Friulian language series: Esodo 31, lavorents dal santuari

You will now study the Friulian text of Esodo 31, or the thirty-first chapter of the book of Exodus, where the subjects are: i lavorents dal santuari (sanctuary workmen) and la polse de sabide (sabbath of rest; literally, rest of the sabbath). An individual who took part in the construction of the sanctuary is referred to in the Friulian subject line as un lavorent (workman, labourer); this is related to the verb lavorâ, meaning to work. As for la polse (rest, respite), this is related to the verb polsâ which you will recall having encountered at the very beginning of your study, when, in Gjenesi 2:2, you read: Diu […] al polsà di dute la vore che al veve fate (God rested from all the work that he had done).

If you are arriving on this site for the first time, begin your study of the Friulian language here.

Read Esodo 31

To read the Friulian text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Bibie par un popul and consult Esodo 31. An archived version of the text can be found here.

Versets 1-6

Vocabulary: fevelâ (to speak), cussì (thus), viodi (to see), mo (now), sielzi (to choose, to select), personalmentri (personally), il fi (son), la tribù (tribe), jemplâ (to fill), il spirt (spirit), par cont di (with regard to, in matters of), il mistîr (skill, trade), il cjâf (head), la pratiche (execution, activity), la sorte (sort, kind), la vore (work, task), improntâ (to prepare, to get ready), il progjet (project), meti in vore (to put into practice, to set underway), in aur (in gold), in arint (in silver), in bronç (in bronze), picâ une piere (to cut a stone), incjastrâ (to set, to slot in), lavorâ (to work), il len (wood), ce cu sedi (any, whatever, whatsoever), meti par dongje (to place alongside), zontâ (to add), il sintiment (wisdom), il cûr (heart), valê (to be worthy), rivâ adore di (to manage to, to succeed in), ordenâ (to order, to command).

Verse 2: viôt mo (see now; now then).

Verse 3: par cont di mistîr, di cjâf e di pratiche (in matters of skill, knowledge and workmanship; literally, in matters of skill, of head and of practice) in ogni sorte di voris (in all sorts of works [tasks, crafts]).

Verse 4: par improntâ un progjet (to prepare a project) e metilu in vore (and set it underway), sedi in aur, sedi in arint o in bronç (whether in gold, silver or bronze). Sedi (third-person singular of coniuntîf presint of the verb jessi) can be taken more literally here as be it (that is, be it in gold, silver or bronze). Aur, arint and bronç are all masculine nouns.

Verse 5: par picâ lis pieris di incjastrâlis (to cut stones for setting); par lavorâ il len (to carve [work] wood) e par fâ ce cu sedi lavôr (and to do any work whatsoever). More examples of ce cu sedi include: in ce cu sedi citât (in whatever city, in any city whatsoever), di ce cu sedi popul (of whatever people, of any people whatsoever). I should point out the difference between the Friulian verbs picâ and taiâ, both of which might be rendered in English as to cut. Taiâ often means to cut more in the sense of to slice (for example, mi soi taiât il dêt, I have cut [sliced] my finger), whereas picâ means to cut in the sense of to pick at, with chisel and hammer or similar. In reference to stones, picâ can, depending on the context, take on the sense of either to trim or to incise, both of which involve cutting with a tool.

Verse 6: i met par dongje (I put alongside him); the sense here is I have assigned to him. Also: ur ài zontât altri sintiment (unto them I have added more wisdom) tal cûr di ducj i oms che a valevin (in the hearts of all worthy men; literally, in the heart of all the men who were worthy); that is, I have added more wisdom in the hearts of all worthy men. In other words, the Lord endowed with more wisdom those who were worthy (already in possession of artistic aptitudes).

Versets 7-11

Vocabulary: la tende de cunvigne (congregation tent, meeting tent), la arcje dal pat (ark of the covenant), il propiziatori (propitiatory), parsore (upon), il furniment (furnishing), la taule (table), il cjandelîr (lampstand, menorah), pûr (pure), il compagnament (furnishing), un altâr (altar), il bonodôr (pleasing odour), un olocaust (burnt offering), la concje (laver, basin, font), il çocul (base), i paraments (vestments), la munture (vestments), benedît (blessed, holy), il predi (priest), i vistîts (vestments), il fi (son), funzionâ (to officiate, to serve), il vueli de unzion (anointing oil), l’incens (incense), profumât (fragrant, scented), il santuari (sanctuary), la vore (work, task), ordenâ (to order, to command).

Work through these verses with the aid of the vocabulary listed above. There is nothing particular to point out with regard to grammar; most of the vocabulary has already been encountered.

Versets 12-15

Vocabulary: (to say), rispietâ (to observe, to keep; to respect), come cu va (no matter what), la sabide (sabbath), il segnâl (sign), la gjenerazion (generation), savê (to know), sant (holy, sacred), la zornade (day), copâ (to kill), in chê dì (on that day), cualchi (any, some), la vore (work, task), taiâ fûr di (to cut off from), il popul (people), par sîs dîs (for six days), setim (seventh), la dì (day), la polse (rest, respite), complet (complete), consacrâ (to consecrate), lavorâ (to work).

Verse 13: dîsiur chest (tell them this); o rispietarês come cu va lis mês sabidis (you shall keep [respect] no matter what my sabbaths); chel che us fâs sants (he who makes you holy). Regarding par che si sepi che (so that it is known that), observe:

al sa
par che al sepi
he knows
so that he knows

si sa
par che si sepi
it is known
so that it is known

Verse 14: o rispietarês la sabide (you shall keep [respect] the sabbath); chel che al fasarà in chê dì cualchi vore (he who will do on that day any work).

Verse 15: par sîs dîs si fasaran dutis lis voris (for six days one shall do all the work[s]; for six days all the work[s] shall be done); une dì di polse complete (a day of complete rest); lavorâ di sabide (to work on the sabbath).

Versets 16-18

Vocabulary: rispietâ la sabide (to keep [respect] the sabbath), la gjenerazion (generation), il pat (covenant), par simpri (everlasting, forever), il segnâl (sign), durâ (to last, to endure), in sîs dîs (in [the space of] six days), il cîl (heaven), la tiere (earth), setim (seventh), la dì (day), polsâ (to rest), il flât (breath; tirâ il flât, to take a breath), finî (to finish, to end), fevelâ (to speak), la mont (mount), consegnâ (to deliver, to give), la lastre (tablet), la leç (law, ruling), la piere (stone), scrivi (to write), il dêt (finger).

Verse 16: di gjenerazion in gjenerazion (from generation to generation; from one generation to the next); un pat par simpri (an everlasting covenant).

Verse 17: in sîs dîs il Signôr al à fat i cîi e la tiere (in [the space of] six days God made the heavens and the earth); al à polsât e tirât il flât (he rested and took a breath).

Verse 18: finît di fevelâ (having finished speaking); la mont dal Sinai (mount Sinai); i consegnà lis dôs lastris de leç (he gave him the two tablets of the law); lastris di piere scritis cul dêt di Diu (tablets of stone written by [with] the finger of God). The verb scrivi means to write; its past participle is scrit. Supplementary examples of this verb include: scrivi cu la pene (to write with a pen); cheste pene no scrîf plui (this pen does not write anymore); o ai scrit il numar (I wrote [down] the number); aio scrit il numar? (have I written [down] the number?); cheste peraule si scrîf cu la maiuscule (this word is [to be] written with an uppercase letter); cemût si scrivie cheste peraule par polac? (how is this word spelled [written] in Polish?).