Polish language series: Wj 6, drugi opis powołania Mojżesza

The sixth chapter of the book of Exodus relates the following: drugi opis powołania Mojżesza (second description of the appointment of Moses). Review: The masculine noun opis means description, account; as for the neuter powołanie, this is the Polish for appointment, calling.

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Read Wj 6

To read the Polish text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Biblia Tysiąclecia and consult Wj 6. An archived version of the text can be found here.

Wersety 1-4

  • objawić (pf.), to reveal
  • ustanowić (pf.), to establish, to institute

Review: ujrzeć (pf., to see), uczynić (pf., to do, to make), zmusić (pf., to force, to compel), mocny (strong, mighty), ręka (f., hand), wypuścić (pf., to release, to let go), wypędzić (pf., to drive out, to expel), kraj (m., land, country), rozmawiać (impf., to speak, to talk), powiedzieć (pf., to say), objawić się (pf., to manifest oneself), wszechmocny (almighty), ponadto (furthermore), przymierze (n., covenant), dać (pf., to give), wędrówka (f., journeying, migration), przebywać (impf., to sojourn, to stay), przybysz (m., outsider, sojourner).

Verse 1: teraz ujrzysz, co uczynię faraonowi (now you will see what I shall do to the Pharaoh). In the second sentence of this verse, you find zmuszony (forced, compelled), formed from the perfective zmusić. The Lord says: [zmuszony] mocną ręką (compelled by a mighty hand) wypuści ich (he shall let them go) i mocną ręką (and by a mighty hand) wypędzi ich (he shall drive them out) ze swego kraju (from his land). Zmuszony refers back to the Pharaoh; it is the Pharaoh who is to be compelled by a mighty hand. Observe the following formations:

uczyn –> uczyni (he will do)
zmus –> zmusi (he will compel)
wypuśc –> wypuści (he will release)
wypędz –> wypędzi (he will expel)

Verse 2: Consider the difference between the imperfective rozmawiać and perfective powiedzieć as used in the following, taken from the beginning of this verse: Bóg rozmawiał z Mojżeszem (God was speaking with Moses) i powiedział mu (and said to him). Because rozmawiać is imperfective, rozmawiał conveys was speaking (rather than spoke); on the other hand, because powiedzieć is perfective, powiedział conveys said (rather than was saying). English and Polish, however, differ in their application of imperfective and perfective verbs; as such, it is not impossible (and, here in particular, even preferable) to render Bóg rozmawiał z Mojżeszem i powiedział mu as the more natural-sounding God spoke with Moses and said to him. Also from verse 2: Jam jest Jahwe (I am Yahweh); jam jest = ja jestem.

Verse 3: Ja objawiłem się (I have manifested myself); jako Bóg Wszechmocny (as God Almighty). In this verse you find both objawić (to reveal) and the reflexive objawić się (to reveal [manifest] oneself). You read that God manifested himself unto Abraham, Isaac and Jacob as Bóg Wszechmocny, but did not reveal to them his name Jahwe. Bóg Wszechmocny is traditionally expressed in English as God Almighty; note, however, that the Polish adjective wszechmocny can also be taken as all-powerful, omnipotent.

Verse 4: ustanowić przymierze (to establish a covenant); kraj ich wędrówek (the land of their journeyings [migrations]); gdzie przebywali jako przybysze (where they sojourned [were sojourning] as outsiders; where they stayed [were staying] as sojourners). Of oni, you find the instrumental nimi (z nimi, with them) and the dative im (unto them) in this verse.

Declension of oni

nom. oni
gen. ich
nich
dat. im
acc. ich
nich
instr. nimi
loc. nich
voc.

