Polish language series: Wj 3, krzew gorejący

In Wj 3, or the third chapter of the book of Exodus, Moses asks God what to say to the Israelites when they ask by what God he was sent. God answers Moses with the name: JESTEM, KTÓRY JESTEM (I am who I am). You will also read in this chapter about the burning bush: krzew gorejący. The imperfective verb goreć means to burn.

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Read Wj 3

To read the Polish text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Biblia Tysiąclecia and consult Wj 3. An archived version of the text can be found here.

Wersety 1-3

  • głąb (f.), depth, interior
  • płomień (m.), flame
  • płonąć (impf.), to burn, to be aflame
  • spłonąć (pf.), to burn up, to be consumed
  • przyjrzeć się (pf.), to observe, to look on
  • niezwykły, uncommon, extraordinary
  • zjawisko (n.), phenomenon
  • spalać się (impf.), to burn up, to be consumed

Review: pasać (impf., to pasture, to graze), owca (f., sheep), teść (m., father-in-law), kapłan (m., priest), zaprowadzić (pf., to conduct, to lead), pewien (a certain), raz (m., time), pustynia (f., desert), przyjść (pf., to arrive, to come), góra (f., mount, mountain), boży (godly, divine), ukazać się (pf., to appear), anioł (m., angel), pański (lordly, lord’s), ogień (m., fire), środek (m., middle), krzew (m., shrub, bush), widzieć (impf., to see), powiedzieć (pf., to say), podejść (pf., to approach, to walk up to), dlaczego (for what reason, why).

Verse 1: Pasać owce swego teścia: to graze the sheep of his father-in-law. Madianitów: of the Midianites. Pewnego razu: one time, on one occasion. W głąb pustyni: into the depth of the desert. Do góry Bożej Horeb: unto Horeb, the mountain of God. Because boży is an adjective, góra Boża translates literally as Godly Mountain. Jetro is the name of the father-in-law of Moses.

Verse 2: In the preceding verse, you came across the adjective boży; in the current verse, you now encounter the adjective pański: wtedy ukazał mu się Anioł Pański (then the angel of the Lord [literally, Lordly Angel] appeared unto him) w płomieniu ognia (in a flame of fire), ze środka krzewu (from the middle of a bush). Moses saw that the bush was aflame, but it was not burnt up by it: widział (he was seeing), jak krzew płonął ogniem (how the bush was aflame), a nie spłonął od niego (but did not get consumed by it).

Verse 3: Podejdę (I shall approach), żeby się przyjrzeć (in order to observe) temu niezwykłemu zjawisku (this extraordinary phenomenon). You find the dative in temu niezwykłemu zjawisku. Moses wonders why the bush does not get consumed: dlaczego krzew się nie spala? (why does the bush not burn up?).

Declension of zjawisko (n.)

sing. pl.
nom. zjawisko zjawiska
gen. zjawiska zjawisk
dat. zjawisku zjawiskom
acc. zjawisko zjawiska
instr. zjawiskem zjawiskami
loc. zjawisku zjawiskach
voc. zjawisko zjawiska

Wersety 4-6

  • podchodzić (impf.), to approach, to come near
  • zasłonić (pf.), to cover

Review: ujrzeć (pf., to see), przyjrzeć się (pf., to observe, to look on), zawołać (pf., to call out), środek (m., middle), krzew (m., shrub, bush), odpowiedzieć (pf., to answer), zbliżać się (impf., to draw near, to approach), zdjąć (pf., to take off, to remove), sandał (m., sandal), noga (f., foot), miejsce (n., place), stać (impf., to stand), ziemia (f., land, ground), święty (holy), powiedzieć (pf., to say), jeszcze (yet, further), ojciec (m., father), twarz (f., face), bać się (impf., to fear, to be afraid), zwrócić (pf., to turn, to direct), oko (n., eye).

Verse 4: Żeby się przyjrzeć: in order to observe; so as to observe. God calls out to Moses; you find the vocative form of his name: Mojżeszu. Moses responds: oto jestem (here I am).

