Friulian language series: Esodo 32, vidiel d’aur

The thirty-second chapter of the book of Exodus tells of the golden calf: il vidiel d’aur. Also from the subject heading: si torne a fâ il pat (the pact is renewed).

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Read Esodo 32

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Versets 1-6

Vocabulary: il popul (people), viodi (to see), inclapâsi (to be long, to be delayed), vignî jù (to come down), la mont (mountain), dâsi dongje di (to give oneself alongside), il diu (god), lâ denant (to go before), saltâ fûr (to come forth), la tiere (land), no savê un dret (to know nothing at all), sucedi (to befall), rispuindi (to respond), gjavâ (to withdraw), un anel (ring), d’aur (of gold), la orele (ear), la femine (wife), il fi (son), la fie (daughter), la int (people), puartâ (to bear), cjapâ (to take), fâ fondi (to meld, to cast), il stamp (form), la statue (statue), il vidiel (calf), tirâ fûr (to draw forth), un altâr (altar), un ordin (order), doman (tomorrow), la fieste (feast), tal indoman (next day), jevâ (to arise), denant dì (before day), ufrî (to offer), un olocaust (holocaust), il sacrifici (sacrifice), la comunion (communion), comodâsi (to put oneself at ease), mangjâ (to eat), bevi (to drink), jevâ sù (to rise, to get up), divertîsi (to amuse oneself, to revel).

Verse 1: Cuant che il popul al viodè (when the people saw) che Mosè si jere inclapât (that Moses had been delayed) e che nol vignive mai jù de mont (and that he was not ever coming down from the mountain), si dè dongje di Aron e i disè (they drew [gave themselves] alongside Aaron and said to him): dài mo (go to then), fâsinus un diu (make us a god) che al ledi denant di nô (that may go before us) parcè che chest Mosè (for this Moses), l’om che nus à fats saltâ fûr de tiere dal Egjit (the man who made us come forth from Egypt), no si sa un dret ce che i è sucedût (nothing is known whatsoever about that which has befallen him).

Verse 2: Aaron responds to them: gjavait i anei d’aur (withdraw the gold rings) des orelis des vuestris feminis (from the ears of your wives), dai vuestris fîs (of your sons) e des vuestris fiis (and of your daughters), e puartaitmai (and bear them to me). Gjavait and puartait are both second-person plural imperatives, from gjavâ and puartâ. Puartaitmai is a contraction of puartait + mi + ju (bear + unto me + them).

Verse 3: Dute la int si gjavà i anei d’aur (all the people withdrew their rings [from unto themselves did all the people withdraw the rings]) che a vevin tes* orelis (which they had on [in] their ears) e jai puartarin a Aron (and bore them to Aaron). Jai is a contraction of i + ju (unto him + them). — *Regarding the use of the preposition in here (tes orelis: literally, in the ears), see the notes at Gjenesi 24:22-23.

Verse 4: Lui al cjapà l’aur che i vevin puartât (he took the gold which they had borne to him), lu fasè fondi intun stamp (cast it in a form) e al fasè une statue di vidiel (and made a statue of a calf). Alore a diserin (then they said): ve chi, Israel, il to Diu (this, O Israel, is your God), chel che ti à tirât fûr de tiere dal Egjit (he who drew you forth from the land of Egypt).

Verse 5: Viodint chel tant (in seeing such thing), Aron al fasè un altâr (Aaron made an altar) denant de statue (before the statue) e al dè chest ordin (and gave this order): doman, fieste pal Signôr (tomorrow — feast for the Lord).

Verse 6: Tal indoman (next day) a jevarin *denant dì* (they arose before day), a ufririn olocauscj (offered up holocausts) e a prepararin sacrificis di comunion (and prepared sacrifices of communion). Il popul si comodà a mangjâ (the people put themselves at ease to eat) e a bevi (and to drink) e po a jevarin sù par divertîsi (and then they arose to amuse themselves; and then they got up to revel). — *In the very early morning.

