjapà il vidiel che a vevin fat (he took the calf which they had made) e lu brusà tal fûc (and burnt it in fire) fintremai che no si ridusè in pulvin fin fin (until it came reduced to dust fine fine) che al scjernè parsore vie da l’aghe (which he strew over above the water) e ur fasè bevi ai fîs di Israel (and made the sons of Israel drink).

Verse 21: Dissal Mosè a Aron (Moses said to Aaron): ce ti àial fat chest popul (what did this people to thee) *di dâi su pe schene* (as to give upon their back) un pecjadat+ cussì orent? (a wicked sin so abhorrent?). — *Taken apart: di (as to) dâi (give unto it) su (upon) pe (by the) schene (back). Popul is a masculine singular noun, wherefore dâi (to give unto it) is employed; to give unto it (i.e., unto the popul) is to be understood as meaning to give unto them (i.e., unto the people), and unto them finds its way into as to give upon their back through the use of their. As to give upon their back is to be understood in the sense of as to charge upon their back; as to burden them with. +Pecjât: sin; pecjadat: wicked sin. Pecjadat conveys a worse nature than pecjât. See also verse 22.

Verse 22: I rispuindè Aron (Aaron responded to him): che il gno paron no se cjapi cun me (let not my lord take it unto himself with me): tu sâs ancje tu ce intate* ch’e je cheste (thou knowest also thou what a wicked people is this). — *Int: people; intate: wicked people. The at ending (ate in the feminine) conveys wretchedness. From verse 22, the masculine pecjât (sin) becomes pecjadat (wicked sin); from the current verse, the feminine int (people) becomes intate (wicked people). Another instance of this was met in Gjenesi 6:5 with robate (wicked matter), from the feminine robe (matter).

Verse 23: Mi àn dit (they said to me): fâsinus un diu (make for us a god) che al ledi denant di nô (which may go before us) parcè che Mosè (for Moses), l’om che nus à fats saltâ fûr de tiere dal Egjit (the man who made us come forth from the land of Egypt), no savìn ce che i pò jessi sucedût (we know not that which may have befallen him).

Verse 24: Alore jo ur ài dit (then I said to them): chel che al à aur che lu cedi (let that one who has gold cede it). E lôr mal àn dât: and they gave it to me. Jo lu ài butât tal fûc (I cast it into fire) e al è vignût fûr chest vidiel culì (and did come forth this here calf).

Versets 25-29

Vocabulary: viodi (to see), il popul (people), discjadenâsi (to unchain oneself), bandonâ (to forsake), la vergogne (shame), il nemì (enemy), alore (then), metisi (to put oneself), la puarte (gate), il campament (encampment), (to say), il fi (son), dâsi dongje (to draw oneself together), tor di (round), cussì (so), ognidun (each), meti (to put), la spade (sword), il flanc (flank), (to go), jentrâ (to enter), copâ (to kill), ce… ce… (be it… be it…), il fradi (brother), un amì (friend), il prossim (neighbour), (to do), la int (people), maçâ (to slay), la dì (day), un tremil (some three thousand), un om (man), vuê (today), dâsi (to give oneself), la inviestidure (investiture), cui… cui… (he… he…), il cost (cost), in mût che ({in order} that), benedî (to bless).

Verses 25-26: Mosè al viodè che il popul si jere discjadenât (Moses saw that the people had unchained* themselves), parcè che Aron ju veve bandonâts a la vergogne dai lôr nemîs (for Aaron had forsaken them to the shame of their enemies), e alore si metè su la puarte dal campament (and then he put himself in [on] the gate of the encampment) e al disè (and said): chel che al è pal Signôr, cun me (that one who is for the Lord — with me). Ducj i fîs di Levi si derin dongje tor di lui: all the sons of Levi drew themselves together round him. — *The Friulian for chain is the feminine noun cjadene, whence the verb discjadenâ. Translated literally, discjadenâ means to unchain; in this verse, the reflexive discjadenâsi (to unchain oneself) is employed figuratively to indicate one’s breaking forth into unruliness, as in to let oneself loose. I have provided a literal rendering in the English, to maintain the full force of the Friulian. A different instance of discjadenâsi is found in Esodo 19:22.

