Friulian language series: Esodo 28, munture dai predis

In the twenty-eighth chapter of the book of Exodus, or Esodo 28, you will read about the following through the Friulian language: la munture dai predis (vestments of the priests), l’efod (ephod), il petorâl e la manteline (breastplate and mantle).

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Read Esodo 28

To read the Friulian text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Bibie par un popul and consult Esodo 28. An archived version of the text can be found here.

Versets 1-5

Vocabulary: clamâ dongje (to summon, to call together), il fradi (brother), il fi (son), framieç di (amongst), un israelit (Israelite), fâ di predi (to act as priest), la munture (vestments; also monture), a part (sacral, holy; literally, apart), la glorie (glory), il decoro (adornment), un om (man), il mistîr (trade, skill), (to give), il don (gift), i vistîts (vestments), restâ consacrâ (to be consecrated), il petorâl (breastplate), un efod (ephod), la manteline (mantle), la tonie (tunic), lavorât (embroidered), il turbant (turban), la cinturie (sash), sacri (sacred, holy), doprâ (to use), l’aur (gold), la purpure viole (purple-blue), la scarlate (scarlet), il crem (crimson), il fîl (thread).

Verse 1: Clame dongje di te: call unto yourself; summon unto yourself. Par che mi fasin di predis: so that they may act as priests unto me.

Verse 2: Une munture a part: sacral vestments; that which is a part (apart) is “set aside” and made holy.

Verse 3: Oms di mistîr (men of skill) che jo ur ài dât chel don (unto whom I have given this gift); che al resti consacrât a fâmi di predi (so that he may be consecrated to act as priest unto me). Also from this verse: vistîts; the singular vistît means vestment, garment; in the plural, vistîts can be taken as clothes, clothing in general Friulian, or as vestments in the context of priests.

Verse 4: Ve ce munture che a fasaran: these are the vestments that they shall make. The vestments mentioned can be found in the vocabulary list above. The ephod is described in verses 6-12 ahead; it is a waistcoat made in two pieces — a front and back piece — fastened at the shoulders. Note that sacre is the feminine form of the adjective sacri.

Verse 5: A dopraran: they shall use.

Versets 6-14

Vocabulary: un efod (ephod), lavorât (embroidered), rituart (twisted, twined), tacâ (to attach, to fasten), la spaline (shoulder piece), un ôr (hem), dapît (at the end), la siarpe (band, waistband), parsore (atop, above), compagn (in the same way), fâ cuarp cun (to be as one with), cjoli (to take), doi (two), la piere (stone), il sardoni (sardonyx), picjâ (to incise, to scratch), il non (name), sîs (six), prin (first), restâ (to remain), secont (second), par ordin di (by order of), la etât (age), picâ (to cut, to incise), il lavôr (work), il pichepiere (chisel), il sigjîl (seal, signet), incjastrâ (to set, to slot in), la rosete (rosette), di aur (made of gold), ricuardâ (to commemorate, to recall), puartâ (to bear), la spale (shoulder), denant di (before, in front of), visâsi di (to remember), la cjadenute (chain), rût (pure, authentic), la strece (braid, twist), a uso (after the manner of), il cordon (cord).

Verse 6: Lavorât cun: embroidered with.

Verse 7: A tacaran dôs spalinis (they shall fasten two shoulder pieces), al sarà tacât tes spalinis (it [the ephod] shall be fastened at the shoulder pieces) pai ôrs dapît (by the hems at the end).

Verse 8: La siarpe ch’e je parsore: and the waistband which is above. E sarà lavorade compagne: it shall be embroidered likewise.

Verse 9: Pieris di sardoni: sardonyx stones; in Esodo 25:7, pieris di sardonie was used instead. Parsore tu picjarâs i nons dai fîs di Israel: atop you shall incise the names of the sons of Israel.

Verse 10: I sîs che a restin: the six that remain; the remaining six. Par ordin di etât: by order of age.

Verse 11: Tu fasarâs picâ i nons: you shall have the names incised. Cuntun lavôr di pichepiere: with the work of a chisel. Compagn che si piche un sigjîl: just as one incises a seal; just as a seal is incised. Tu lis incjastrarâs intune rosete di aur: you shall set them in a golden rosette.

Verse 12: Par ricuardâ i fîs di Israel: in order to commemorate the sons of Israel; in order to recall the sons of Israel. Par visâsi di lôr: in order to remember them.

Verse 14: Dôs cjadenutis di aur rût (two chains of pure gold) che tu lis fasarâs a strece (which you shall make braided), a uso cordons (after the manner of cords), e tu metarâs lis cjadenutis a strece tes rosetis (and you shall put the braided chains in the rosettes). The feminine strece is also the word for braid as it relates to hair: une frute cu lis strecis (a girl with braids, a girl with braided hair).