Versets 7-10

Vocabulary: (to say), spesseâ (to hurry along), lâ jù (to go down), il popul (people), saltâ fûr (to come forth), lâ vie di cjâf (to go off one’s head), coventâ (to be necessary, to be required), masse (too much), lâ fûr (to go forth), la strade (way, road), il vidiel (calf), il metal (metal), fondût (molten), butâsi in genoglon (to cast oneself on one’s knees), ufrî (to offer), il sacrifici (sacrifice), tirâ fûr (to draw forth), la tiere (land), zontâ (to add), tignî di voli (to keep one’s eye on), cjaviestri (stubborn), la misure (measure), lassâ (to leave), montâ sù (to ascend), la fumate (smoke haze), fruçâ (to smite), la remission (remission), il popul (people), grant (great).

Verse 7: To Moses the Lord says: spessee (hurry along); va jù (go down), parcè che il to popul (for your people), che tu âs fat saltâ fûr dal Egjit (whom you made come forth from Egypt), al va vie di cjâf (are going off their head). Spessee: this is second person-singular imperative of spesseâ.

Verse 8: No ur à coventât masse (they were quick [unto them not too much was required]) par lâ fûr de strade (to go off the way) che jo ur vevi dit di lâ (whereon I had told them to go). Si àn fat un vidiel (they have made a calf for themselves) cul metal fondût (with molten metal) e si son butâts in genoglon denant di lui (and have cast themselves on their knees before it). I àn ufrît sacrificis (they have offered sacrifices to it) e i àn dit (and have said to it): ve chi, Israel, il to Diu (this, O Israel, is your God), che ti à tirât fûr de tiere dal Egjit (who drew you forth from the land of Egypt).

Verse 9: Il Signôr al zontà (the Lord added): lu ài tignût di voli chest popul (I have kept my eye on this people): al è un popul cjaviestri fûr di misure (this is a stubborn people beyond all measure).

Verse 10: Cumò lassimai a mi (leave them now to me): mi è montade sù une fumate (unto me has wrath [a smoke haze] ascended) che ju fruci cence remission (that I {will} smite them without remission): ma o fasarai di te un popul grant (but I will make of you a great nation). Lassimai (leave them to me) is a contraction of lasse (second-person singular imperative) + mi (unto me) + ju (them); mi and ju come together to form mai, and lasse becomes lassi when mai is attached.

Versets 11-13

Vocabulary: impussibil (impossible), bonâ (to propitiate), vê di (must, to have to), cjapâse (to take it unto oneself), il popul (people), saltâ fûr (to come forth), la fuarce (might), la man (hand), trement (awesome), (to say), la tristerie (wickedness), crepâ (to die), framieç di (amongst), la mont (mountain), scancelâ (to blot out), la face de tiere (face of the earth), smamîsi (to die down), la fote (wrath), boli (to boil; also bulî), dentri vie (within), lassâ pierdi (to renounce), il mâl (ill), il cjâf (head), il popul (people), visâsi di (to remember), il famei (servant), zurâ (to swear), multiplicâ (to multiply), la gjernazie (line), la stele (star), il cîl (heaven), fevelâ (to speak), vê in ereditât (to inherit), par in eterni (for all time).

Verse 11: Mosè al fasè l’impussibil (Moses strove [did the impossible]) par bonâ il Signôr so Diu (to propitiate the Lord his God), e i disè (and said to him): parcè mo, Signôr (why then, O Lord), varessistu di cjapâte cussì cun chest popul (ought you take it unto yourself so with this people) che propit tu tu âs fat saltâ fûr dal Egjit (whom squarely you yourself made come forth from Egypt) cu la tô grande fuarce (with your great might) e cu la tô man tremende? (and with your awesome hand?).

Verse 12: Parcè varessino di dî i egjizians (why should the Egyptians say): ju à fats saltâ fûr par tristerie (he made them come forth by wickedness), par fâju crepâ framieç des monts (to make them die in the mountains) e scancelâju de face de tiere? (and blot them out from the face of the earth?). Lasse che si smamissi la fote che ti bôl dentri vie (let the wrath that boils away within die down) e lasse pierdi il mâl (and renounce the ill) che tu vevis tal cjâf (which you had in mind [in the head]) di fâi al to popul (to do to your people).

