Friulian language series: Esodo 30, altâr dai bonodôrs

The thirtieth chapter of the book of Exodus relates the following subject matter: l’altâr dai bonodôrs (altar of the pleasing odours); la tasse pal santuari (sanctuary tax [tax for the sanctuary]); la concje di bronç (copper laver); il vueli de unzion (anointing oil); i bonodôrs di brusâ (pleasing odours to be burnt).

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Read Esodo 30

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Versets 1-10

Vocabulary: un altâr (altar), l’incens (incense), fumâ (to smoke), il len (wood), la agace (acacia; also agacie), cuadrât (square), lunc (long), il comedon (elbow, cubit), larc (wide), alt (tall), e mieç (and a half), il cuar (horn), fâ bloc cun (to be as one with), riviestî (to cover, to overlay; also rivistî), la plache (sheet, plate), l’aur rût (pure gold), il plan parsore (top surface), la parêt (wall), torator (round about), la curnîs (moulding, border), un anel (ring), sot di (beneath), di ca e di là (on either side), la bande (side), sistemâ (to set, to put in place), la stangje (pole), puartâ (to bear, to carry), meti (to put, to place), il vêl (veil), colâ jù (to hang down), la arcje (ark), il pat (pact, covenant), il propiziatori (propitiatory), la testemoneance (testimony), cjatâsi (to be found), profumât (fragrant, scented), ogni (every, each), il dì (day), la buinore (morning), brusâ (to burn), comedâ (to tend, to put right, to fix), la lampade (lamp), tornâ a fâ (to do again), sul lâ a mont dal soreli (at sunset), in chê volte (then, at that time), par simpri (for ever, for all time), la gjenerazion (generation), nissun altri (no other), un olocaust (burnt offering), la ufierte (offering), strucjâ (to pour), la libagjon (libation), un viaç ad an (once a year), smondeâ (to purify), il cuar (horn), un altâr (altar), il sanc (blood), il sacrifici (sacrifice), il pecjât (sin), la espiazion (expiation, atonement), la volte (time), la int (people), sant (holy, sacred), il fin (end).

Verse 1: Tu fasarâs un altâr par fâ fumâ l’incens (you shall make an altar to turn incense into smoke [to cause incense to smoke]); tu lu fasarâs di len di agace (you shall make it of acacia wood).

Verse 2: Al sarà cuadrât (it shall be square): lunc un comedon (a cubit long) e larc un comedon (and a cubit wide) e alt doi comedons e mieç (and two and a half cubits tall). I siei cuars a fasaran bloc cun lui: its horns shall be as one with it.

Verse 3: Tu riviestissarâs di plachis di aur rût (you shall overlay with sheets of pure gold) il plan parsore, lis parêts e i cuars (its top surface, its walls and its horns), e tu i fasarâs torator une curnîs d’aur (and shall make a moulding for it round about).

Verse 4: Tu i fasarâs doi anei di aur sot de curnîs (under the moulding shall you make two rings of gold for it), di ca e di là (on either side); tu ju fasarâs des dôs bandis (you shall make them on both sides), par sistemâ lis stangjis che a àn di puartâlu (so as to put in place the poles that are to bear it).

Verse 5: Lis stangjis tu lis fasarâs di len di agace (you shall make the poles of acacia wood) e tu lis riviestissarâs di plachis d’aur (and shall overlay them with sheets of gold).

Verse 6: Tu lu metarâs denant dal vêl (you shall put it in front of the veil) che al cole jù (which hangs down) denant de arcje dal pat (before the ark of the pact), denant dal propiziatori (in front of the propitiatory) che al è parsore de testemoneance (which is over the testimony), là che jo ti disarai di cjatâsi (where I will tell you to meet me [there where I will tell you to be found]).

Verse 7: Aron al fasarà fumâ l’incens profumât (Aaron shall turn the incense into smoke [shall cause the incense to smoke]) ogni dì a buinore (each day in the morning), al brusarà l’incens (he shall burn the incense) cuant che al comedarà lis lampadis (when he tends [will tend] the lamps). Supplementary examples of comedâ: comedâ une cjadree (to fix/repair a chair); o ai fat comedâ la biciclete (I had the bicycle repaired/fixed).