Verse 5: Nie zbliżaj się tu: do not come closer; do not come nearer; literally, do not approach here; do not draw near here. God tells Moses to remove his sandals: zdejm sandały z nóg (remove your sandals from your feet). The reason is given: gdyż miejsce (for the place), na którym stoisz (in which you stand), jest ziemią świętą (is holy ground).

Declension of noga (f.)

sing. pl.
nom. noga nogi
gen. nogi nóg
dat. nodze nogom
acc. nogę nogi
instr. nogą nogami
loc. nodze nogach
voc. nogo nogi

Verse 6: Jestem Bogiem ojca twego: I am the God of your father. Mojżesz zasłonił twarz: Moses covered his face. Bał się bowiem zwrócić oczy na Boga: for he was afraid to turn his eyes towards God.

Declension of Bóg (m.)

nom. Bóg
gen. Boga
dat. Bogu
acc. Boga
instr. Bogiem
loc. Bogu
voc. Boże

Wersety 7-10

  • dosyć, sufficiently
  • napatrzyć się (pf.), to have a good look
  • udręka (f.), torment, anguish, distress
  • nasłuchać się (pf.), to hear
  • ciemięzca (m.), oppressor
  • uciemiężenie (n.), oppression
  • wyrwać (pf.), to deliver, to wrest free
  • opływać (impf.), to flow
  • wołanie (n.), outcry
  • naocznie, with one’s own eyes
  • cierpienie (n.), anguish, suffering
  • zadawać (impf.), to inflict
  • posyłać (impf.), to send

Review: mówić (impf., to say), lud (m., people), narzekanie (n., complaints, outcry), znać (impf., to know, to be acquainted), zstąpić (pf., to descend), ręka (f., hand), wyprowadzić (pf., to bring forth), ziemia (f., land, ground), żyzny (fertile), przestronny (spacious), mleko (n., milk), miód (m., honey), miejsce (n., place), dojść (pf., to reach), przekonać się (pf., to ascertain), Egipcjanin (m., Egyptian), przeto (therefore), iść (impf., to go), faraon (m., pharaoh), Izraelita (m., Israelite), Egipt (m., Egypt).

Verse 7: Dosyć napatrzyłem się (I have seen with sufficiency; I have had a sufficiently good look) na udrękę ludu mego (upon the torment of my people). Nasłuchałem się narzekań jego: I have heard their complaints; their outcry.

Verse 8: Zstąpiłem, aby go wyrwać (I shall descend so as to deliver them [it]) z ręki Egiptu (from the hand of Egypt); here, go stands in for the masculine singular lud. Ziemia żyzna i przestronna: fertile and spacious land. The people named are: Kananejczyk (m., Canaanite), Chetyta (m., Hittite), Amoryta (m., Amorite), Peryzzyta (m., Perizzite), Chiwwita (m., Hivite), Jebusyta (m., Jebusite).

Verse 9: Doszło wołanie Izraelitów do Mnie: the outcry of the Israelites has reached me. Doszło is the neuter, third-person singular of the past tense of the perfective dojść; it agrees in gender with the neuter wołanie. Also from this verse: bo też naocznie (for also with my own eyes) przekonałem się (have I seen [ascertained]) o cierpieniach ([about] the sufferings), jakie im zadają Egipcjanie (as unto them the Egyptians inflict); that is, for I have also seen with my own eyes the suffering that the Egyptians inflict upon them.

Verse 10: Posyłam cię: I send you; I am sending you. Recall that the masculine noun Izraelita is the nominative singular for Israelite; the nominative plural is Izraelici. In the accusative plural, you have Izraelitów.

Declension of ty

nom. ty
gen. ciebie
cię
dat. tobie
ci
acc. ciebie
cię
instr. tobą
loc. tobie
voc. ty

Review the imperative of the imperfective iść:

idź (2.ps)
niech idzie (3.ps)
idźmy (1.pp)
idźcie (2.pp)
niech idą (3.pp)

1.ps = first-person singular
1.pp = first-person plural, etc.