Verse 13: Visiti dai tiei fameis Abram, Isac e Jacop (remember your servants Abraham, Isaac and Jacob), che tu ur âs zurât sun te (to whom you swore by [on] your own self) e che tu ur âs dit (and to whom you said): o multiplicarai la vuestre gjernazie (I will multiply your line) tant che lis stelis dal cîl (so much as the stars of the heaven), e dute cheste tiere che us ài fevelât (and all this land of which I spoke to you) us e darai a la vuestre gjernazie (I will give it to your line) e le varan in ereditât par in eterni (and they shall inherit it for all time). Us e darai: I will give it you; us e is a contraction of us (unto you; second-person plural) + le (it), where le stands in for the feminine tiere.

Versets 14-18

Vocabulary: lassâ pierdi (to renounce), il mâl (ill), minaçâ (to threaten, to menace; also menaçâ), il popul (people), voltâsi (to turn oneself), tornâ jù (to go back down), la mont (mountain), la lastre (tablet), il pat (pact), la man (hand), scrivi (to write), la bande (side), la scriture (writing), picâ (to cut), sintî (to hear), il cancan (racket, noise), petâ (to strike forth), il berli (outcry), il campament (encampment), la vuere (war), il sunsûr (noise), la cjante di vitorie (victory tune), la int (people), fuî (to make off), dâ sù (to exclaim), rispuindi (to respond).

Verse 14: E il Signôr al lassà pierdi dut il mâl (and the Lord renounced the ill) che al veve minaçât al so popul (whereby he had threatened his people).

Verse 15: Mosè alore si voltà (Moses then turned himself) e al tornà jù de mont (and came back down from the mountain) cu lis dôs lastris dal pat in man (with the two tablets of the pact in hand), lastris scritis di dôs bandis (tablets written on both sides), scritis di une bande e di chê altre (written on one side and on the other).

Verse 16: Lis lastris lis veve fatis Diu (God had made the tablets) e la scriture e jere chê di Diu (and the writing was that of God), picade su lis lastris (cut upon the tablets).

Verse 17: Gjosuè al sintì il cancan dal popul (Joshua heard the noise of the people) che al petave berlis (who were striking forth outcries) e i disè a Mosè (and said to Moses): tal campament si sintin berlis di vuere (outcries of war are heard in the encampment).

Verse 18: Ma Mosè i rispuindè (but Moses responded to him): nol è sunsûr di cjantis di vitorie (it is not the noise of victory tunes) e nancje berlis di int ch’e fuìs (or even outcries of people who make off); il berli di un pôcs che a dan sù (the outcry of some who exclaim) e di altris che a rispuindin (and of others who respond) jo o sint (do I hear). It is question here of answering responsively in song. E fuìs is the feminine, third-person singular of the presint indicatîf of the verb fuî.

Versets 19-24

Vocabulary: rivâ dongje (to arrive alongside), il campament (encampment), il vidiel (calf), il coro (chorus; also côr), il balarin (dancer), no viodi plui nuie (to become enraged), brincâ (to apprehend), la lastre (tablet), parâ (to drive), il toc (piece), dapît di (at the bottom/foot of), la mont (mountain), cjapâ (to take), brusâ (to burn), il fûc (fire), fintremai che (until), ridusi (to reduce), ridusisi (to get reduced), il pulvin (dust), fin (fine), scjernâ (to scatter, to strew; also sgjarnâ), parsore vie di (over above), la aghe (water), bevi (to drink), il popul (people), la schene (back; of human body), dâ su pe schene (to burden, to charge), il pecjadat (great sin), orent (abhorrent), il paron (lord), cjapâse (to take it unto oneself), la intate (wicked people), lâ denant di (to go before), saltâ fûr (to come forth), la tiere (land), savê (to know), sucedi (to befall), l’aur (gold), cedi (to cede, to turn/hand over), butâ (to cast), vignî fûr (to come forth).

Verse 19: E cuant che al rivà dongje dal campament (and when he arrived alongside the encampment), al viodè il vidiel (he saw the calf) e i coros dai balarins (and the choruses of dancers). Alore nol viodè plui nuie (he then became enraged [he then saw no more]): al brincà lis lastris (he apprehended the tablets) e lis parà a tocs dapît de mont (and drove them to pieces at the foot of the mountain). Nol viodè plui nuie (he became enraged) translates literally as he saw no more; he saw no longer; the sense here is one of becoming enfuriated to the point of losing one’s sight.