Verse 8: E cuant che Aron al tornarà a meti* lis lampadis (and when Aaron lights the lamps again), sul lâ a mont dal soreli# (upon the setting of the sun), lu brusarà ancje in chê volte (he shall burn it then as well [at that time as well]). Al è un incens par simpri (it is an everlasting incense) denant dal Signôr (before the Lord), pes vuestris gjenerazions (for your generations). *The sense of meti here is one of to put on, which is to say, to light. #The sun goes behind the mounts when it sets: sul lâ a mont dal soreli (upon the setting of the sun [upon the going to the mount of the sun]). Review the following: la mont (mount, mountain); il soreli (sun); lâ a mont (to set [to go to the mount]); il lâ a mont (the setting [the going to the mount]); il lâ a mont dal soreli (the setting of the sun [the going to the mount of the sun]); sul lâ a mont dal soreli (at the setting of the sun [upon the going to the mount of the sun]; that is, at sunset). Related to these is the verb tramontâ, which, like lâ a mont, means to set. The sense of tramontâ as it derives from Latin is to go beyond the mounts.

Verse 9: Parsore no brusarês nissun altri incens ni olocaust ni ufierte (atop shall you burn no other incense or burnt offering or {meal} offering), e no strucjarês parsore vie nissune libagjon (and shall not pour over top any libation).

Verse 10: Un viaç ad an (once a year), Aron al smondearà i cuars dal altâr (Aaron shall purify the horns of the altar); cul sanc dal sacrifici dai pecjâts (with the blood of the sacrifice of sins*), te# dì de espiazion (on the day of atonement), une volte ad an (once a year), al smondearà sè (he shall purify himself) e dute la vuestre int (and all your people). Al è un altâr sant cence fin pal Signôr: it is a most holy altar [an endlessly holy altar (an altar holy without end)] for the Lord. *Sacrifice of sins, traditionally rendered sin offering in English. # is used here as a feminine noun: te dì = in + la dì (in the day).

Versets 11-16

Vocabulary: fevelâ (to speak), il cens (census), il fi (son), savê (to know), trop (how many), ognidun (each one), paiâ (to pay), il riscat (ransom), la vite (life), capitâ (to occur, to happen), alc di mâl (something bad/harmful), contâ (to count), il dirit (right), mieç (half), il sicli (shekel; also siclo), l’aur (gold), il pês (weight), il santuari (sanctuary), vadì (which is to say), vincj (twenty), il ghera (gerah), il contribût (contribution, offering), dâsi in note (to register oneself), valadì (which is to say), un an (year), in sù (upwards), il siôr (rich man), dâ di plui (to give more), il puar (poor man), dâ di mancul (to give less), sfrancjâ (to redeem), cjoli (to take), i bêçs (money), il servizi (service), la tende (tent), la cunvigne (convocation), il memoriâl (memorial).

Verses 11-12: Il Signôr i fevelà a Mosè cussì (thus spoke the Lord to Moses): cuant che tu fasarâs il cens dai fîs di Israel (when you take [will do] the census of the sons of Israel) par savê trops che a son (to know how many they number [to know how many they are]), ognidun di lôr i paiarà al Signôr (each of them shall pay to the Lord) un riscat pe sô vite (a ransom for his life), par no che ur capiti alc di mâl (lest some harm befall them [in order that no harm befall them]) cuant che ju contarai (when I count them [when I will count them]). Consider: al capite (it happens; it befalls); ur capite (it happens to them; it befalls them); par che ur capiti (that it may happen to them; that it may befall them); par no che ur capiti (in order that it not happen to them; lest it befall them).

Verse 13: Ducj chei che a àn dirit di jessi contâts (all those who are entitled [have {the} right] to be counted) a daran mieç sicli d’aur (shall give a half-shekel of gold) dal pês dal sicli dal santuari (by the sanctuary shekel weight), vadì vincj ghera par sicli (which is to say, twenty gerahs per shekel). Chest mieç sicli (this half-shekel) al sarà un contribût pal Signôr (shall be a contribution for the Lord). There is variation in this Bible with regard to the rendering of shekel into Friulian. You have encountered two forms: siclo with its plural siclos (Gjen 23:15; Gjen 24:22; Gjen 37:28; Gjen 45:22) and sicli with its plural siclis (Es 21:32 and in the current verse). In the text of the current verse, the form sicli is used, but the speaker in the associated recording says siclo.