Wersety 5-8

  • obciążyć (pf.), to burden, to load
  • wspomnieć (pf.), to remember
  • wybawić (pf.), to redeem, to deliver
  • wyswobodzić (pf.), to redeem, to deliver
  • surowy, severe, stern
  • zaiste, verily, indeed

Review: także (also, likewise), usłyszeć (pf., to hear), jęk (m., moaning, groaning), Izraelita (m., Israelite), Egipcjanin (m., Egyptian), robota (f., work, labour, toil), przymierze (n., covenant), przeto (therefore), powiedzieć (pf., to say), syn (m., son), izraelski (Israelite), uwolnić (pf., to free, to release), jarzmo (n., yoke), egipski (Egyptian), niewola (f., slavery, servitude), wyciągnąć (pf., to extend), ramię (n., arm), kara (f., punishment), wziąć (pf., to take), lud (m., people), przekonać się (pf., to ascertain), spod (from under), wprowadzić (pf., to conduct, to bring, to lead), ziemia (f., land, earth), ręka (f., hand), podnieść (pf., to raise), przysięgnąć (pf., to swear), dać (pf., to give), własność (f., possession, property).

Verse 5: You find in this verse the nouns Izraelita (m., Israelite) and Egipcjanin (m., Egyptian); their nominative plural forms are Izraelici (pl., Israelites) and Egipcjanie (pl., Egyptians). You will find the entire declension of Egipcjanin through the declensions page; as for the declension of Izraelita, it is presented below. Contrast these nouns with the adjectives izraelski (Israelite) and egipski (Egyptian) found in verse 6 ahead. From this verse, understand also: obciążyć robotami (to burden with labour[s]).

Declension of Izraelita (m.)

sing. pl.
nom. Izraelita Izraelici
gen. Izraelity Izraelitów
dat. Izraelicie Izraelitom
acc. Izraelitę Izraelitów
instr. Izraelitą Izraelitami
loc. Izraelicie Izraelitach
voc. Izraelito Izraelici

Verse 6: Powiedz is the second-person singular imperative of the perfective powiedzieć. A number of different verbs appear in this verb, all conveying the sense of to free, to deliver, to redeem, to liberate: uwolnię was (I shall free you); wybawię was (I shall deliver [redeem, free] you); wyswobodzę was (I shall redeem [deliver, free] you). Understand also: od jarzma egipskiego (from the Egyptian yoke); wyciągniętym ramieniem i przez surowe kary (with an outstretched arm and through severe punishments). From the perfective wyciągnąć comes wyciągnięty, meaning extended, outstretched; wyciągnięty is found in this verse in instrumental position as wyciągniętym.

Verse 7: In this verse, pay attention to the use of the accusative was and dative wam. You read: i wezmę sobie was (and I shall take you unto myself) za mój lud (as my people), i będę wam Bogiem (and I shall be as God unto you), i przekonacie się (and you shall ascertain [know, understand]), że Ja, Pan, Bóg wasz (that I, the Lord, your God), uwolniłem was spod jarzma egipskiego (freed you from under the Egyptian yoke; that is, freed you from the oppression of the Egyptians).

Verse 8: z ręką podniesioną (with risen hand). From the perfective podnieść comes podniesiony (risen), found here in feminine instrumental position as podniesioną; the sense of “with risen hand” is that it was promised, sworn to. Also: dam ją wam na własność (I shall give it to you for a possession); zaiste, Ja jestem Pan (verily, I am the Lord).

Wersety 9-13

  • wymawiać (impf.) się, to excuse oneself
  • mówienie (n.), speech
  • trudność (f.), difficulty

Review: oznajmić (pf., to announce, to state), słowo (n., word), chcieć (impf., to want, to intend), słuchać (pf., to listen, to heed), powód (m., cause, reason), udręka (f., torment, anguish, distress), duch (m., spirit), ciężki (heavy, severe), robota (f., work, labour, toil), król (m., king), egipski (Egyptian), wypuścić (pf., to release, to let go), sprawiać (impf., to cause, to bring about), rozkaz (m., command, order), pozwolić (pf., to permit, to let), wyjść (pf., to go out).