Wersety 11-13

  • cześć (f.), veneration, honour

Review: odrzec (pf., to reply), kimże (who ever, who on earth), iść (impf., to go), faraon (m., pharaoh), wyprowadzić (pf., to bring forth), znak (m., sign), posłać (pf., to send), lud (m., people), oddać (pf., to grant), góra (f., mount, mountain), pójść (pf., to go), powiedzieć (pf., to say), ojciec (m., father), zapytać (pf., to ask), imię (n., name).

Verse 11: Mojżesz odrzekł Bogu: Moses replied to God. You can review the declension of Bóg in the notes at verse 6 above. In the same way that the perfective powiedzieć means to say and odpowiedzieć means to reply, the perfective rzec means to say and odrzec means to reply. Moses says: kimże jestem (who ever am I), bym miał iść do faraona (that I should go unto Pharaoh) i wyprowadzić Izraelitów z Egiptu? (and bring forth the Israelites from Egypt?).

Verse 12: The neuter wyprowadzenie, formed from the perfective wyprowadzić, can be understood as meaning the bringing forth. As for the perfective oddać cześć, this is to be understood as meaning to worship, to venerate; it is followed by the dative Bogu in the text because the expression can be understood literally as meaning to grant veneration (unto). God says to Moses: znakiem zaś dla ciebie (as for the sign for you), że Ja cię posłałem (that I have sent you), będzie to, że po wyprowadzeniu (it shall be that after the bringing forth) tego ludu z Egiptu (of this people from Egypt) oddacie cześć Bogu na tej górze (you shall worship God at this mountain).

Declension of znak (m.)

sing. pl.
nom. znak znaki
gen. znaku znaków
dat. znakowi znakom
acc. znak znaki
instr. znakiem znakami
loc. znaku znakach
voc. znaku znaki

Verse 13: Oto pójdę do Izraelitów (I shall now go to the Israelites) i powiem im (and I shall say to them). Pójdę is the first-person singular of the perfective future of pójść. As for powiem, this is the first-person singular of the perfective future of powiedzieć. Moses asks God what he is to say to the Israelites when they ask him by what God he was sent: Bóg ojców naszych (the God of our fathers) posłał mię do was (has sent me unto you); lecz gdy oni mnie zapytają (but when they will ask me), jakie jest Jego imię (what his name is), to cóż im mam powiedzieć? (what is it that I am to say to them?).

Wersety 14-15

  • zawołanie (n.), appellation

Review: dodać (pf., to add), powiedzieć (pf., to say), syn (m., son), posłać (pf., to send), dalej (further, moreover), ojciec (m., father), imię (n., name), na wieki (forever),  pokolenie (n., generation), najdalszy (farthest).

Verse 14: Mojżeszowi: unto Moses; dative. God tells Moses the name that he is to say to the Israelites: JESTEM, KTÓRY JESTEM (“I am who I am”). Tak powiesz: thus shall you say. JESTEM posłał mnie do was: “I am” sent me unto you.

Declension of wy

nom. wy
gen. was
dat. wam
acc. was
instr. wami
loc. was
voc. wy

Verse 15: Do Mojżesza: unto Moses (genitive); compare this with the dative Mojżeszowi (unto Moses) from verse 14. Following do, the genitive is required. Izraelitom: unto the Israelites; dative plural. Na najdalsze pokolenia: unto the farthest generations; that is, for all eternity.

daleki — dalszy — najdalszy
farfartherfarthest

Wersety 16-18

  • starszy (m.), elder
  • objawić się (pf.), to manifest oneself
  • nawiedzić (pf.), to visit
  • ucisk (m.), oppression
  • odbyć (pf.), to undertake

Review: zebrać (pf., to gather), powiedzieć (pf., to say), ojciec (m., father), ujrzeć (pf., to see), uczynić (pf., to do, to make), postanowić (pf., to decide, to resolve), wywieść (pf., to take out, to lead out), zaprowadzić (pf., to conduct, to lead), opływać (impf., to flow), mleko (n., milk), miód (m., honey), słowo (n., word), usłuchać (pf., to heed, to listen), pójść (pf., to go), razem z (along with), król (m., king), egipski (Egyptian), Hebrajczyk (m., Hebrew), pozwolić (pf., to permit, to let), droga (f., way, journey), pustynia (f., desest), złożyć (pf., to offer up), ofiara (f., offering, sacrifice).