Versets 15-24

Vocabulary: il petorâl (breastplate), il judizi (judgement), lavorât (embroidered), compagn di (just like, in the same way as), un efod (ephod), cuadrât (square), dopli (double), lunc (long), une cuarte (span), larc (wide), furnî (to furnish, to embellish), la piere (stone), incjastrâ (to set, to slot in), disponût (arranged), cuatri (four), la rie (row), il rubin (ruby), il topazi (topaz), il smeralt (emerald), prin (first), secont (second), il turchês (turquoise), il zafîr (sapphire), il beril (beryl), tierç (third), la agate (agate), il gjacint (jacinth), la ametiste (amethyst), cuart (fourth), il crisolit (chrysolite), la cuarnaline (carnelian), il jasp (jasper), la rosete (rosette), il non (name), dodis (twelve), seont (according to), picâ (to cut, to incise), il sigjîl (seal, signet), ognidun (each one), puartâ (to bear), la tribù (tribe), la cjadenute (chain), di aur rût (of pure gold), incoronâ (to wreathe), la strece (braid, twist), un anel (ring), un insomp e un dapît (one on either side), il cordon (cord), tacât (attached, fastened), la estremitât (end, extremity).

Verse 15: Il petorâl dal judizi: breastplate of the judgement.

Verse 16: Al sarà cuadrât e dopli (it shall be square and double), lunc une cuarte (a span long) e larc une cuarte (and a span wide).

Verses 17-20: The stones named are: il rubin (ruby), il topazi (topaz), il smeralt (emerald), il turchês (turquoise), il zafîr (sapphire), il beril (beryl), la agate (agate), il gjacint (jacinth), la ametiste (amethyst), il crisolit (chrysolite), la cuarnaline (carnelian), il jasp (jasper). Regarding these stones, see also Esodo 39:10-13. Understand also from these verses: tu lu furnissarâs cun pieris incjastradis (you shall embellish it with set stones) disponudis su cuatri riis (arranged in four rows); te prime rie; seconde rie; tierce rie; cuarte rie (in the first row; second row; third row; fourth row).

Verse 21: Picadis compagn dai sigjîi: incised just like seals.

Verse 22: Cjadenutis di aur rût: chains of pure gold. Incoronadis a strece: wreathed into braids.

Verse 23: Tu ju metarâs (you shall put them) un insomp e un dapît (one on either end); that is, you shall put one [of them] on either end. The “either end” in question here is each of the two upper corners of the petorâl.

Verse 24: E tu metarâs doi cordons d’aur (and you shall put two cords of gold) tai doi anei (in the two rings) tacâts tes dôs estremitâts dal petorâl (fastened to the two ends of the breastplate).

Versets 25-30

Vocabulary: tacâ (to attach, to fasten), la rosete (rosette), la estremitât (end, extremity), il cordon (cord), la spaline (shoulder piece), un efod (ephod), par denant (in front), un anel d’aur (golden ring), il petorâl (breastplate), sul ôr (on the hem), par dentri (inside), dongje di (next to), parsore (over, above), la siarpe (band, waistband), leâ (to link, to fasten), la purpure viole (purple-blue), distacâsi (to detach oneself), puartâ (to bear), il non (name), il judizi (judgement), il cûr (heart), jentrâ (to enter), sant (holy), il memoriâl (memorial), par simpri (forever), zontâ (to add), presentâsi di (to present oneself unto).

Verse 27: Dongje di li che (next to where) si tachin (they [the shoulder pieces] are fastened) parsore de siarpe dal efod (above the waistband of the ephod).

Verse 28: Si learà i doi anei dal petorâl ai anei dal efod (one shall fasten the two rings of the breastplate to the rings of the ephod) cuntun cordon di purpure viole (with a cord of purple-blue), in mût che al stedi parsore de siarpe (so that it stays above the waistband) e che il petorâl no si distachi dal efod (and that the breastplate does not detach from the ephod).

Verse 29: Cussì Aron al puartarà (thus Aaron shall bear) i nons dai fîs di Israel (the names of the sons of Israel) sul petorâl dal judizi e sul so cûr (on his breastplate and on his heart), cuant che al jentrarà tal Sant (when he will enter the Holy; that is, when he enters the Holy [Place]).

Verse 30: Tu zontarâs al petorâl dal judizi i urim e i tumim: you shall add to the breastplate of judgement the Urim and the Thummim.

Versets 31-35

Vocabulary: la manteline (mantle), un toc (piece, bit), il spac (split; opening), il mieç (middle), il cjâf (head), torator (round about), un ôr (hem), intiessi (to weave), la gucje (mesh), sfiliâsi (to fray, to unravel), ricamâ (to embroider), il miluç ingranât (pomegranate), il campanelut (bell), un sì e un no (alternating), valadì (that is to say), meti (to put on), funzionâ (to serve, to officiate), sintî (to hear), bronzinâ (to ring, to clang), jentrâ (to enter), il santuari (sanctuary), jessî (to exit), murî (to die).

Verse 31: Dute di un toc: all in one piece.