Verse 27: Ur disè (he said to them): il Signôr, Diu di Israel, al dîs cussì (the Lord, God of Israel, says so): ognidun che al meti la sô spade sul so flanc (let each put his sword on his flank); lait (go), jentrait tal campament (enter into the encampment) di puarte in puarte (from gate to gate) e copait ce il vuestri fradi, ce il vuestri amì, ce il vuestri prossim (and kill be it your brother, be it your friend, be it your neighbour).

Verse 28: I fîs di Levi a faserin ce che ur veve dit Mosè e (the sons of Levi did that which Moses had said to them and), de int (of the people), a forin maçâts ta chê dì un* tremil oms (were slain in that day some three thousand men). — *Consider: tremil oms (three thousand men); un tremil oms (some three thousand men). The employment of un here indicates approximation. Another instance: a vincj chilometris di Gurize (at twenty kilometres from Gurize); a un vincj chilometris di Gurize (at some twenty kilometres from Gurize).

Verse 29: Dissal Mosè (Moses said): vualtris vuê si vês dade l’inviestidure pal Signôr (you today have given yourselves the investiture for the Lord), cui a cost di so fi (he at cost of his son), cui a cost di so fradi (he at cost of his brother), in mût che lui vuê us benedìs (that he today may bless you).

Versets 30-35

Vocabulary: tal indoman (next day), (to say), il popul (people), (to make), il pecjât (sin), grant (great), cumò (now), tornâ di (to return unto), salacor (perhaps), podê (to be able, can), (to have), il perdon (pardon), sicheduncje (therefore), joi (woe), il diu (god), d’aur (of gold), perdonâ (to pardon), instès (all the same), senò (otherwise), parâ jù (to drive down), par plasê (pray), il libri (book), scrivi (to write), rispuindi (to respond), metisi (to put oneself), cuintri di (against), (to go), menâ (to lead), là che (whither), un agnul (angel), denant di (before), la dì (day), cjastiâ (to punish), paiâ (to pay {for}), par vie che (given that), il vidiel (calf).

Verse 30: Tal indoman dissal Mosè al popul (next day Moses said to the people): vualtris o vês fat un pecjât di chei grancj (you have committed [made] a sin of those {which are} great). Jo cumò o torni dal Signôr: I am returning now unto the Lord. Salacor o podarai fâus vê il perdon: perhaps I shall be able to make you obtain [have] pardon.

Verses 31-32: Sicheduncje Mosè al tornà dal Signôr e i disè (therefore Moses returned unto the Lord and said to him): joi, che chest popul al à fat un pecjât di chei grancj (woe, for this people have committed [made] a sin of those {which are} great). Si àn fat un diu d’aur (they have made for themselves a god of gold), ma se tu podessis perdonâur instès il lôr pecjât… (but if thou couldest pardon them all the same their sin…). Senò parimi jù, par plasê (otherwise pray *drive me down*), dal libri che tu âs scrit (from the book which thou hast written). — *as in dismiss me

Verse 33: Il Signôr i rispuindè a Mosè (the Lord responded to Moses): chel che si è metût cuintri di me (that one who has put himself against me) lu pararai jù dal gno libri (shall I *drive down* from my book). — *as in dismiss

Verse 34: Cumò va (now go), mene il popul là che ti ài dit (lead the people whither I have said to thee). Ve che il gno agnul al larà denant di te (so it is that my angel will go before thee); ma in chê dì che o larai a cjastiâju (but in that day when I go [shall go] to punish them), ur fasarai paiâ il lôr pecjât (I shall make them pay for their sin).

Verse 35: E il Signôr al cjastià il popul (and the Lord punished the people) par vie che a vevin fat il vidiel (given that they had made the calf), chel che al veve fat Aron (that which Aaron had made).