Verse 14: Ducj chei che a àn dirit di dâsi in note (all those who are entitled [have {the} right] to be registered), valadì dai vincj agns in sù (which is to say, from age twenty up [from the twenty years upwards]), a daran il contribût dal Signôr (shall give the Lord’s contribution).

Verse 15: Il siôr nol darà di plui (the rich man shall not give more) e il puar nol darà di mancul (and the poor man shall not give less) di mieç sicli (than a half-shekel) cuant che al paiarà il contribût pal Signôr (when he pays [will pay] the contribution for the Lord), par sfrancjâ la sô vite (so as to redeem his life).

Verse 16: Tu cjolarâs i bêçs dal riscat dai fîs di Israel (you shall take the ransom money from the sons of Israel) e tu ju darâs pal servizi de tende de cunvigne (and shall consign it [shall give them*] for the service of the tent of the convocation); al sarà pai fîs di Israel come un memoriâl denant dal Signôr (it shall be for the sons of Israel as a memorial before the Lord), par sfrancjâ la lôr vite (so as to redeem their lives [their life]). *Bêçs is a plural noun: tu ju darâs (literally, you shall give them), where ju stands in for bêçs dal riscat.

Versets 17-21

Vocabulary: fevelâ (to speak), la concje (laver, font, basin), il bronç (bronze), il çocul (base), lavâsi (to wash oneself), meti (to put, to place), fra (between), la tende (tent), la cunvigne (convocation), un altâr (altar), meti dentri (to put in), la aghe (water), la man (hand), il pît (foot), jentrâ (to enter, to go/come in), la voe (will, want; also voie), murî (to die), compagn (likewise), svicinâsi (to approach, to draw near), la funzion (function, officiation, service), brusâ (to burn), la ufierte (offering), consumâ (to consume), la leç (law), par simpri (for ever, for all time, everlasting), daûr di (after), la gjenerazion (generation).

Verses 17-19: Il Signôr i fevelà a Mosè cussì (thus spoke the Lord to Moses): tu fasarâs une concje di bronç (you shall make a laver of bronze) cul çocul di bronç (with a bronze base) par lavâsi (for washing oneself); tu le metarâs fra la tende de cunvigne e l’altâr (you shall put it between the tent of the convocation and the altar) e tu metarâs dentri l’aghe (and shall put water in it) là che Aron e i siei fîs si lavaran lis mans e i pîts (whereat Aaron and his sons shall wash their hands and feet). Lavâsi lis mans and lavâsi i pîts can be understood literally as to wash the hands unto oneself and to wash the feet unto oneself. For instance, si è lavât lis mans (he has washed his hands) translates literally as unto himself he has washed the hands. (Although formal-sounding in English, it is not formal in Friulian.) Consider now the difference between the following: si è taiât il dêt (he has cut his finger [unto himself he has cut the finger]) and i à taiât il dêt (he has cut his finger [unto him he has cut the finger]). In these examples, English may not always make a distinction in its wording (he has cut his finger is possible for both), but the difference becomes clear in the literal translations: the first is reflexive (unto himself), whereas the second is not (unto him). In the first example (si è taiât il dêt), the subject has cut his own finger, whereas in the second example (i à taiât il dêt), the subject has cut the finger of some other person.

Verses 20-21: Cuant che a jentraran te tende de cunvigne (when they enter [will enter] the tent of the convocation), si lavaran cu l’aghe (they shall wash themselves with the water), se no àn voe di murî (if they do not want to die); compagn cuant che si svicinaran al altâr pes funzions (likewise when they approach [will approach] the altar for the officiations), par fâ brusâ une ufierte consumade pal Signôr (to burn [cause to burn] an offering consumed {by fire} for the Lord), si lavaran lis mans e i pîts (they shall wash their hands and feet), se no àn voe di murî (if they do not want to die). E je une leç par simpri (it is a law for all time), par lui e par chei daûr di lui par dutis lis gjenerazions (for him and for those after him, for all generations).