Verse 32: E varà un spac intal mieç pal cjâf (it shall have a split in the middle for the head) e il spac al varà torator (and the split shall have all around it) un ôr intiessût a gucje (a knitted hem) par no che si sfilii (so that it does not fray). Intiessi a gucje can be understood as meaning to knit (literally, to weave into a mesh).

si sfilie
it frays

par no che si sfilii
so that it does not fray

Verse 33: Miluçs ingranâts […] e […] campaneluts […] un sì e un no: alternating pomegranates and bells. Note also: the Friulian for apple is il miluç.

Verse 35: Aron le metarà par funzionâ: Aaron shall put it on to officiate. Si sintarà a bronzinâ: he will be heard ringing; one will hear him clanging. Cuant che al jessarà: when he will exit; that is, when he exits. Cussì nol murarà: thus he shall not die.

Versets 36-39

Vocabulary: un flôr (flower), d’aur rût (of pure gold), picâ (to cut, to incise), il pichepiere (chisel), il sigjîl (seal, signet), consacrât (consecrated), meti (to put), il cordon (cord), tacâ (to fasten, to attach), il turbant (turban), par denant (on the front), il cerneli (forehead), cjapâ su di sè (to take upon oneself), a rivuart di (regarding, with regard to), la robe (thing, matter), sant (holy), puartâ (to bring), la ufierte (offering), simpri (always), tirâi a (to bring down upon, to attract unto), il bonvolê (goodwill), tiessi (to weave), la tonie (tunic), il lin (linen), di lin (made of linen), la cinturie lavorade (embroidered sash).

Verse 36: Tu fasarâs un flôr d’aur rût (you shall make a flower of pure gold) e tu picarâs cul pichepiere (and you shall incise with a chisel) come intun sigjîl (as though in a seal): “Consacrât al Signôr” (consecrated unto the Lord). The flôr was a plate of pure gold that was to adorn the front of the turban of the high-priest (see also Esodo 39:30); the use of flôr to identify this frontlet appears to follow on from the Hebrew.

Verse 37: Tu i metarâs un cordon di purpure viole: you shall put a cord of purple-blue on it. Tu lu tacarâs sul turbant: you shall fasten it to the turban. Tu lu metarâs par denant dal turbant: you shall put it on the front of the turban.

Verse 38: Aron al cjaparà su di sè (Aaron shall take upon himself) dut ce che nol va (all that which is wrong) a rivuart des robis santis (with regard to the holy things) che a puartaran i fîs di Israel (that the sons of Israel will bring). Dut ce che nol va translates literally as all that which does not go, where the sense of does not go is “is not right.” Also: par tirâur il bonvolê dal Signôr (to bring down upon them the goodwill of the Lord).

Verse 39: Tu tiessarâs la tonie di lin: you shall weave the linen tunic. You find the verb tiessi in this verse, whereas you encountered in verse 32 intiessût, from intiessi.

Versets 40-43

Vocabulary: la tonie (tunic), la cinturie (sash), la barete (cap), la glorie (glory), il decoro (adornment), meti intor (to put on), onzi (to anoint), l’inviestidure (investiture, ordination), consacrâ (to consecrate), fâ di predi (to act as priest), cuviergisi (to cover oneself; also cuvierzisi), i mudandons (drawers), di fîl (of thread; of cloth), rivâi a (to reach unto), il rognon (kidney), la cuesse (thigh), jentrâ (to enter), la tende de cunvigne (tent of the convocation), o ben (or), lâ dongje di (to go unto, to approach), un altâr (altar), funzionâ (to serve, to officiate), il santuari (sanctuary), in mût di no (in order not to), cjapâsi su (to take upon oneself, to incur), la cussience (conscience, moral responsibility), un fal (transgression, offence, error), costâ (to cost), la vite (life), un ordin (order, command), par simpri (forever, everlasting), vignî (to come), daûr di (after, behind).

Verse 40: Toniis: tunics. Cinturiis: sashes. Baretis: caps.

Verse 41: Meti intor means to put on; in this verse, you find metii intor a, meaning to put on (someone else): tu lis metarâs intor a Aron (you shall put them on Aaron).

Verse 42: Mudandons di fîl (cloth drawers) che ur rivin dai rognons fin tes cuessis (that go from their waist to their thighs; literally, that reach unto them from the kidneys to the thighs). Rognons is used here to refer to the area of the hips. The garment referred to here by the Friulian name mudandons went from the waist to just above the knees. Learn the following related vocabulary: i bregons (trousers), i bregonuts (shorts), lis mudantis (underwear). To refer to a single item of underwear, you can use un pâr di mudantis (a pair of underwear).

Verse 43: Aron e i siei fîs ju metaran intor: Aaron and his sons shall put them on. See also metii intor a in verse 41. Also: in mût di no cjapâsi su pe cussience (so as not to incur the guilt of) un fal che ur costarès la vite (a transgression that would cost them their life).