Verse 16: A gdy zbierzesz starszych Izraela: and when you will gather the elders of Israel. Objawił mi się Pan: the Lord has manifested himself unto me. Co wam uczyniono: that which one has done to you; that which has been done to you.

Verse 17: Do ziem: unto the lands; this is followed by the names of peoples in genitive plural form (see the notes at verse 8 for translations). Do ziemi opływającej: unto the land flowing; here, opływająca takes the genitive as opływającej (as does ziemia as ziemi) because it follows do.

Declension of ziemia (f.)

sing. pl.
nom. ziemia ziemie
gen. ziemi ziem
dat. ziemi ziemiom
acc. ziemię ziemie
instr. ziemią ziemiami
loc. ziemi ziemiach
voc. ziemio ziemie

Verse 18: Oni tych słów usłuchają: they will heed these words. Razem ze starszymi z Izraela: along with the elders of Israel. Nam się objawił: he manifested himself unto us. From the second sentence, odbyć drogę is to be understood as to undertake a journey; you read: pozwól nam odbyć drogę trzech dni przez pustynię (allow us to make a journey of three days through the desert). Just as wam (see chart above) is the dative of wy, nam is the dative of my; pozwól nam can be understood more literally as permit unto us, allow unto us.

Wersety 19-22

  • zmusić (pf.), to force, to compel
  • przemożny, overpowering
  • cud (m.), marvel, wonder
  • pożyczyć (pf.), to borrow
  • sąsiadka (f.), neighbour (female)
  • pani (f.), lady
  • naczynie (n.), vessel, dish
  • nałożyć (pf.), to put on
  • złupić (pf.), to plunder, to spoil

Review: wiedzieć (impf., to know), król (m., king), egipski (Egyptian), pozwolić (pf., to permit, to let), wyjść (pf., to go out), ręka (f., hand), wyciągnąć (pf., to extend), przeto (therefore), uderzyć (pf., to strike), różny (different, various), dokonać (pf., to execute, to perform), wypuścić (pf., to send forth), sprawić (pf., to cause, to bring about), Egipcjanin (m., Egyptian), okazać (pf., to show), życzliwość (f., kindness, favour), lud (m., people), pójść (pf., to go), nic (nothing), wychodzić (impf., to go out, to leave), każdy (each), kobieta (f., woman), dom (m., house), srebrny (made of silver), złoty (made of gold), szata (f., garment), syn (m., son), córka (f., daughter).

Verse 19: Król egipski pozwoli nam (the Egyptian king will allow you) wyjść z Egiptu (to go forth from Egypt) tylko wtedy, gdy będzie zmuszony (only when he will be forced) ręką przemożną (by an overpowering hand).

Verse 20: Wyciągnę: I shall extend. Uderzę: I shall strike. Różnymi cudami: with various marvels. Wypuści was: he shall send you forth; that is, he shall let you go.

Verse 21: Sprawię: I shall cause; I shall bring about. Okazać życzliwość: to show favour, to deal kindly. Tak iż nie pójdziecie z niczym: so that you shall not go empty-handed; literally, so that you shall not go with nothing.

Verse 22: Od swojej sąsiadki: from her neighbour. Od pani domu swego: from the lady of her house. Neighbour: sąsiad (m.); sąsiadka (f.). Second sentence: Nałożycie to na synów i córki wasze (you shall put these on your sons and daughters) i złupicie Egipcjan (and you shall spoil the Egyptians).