Verse 9: Mojżesz oznajmił te słowa Izraelitom (Moses announced [stated, conveyed] these words to the Israelites). As for nie chcieli, this can be understood a number of ways, including they were refusing, they were not wanting, they would not, as in: nie chcieli ich słuchać (they would not listen to them; they refused [were refusing] to heed them; they did not want [were not wanting] to listen to them) z powodu udręki ducha (on account of the torment of their spirit) i z powodu ciężkich robót (and on account of the heavy labour[s]).

Verse 11: Take note of how Polish constructs the following sentence: idź i powiedz faraonowi, królowi egipskiemu (go and tell the Pharaoh, the Egyptian king), aby wypuścił Izraelitów ze swego kraju (to release the Israelites from his land). Where English has tell (him) to release, Polish has powiedz (mu), aby wypuścił.

Verse 12: Moses appeals to the Lord; he says: jeśli Izraelici nie chcą mię słuchać (if the Israelites will not listen to me; if the Israelites refuse to heed me), jakże faraon będzie słuchał mnie (how ever will the Pharaoh listen [heed] me), któremu mówienie sprawia trudność? (he unto whom [that is, unto Moses] speech causes difficulty?).

Verse 13: aby pozwolił wyjść Izraelitom (such that he would allow [unto] the Israelites to go forth) z ziemi egipskiej (from the Egyptian land).

Wersety 14-30

  • ród (m.), tribe, house
  • ciotka (f.), aunt
  • lewicki, Levite
  • tłumaczyć (impf.) się, to explain (excuse) oneself

Review: oto (behold, here is), naczelnik (m., leader, chief), syn (m., son), pierworodny (firstborn), rodzina (f., family), imię (n., name), rok (m., year), życie (n., life), rodowód (m., lineage), wziąć za żonę (f., to take as wife), urodzić (pf., to bear), córka (f., daughter), siostra (f., sister), głowa (f., head), właśnie (the very), wyprowadzić (pf., to bring forth), Egipt (m., Egypt), zastęp (m., array, rank), przemawiać (impf., to speak), ziemia (f., land, earth), mówienie (n., speech), sprawiać (impf., to cause, to bring about), trudność (f., difficulty), zechcieć (pf., to be so kind as to), słuchać (pf., to listen, to heed).

Verse 14: oto naczelnicy rodów (these are the chiefs of the tribes; here are the leaders of the houses [lines, clans]): synowie Rubena, pierworodnego Izraela (the sons of Reuben, Israel’s firstborn). Also: to są rodziny Rubena (those are the families of Reuben). The declension of rodzina is outlined below.

Verse 16: imiona (names); z ich rodzinami (with their families); lat życia (years of life); sto trzydzieści siedem (one hundred and thirty-seven). Review how to count in Polish.

Verses 17-25: według ich rodzin (according to their families); sto trzydzieści trzy (one hundred and thirty-three); według ich rodowodów (according to their lineages); sto trzydzieści siedem (one hundred and thirty-seven); oto rody Korachitów (those are the tribes of the Korahites); jedną z córek Putiela (one of Putiel’s daughters); to są głowy rodów lewickich (those are the heads of the Levite tribes).

Verse 26: oto są ci, Aaron i Mojżesz, do których właśnie rzekł Pan (it is the very same Aaron and Moses unto whom the Lord said); wyprowadźcie (bring forth; second-person plural imperative); według ich zastępów (according to their arrays [ranks]).

Verses 27-30: to oni przemawiali (it was they who were speaking); wszystko, co ci powiedziałem (everything that I have said to you); tłumaczyć się przed Panem (to explain [excuse] oneself before the Lord).

Declension of rodzina (f.)

sing. pl.
nom. rodzina rodziny
gen. rodziny rodzin
dat. rodzinie rodzinom
acc. rodzinę rodziny
instr. rodziną rodzinami
loc. rodzinie rodzinach
voc. rodzino rodziny