Verse 20: Al cjapà il vidiel che a vevin fat (he took the calf that they had made) e lu brusà tal fûc (and burnt it in the fire) fintremai che no si ridusè in pulvin fin fin (until it was reduced to a very fine dust) che al scjernè parsore vie da l’aghe (which he scattered over above the water) e ur fasè bevi ai fîs di Israel (and made the sons of Israel drink [and made drink unto the sons of Israel]). Pulvin fin fin: literally, dust fine fine, where the doubled fin fin may be rendered in English as very fine.

Verse 21: Moses says to Aaron: ce ti àial fat chest popul (what did this people do to you) di dâi su pe schene (that you should make them bear [to put (give) upon the back unto them]) un pecjadat cussì orent? (such an abhorrently great sin [a great sin so abhorrent]?). The feminine schene is the Friulian for back (of the human body). Dâ su pe schene can be taken more literally as to put upon one’s back; the sense here is that of placing a burden on one’s back as to be borne. The Friulian for sin is the masculine pecjât; as for pecjadat found in this verse, it means great sin. See verse 22 ahead for more notes on this.

Verse 22: Aaron responds: che il gno paron no se cjapi cun me (let not my lord take it unto himself with me): tu sâs ancje tu ce intate ch’e je cheste (you yourself know what a wicked people this is). La int is the Friulian for people; intate can be taken as wicked people, base people. Consider intate alongside pecjadat from verse 21 above. Intate and pecjadat express possession of a worse nature than the one conveyed by the base form from which they derive (int and pecjât); this worse nature is conveyed through the masculine ending at and the feminine ending ate: pecjât > pecjadat; int > intate.

Verse 23: Mi àn dit (they said to me): fâsinus un diu (make us a god) che al ledi denant di nô (that may go before us) parcè che Mosè (for Moses), l’om che nus à fats saltâ fûr de tiere dal Egjit (the man who made us come forth from Egypt), no savìn ce che i pò jessi sucedût (we do not know that which may have befallen him).

Verse 24: Alore jo ur ài dit (so I said to them): chel che al à aur che lu cedi (let he who has gold hand it over [cede it]). E lôr mal àn dât: and they gave it to me. Jo lu ài butât tal fûc (I cast it into the fire) e al è vignût fûr chest vidiel culì (and this very calf [this calf here] came forth). Mal is a contraction of mi + lu (unto me + it), where lu stands in the for the masculine vidiel: lôr (they) mal (unto me + it) àn dât (gave [have given]).

Versets 25-29

Vocabulary: viodi (to see), il popul (people), discjadenâsi (to unchain oneself), bandonâ (to forsake), la vergogne (shame), il nemì (enemy), metisi (to put oneself), la puarte (gate, door), il campament (encampment), il fi (son), dâsi dongje (to give oneself alongside), tor di (round), (to say, to tell), ognidun (each), la spade (sword), il flanc (flank), (to go), jentrâ (to enter), copâ (to kill), ce… ce… ce… (whether… or… or…), il fradi (brother), un amì (friend), il prossim (neighbour, fellow man), la int (people), maçâ (to kill, to slay), la dì (day), un tremil (some three thousand), un om (man), vuê (today), la inviestidure (investiture), cui… cui… (some… others…), a cost di (at the cost/expense of), in mût che ({in order} that), benedî (to bless).

Verses 25-26: Mosè al viodè che il popul si jere discjadenât (Moses saw that the people had unchained* themselves), parcè che Aron ju veve bandonâts a la vergogne dai lôr nemîs (for Aaron had forsaken them to the shame of their enemies), e alore si metè su la puarte dal campament (and so he put himself in the gate of the encampment) e al disè (and said): chel che al è pal Signôr, cun me (he who is for the Lord — with me). Ducj i fîs di Levi si derin dongje tor di lui: all the sons of Levi drew [gave themselves alongside] round him. — *The Friulian for chain is the feminine noun cjadene; it is from this noun that the verb discjadenâ is formed. Translated literally, discjadenâ means to unchain; in this verse, the reflexive discjadenâsi (to unchain oneself) is employed figuratively to indicate one’s breaking forth into unruliness, as in to let oneself loose. I have provided a literal rendering in the English, to maintain the full force of the Friulian. A different instance of discjadenâsi is found in Esodo 19:22.