Versets 22-33

Vocabulary: fevelâ (to speak), cirî fûr (to seek out), il balsim (balsam), bon (good), cinccent (five hundred), il sicli (shekel; also siclo), la mire (myrrh), rût (pure), la metât (half), vadì (which is to say), dusinte e cincuante (two hundred and fifty), la canele (cinnamon), profumât (fragrant, scented), la cjane (cane), la cassie (cassia), il pês (weight), il santuari (sanctuary), un hin (hin), il vueli di ulîf (olive oil), sacri (sacred), la unzion (anointing), la misure (measure), preparâ (to prepare), il bonodôr (pleasing odour), onzi (to anoint), parie (with it/them), la tende (tent), la cunvigne (convocation), la arcje (ark), il pat (pact, covenant), la taule (table), il furniment (furnishing), il cjandelîr (lampstand), un altâr (altar), un olocaust (burnt offering), la concje (laver, font, basin), il çocul (base), consacrâ (to consecrate), sant (holy, sacred), il fin (end), tocjâ (to touch), il fi (son), il predi (priest), fâ di predi (to act/serve as priest), (to say), podê (may, can, to be able), strucjâ (to pour), il cuarp (body), un om (man), cualunche (any, whichever), ’nt (thereof), compagn (identical), stes (same), la composizion (composition), la robe (thing, matter), tignî par sant (to hold sacred), il forest (foreigner, outsider), taiâ fûr di (to cut off from), il popul (people).

Verses 22-24: Il Signôr i fevelà a Mosè cussì (thus spoke the Lord to Moses): cîr fûr balsim di chel plui bon (seek out balsam of the best): cinccent siclis di mire rude (five hundred shekels of pure myrrh), metât, vadì dusinte e cincuante siclis, di canele profumade (half {as much}, which is to say, two hundred and fifty shekels, of fragrant cinnamon) e dusinte e cincuante siclis di cjane profumade (and two hundred and fifty shekels of fragrant cane), cinccent siclis di cassie (five hundred shekels of cassia), daûr dal pês che al à il sicli dal santuari (by the weight of [by the weight that has] the sanctuary shekel), e un hin di vueli di ulîf (and a hin of olive oil). The masculine ulîf refers to the plant (olive tree); the feminine ulive is its fruit (an olive). In this verse, you find il vueli di ulîf (where the masculine ulîf is employed); il vueli di ulive (with the feminine) is also used in Friulian. Both vueli di ulîf and vueli di ulive can be taken as olive oil, but the first emphasises the plant from which the oil ultimately comes, and the second its fruit. Review: How to count in Friulian.

Verse 25: Tu fasarâs un vueli pe sacre unzion (you shall make an oil for the sacred anointing), une misure come che al sa preparâle chel dai bonodôrs (a measure as he who makes pleasing odours is able to prepare [a measure as he of the pleasing odours knows {how} to prepare]): al sarà un vueli pe sacre unzion (it shall be an oil for the sacred anointing).

Verses 26-28: Tu onzarâs parie la tende de cunvigne e l’arcje dal pat (with it shall you anoint the tent of the convocation and the ark of the pact), la taule e dut il so furniment (the table and all its furnishing), i cjandelîrs e ducj i lôr furniments (the lampstands and all their furnishings), l’altâr dai bonodôrs (the altar of pleasing odours), l’altâr dai olocauscj cun ducj i siei furniments (the altar of burnt offerings with all its furnishings), la concje (the laver) e il çocul (and the base).

Verse 29: Tu ju consacrarâs (you shall consecrate them) e a saran sants cence fin (and they shall be most holy [endlessly holy (holy without end)]) e dut ce che ju tocjarà al sarà sant (and all that touches [will touch] them shall be holy).

Verse 30: Tu onzarâs Aron e i siei fîs (you shall anoint Aaron and his sons), e tu ju consacrarâs (and shall consecrate them) par che mi fasin di predis (that they may serve me as priests). Consider: mi fâs di predi; par che mi fasi di predi (he serves as priest to me; that he may serve as priest to me); mi fasin di predis; par che mi fasin di predis (they serve as priests to me; that they may serve as priests to me).

Verse 31: Po tu ur fevelarâs ai fîs di Israel e tu ur disarâs (you shall then speak to the sons of Israel and shall say to them): chest al sarà par vualtris (this shall be for you) e par chei daûr di vualtris (and for those after you) un vueli pe sacre unzion (an oil for the sacred anointing).

Verse 32: No si podarà strucjâlu (it shall not be poured [one shall not be able to pour it]) sul cuarp (on the body) di un om cualunche (of whichever man) e no ’nt fasarês di compagn (and you shall not make any like it [and you shall not make any identical one thereof]), cu la stesse composizion (with the same composition). E je une robe sante (it is a holy thing) e le tignarês par sante ancje vualtris (and you too shall hold it sacred).

Verse 33: Ducj chei che a fasaran il stes bonodôr e a onzaran un forest (all those who make [will make] the same pleasing odour and anoint [will anoint] an outsider), a saran taiâts fûr dal lôr popul (shall be cut off from their people). The adjective stes (same) is the masculine singular form; stesse is its feminine singular. Consider: il stes bonodôr (verse 33); la stesse composizion (verse 32). The masculine plural form is stes; the feminine plural is stessis.

Versets 34-38

Vocabulary: (to say), cjoli (to take), un pôc di (some, a little, a bit of), il nasebon (aroma), il stiracs (styrax), il sardoni (sardonyx), il galbin (galbanum), il profum (fragrance), l’incens (incense), rût (pure), stes (same), la misure (measure), ’nt, int (thereof), brusâ (to burn), il bonodôr (pleasing odour), fuart (strong), sant (holy, sacred), pestâ (to crush), une grampe di (a handful of), fin fin (very fine), meti denant di (to put before, to place in front of), il pat (pact, covenant), la tende (tent), la cunvigne (convocation), incuintrâ (to meet), la robe (thing, matter), il fin (end), il cont (account), di compagn (identical), bandî (to set apart), nasâ (to smell), taiâ fûr di (to cut off from), il popul (people).

Verse 34: Il Signôr i disè a Mosè (the Lord said to Moses): cjol un pôcs di nasebons (take some aromas): stiracs (styrax), sardoni* (onycha [sardonyx]), galbin (galbanum), profums (fragrances) e incens rût (frankincense [pure incense]), ducj te stesse misure (all in the same measure). Un pôcs di nasebons: pôc takes the form pôcs to agree in number and gender with the masculine plural noun nasebons; other examples that you have seen of this: un pôc di balsim (masculine singular; some balsam, from Gjenesi 43:11); un pocje di mîl (feminine singular; some honey, from Gjenesi 43:11); un pôcs di pastôrs (masculine plural; some shepherds, from Esodo 2:17); un pocjis di breis (feminine plural; some planks, from Esodo 26:15). *Sardoni is the name of a stone (sardonyx); possibly used here to refer to onycha based on shared colour.

Verse 35: Tu ’nt fasarâs un profum di brusâ (you shall make of them a fragrance to burn) come che al fâs chel dai bonodôrs (like that prepared by he who makes pleasing odours [as he of the pleasing odours makes]): fuart, rût e sant (strong, pure and sacred).

Verse 36: Tu ’nt pestarâs une grampe (you shall crush a handful of it) fin fin (very fine) e tu lu metarâs denant dal pat (and shall put it before the pact), te tende de cunvigne (in the tent of the convocation), là che jo ti incuintrarai (where I will meet you). E sarà par vualtris une robe sante cence fin: it shall be for you a most holy thing (an endlessly holy thing [a thing holy without end]).

Verse 37: Il bonodôr che tu fasis par chel cont (the pleasing odour that you make on this account), no tu ’nt fasarâs di compagn par vualtris (you shall not make any like it for yourselves [you shall not make any identical one thereof for yourselves]). Al sarà par te sant (it shall be held holy by you [it shall be holy for you]), bandît* pal Signôr (sanctified [set apart] for the Lord). *Bandît (set apart) from the verb bandî (to set apart) is to be taken here as sanctified, for it is set apart in the service of the Lord.

Verse 38: Chel che int fasarà di compagn (he who makes any like it [he who will make an identical one thereof]) par nasânt il profum (to smell the fragrance of it), al sarà taiât fûr dal so popul (shall be cut off from his people).