Verse 27: Ur disè (he said to them): il Signôr, Diu di Israel, al dîs cussì (thus says the Lord, {the} God of Israel): ognidun che al meti la sô spade sul so flanc (let each put his sword on his flank); lait (go), jentrait tal campament (enter into the encampment) di puarte in puarte (from gate to gate) e copait (and kill) ce il vuestri fradi, ce il vuestri amì, ce il vuestri prossim (your brother, your friend and your neighbour alike).

Verse 28: I fîs di Levi a faserin ce che ur veve dit Mosè (the sons of Levi did as Moses had told them) e, de int, a forin maçâts ta chê dì un tremil oms (and, of the people, some three thousand men were killed on that day). Consider: tremil oms (three thousand men); un tremil oms (some three thousand men; about three thousand men).

Verse 29: Moses says: vualtris vuê si vês dade l’inviestidure pal Signôr (you have today given yourselves the investiture for the Lord), cui a cost di so fi (some at the cost of his son), cui a cost di so fradi (others at the cost of his brother), in mût che lui vuê us benedìs (that he may today bless you).

Versets 30-35

Vocabulary: tal indoman (next day), dissal (he said), il popul (people), fâ un pecjât (to commit a sin), grant (great), tornâ di (to return unto), salacor (perhaps), podê (may, can, to be able), il perdon (pardon, forgiveness), vê il perdon (to obtain a pardon), sicheduncje (therefore), joi (alas), il diu (god), d’aur (golden), perdonâ (to forgive), instes (neverthetheless, all the same), senò (otherwise), parâ jù (to erase, to eliminate), par plasê (please), il libri (book), scrivi (to write), rispuindi (to respond), cuintri di (against), menâ (to lead), un agnul (angel), cjastiâ (to punish), paiâ (to pay), par vie che (given that), il vidiel (calf).

Verse 30: Tal indoman (next day) dissal Mosè al popul (Moses said to the people): vualtris o vês fat un pecjât di chei grancj (you have committed a great sin [you have done a sin from {amongst} those {that are} great]). Jo cumò o torni dal Signôr: I will now return (I now return) to the Lord. Salacor o podarai fâus vê il perdon: perhaps I can have you pardoned (perhaps I shall be able to make you obtain [have] the pardon). In vê il perdon, the sense of is to obtain, to get; another example: o ai vût il perdon (I was forgiven [I obtained the pardon]).

Verses 31-32: Sicheduncje Mosè al tornà dal Signôr e i disè (Moses therefore returned to the Lord and said to him): joi (alas), che chest popul al à fat un pecjât di chei grancj (this people has committed a great sin [done a sin from {amongst} those {that are} great]). Si àn fat un diu d’aur (they have made for themselves a god of gold), ma se tu podessis perdonâur instes il lôr pecjât… (but if you could nevertheless forgive them for their sin [pardon unto them their sin]…). Senò parimi jù (otherwise erase me [drive me down]), par plasê (please), dal libri che tu âs scrit (from the book that you have written). Parâ jù: literally, to drive down, to send down, the sense here of which is to erase, to eliminate. Parimi is a contraction of the the second-person singular pare + mi, where pare becomes pari before the addition of mi.

Verse 33: Il Signôr i rispuindè a Mosè (the Lord responded to Moses): chel che si è metût cuintri di me (he who has put himself against me) lu pararai jù dal gno libri (will I erase from my book).

Verse 34: Cumò va (now go), mene il popul là che ti ài dit (lead the people where I have told you). Ve che il gno agnul al larà denant di te (so it is that my angel will go before you); ma in chê dì che o larai a cjastiâju (but on the day when I go [will go] to punish them), ur fasarai paiâ il lôr pecjât (I will make them pay for their sin).

Verse 35: E il Signôr al cjastià il popul (and the Lord punished the people) par vie che a vevin fat il vidiel (given that they had made the calf), chel che al veve fat Aron (the one that Aaron had made).