Friulian language series: Esodo 27, altâr dai olocauscj

In your Friulian reading of Esodo 27, or the twenty-seventh chapter of the book of Exodus, you will encounter the following subjects: l’altâr dai olocauscj (altar of the burnt offerings), il sagrât (sacred court).

If you are arriving on this site for the first time, begin your study of the Friulian language here (Gjenesi 1).

Read Esodo 27

To read the Friulian text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Bibie par un popul and consult Esodo 27. An archived version of the text can be found here.

Versets 1-8

Vocabulary: un altâr (altar), il len di agace (acacia wood; also agacie), lunc (long), cinc (five), il comedon (cubit; elbow), larc (wide), cuadrât (square), alt (tall), trê (three), il cjanton (corner), il cuar (horn), fâ bloc cun (to be as one with), riviestî (to cover, to overlay; also rivistî), il bronç (bronze), il vâs (vessel, vase, pot), puartâ vie (to take away), la cinise (ash), gras (fat), la palete ([small] shovel), il cjalderin (basin), sborfâ (to splash), il piron (fork), la fughere (brazier), la robe (item, thing), la gridele (grating), la rêt (net), cuatri (four), un anel (ring), sot di (under, below), la curnîs (moulding, border), abàs (at the bottom), rivâ (to arrive, to reach), la altece (height), a mieç altâr (mid-altar), la stangje (pole), la plache (sheet, plate), meti dentri (to put in, to insert), di ca e di là (on either side), puartâ ator (to carry about), çondar (hollow), la bree (plank), fâ viodi (to show), la mont (mount).

Verse 1: You read that the altar must be made of acacia wood. Its dimensions are given: lunc cinc comedons e larc cinc (five cubits long and five wide), l’altâr al sarà cuadrât (the altar shall be square), e alt trê comedons (and three cubits tall). Cuadrât is used in the text as an adjective. Learn the Friulian for square and circle as nouns: il cuadrât (square) and il cercli (circle).

Verse 2: tu fasarâs i cuars (you shall make horns); in mût che a fasin bloc cun lui (such that they are as one with it).

Verse 3: tu fasarâs fâ (you shall have made; you shall get made). If means to make, to do, then fâ fâ means to make (someone else) make, to make (someone else) do. Tu fasarâs fâ i vâs (you shall have vessels made) par puartâ vie lis cinisis grassis (to take away the fat ashes), lis paletis (the [small] shovels), i cjalderins par sborfâ (the basins for splashing), i pirons e lis fugheris (the forks and the braziers). When a sacrifice was burnt, its fat ran down and mixed with the ashes: cinisis grassis (fat ashes; that is, ashes mixed with fat). The feminine pale is the Friulian for shovel (for example, fâ une buse cu la pale, to dig a hole with a shovel); you find the diminutive palete (small shovel) in the text. The cjalderins contained the blood from the sacrifice; this blood was then splashed on the sides of the altar. Learn the following related vocabulary: il piron (fork), il curtìs (knife), il sedon (spoon).

Verse 4: une gridele di bronç a rêt (bronze net grating; that is, a bronze grating taking the form of a net).

Verse 5: in mût ch’e rivi (such that it reaches), come altece (in terms of height), a mieç altâr (halfway up the altar; mid-altar).

e rive a mieç altâr
it reaches mid-altar

in mût ch’e rivi a mieç altâr
so that it reaches mid-altar

Verse 7: tu metarâs lis stangjis dentri tai anei (you shall put the poles into the rings) in mût che lis stangjis a sedin di ca e di là dal altâr (such that the poles are on either side of the altar) cuant che si lu puarte ator (when one carries it about; when it is carried about).

a son di ca e di là dal altâr
they are on either side of the altar

in mût che a sedin di ca e di là dal altâr
so that they are on either side of the altar

Verse 8: tu lu fasarâs çondar, in breis (you shall make it hollow, in planks); come che tal ài fat viodi jo (as I showed you; literally, as I have shown it to you).

Versets 9-15

Vocabulary: il sagrât (sacred court), il santuari (sanctuary), de bande disot (on the south [bottom] side; see note below), a misdì (in the south; at midday; see note below), il tendon (screen), il fîl rituart (twined thread), lunc (long), cent (hundred), il comedon (cubit; elbow), prin (first), la bande (side), vincj (twenty), la colone (column), il çocul (base), di bronç (made of bronze), il rimpin (hook), il listel (listel, fillet), di arint (made of silver), la bande disore (north [top] side; see note below), de bande dal mâr (on the west [sea] side; see note below), larc (wide), cincuante (fifty), il telon (screen, tarp), dîs (ten), de bande di soreli jevât (on the east side), cuindis (fifteen), la tende (screen, curtain), la ale (wing), trê (three), secont (second).

Verse 9: The sagrât is the enclosed space before the sanctuary; a sacred court. In modern usage, the Friulian sagrât can refer to the space before a church. Disot (or di sot) is to be understood literally as at the bottom; in Friulian, disot can also take on the sense of southern. A misdì translates literally as at midday; in addition, it can take on the sense of in the south. You read: de bande disot (on the south side), a misdì (in the south), i tendons dal sagrât (the screens of the sacred court), di fîl rituart (made of twined thread), a saran luncs cent comedons pe prime bande (shall be one hundred cubits long for the first side). The pleonasm occurring in this verse (“on the south side in the south”) finds its explanation in the language of the original Hebrew. See also Esodo 26:18.

Verse 10: listei di arint (silver listels); listei is the plural of the masculine listel.

Verse 11: ancje pe bande disore (also for the north side). La bande disore translates literally as top side; it is to be understood here as north side. Compare with the synonymous bande par in sù, encountered in Esodo 26:35.

Verse 12: de bande dal mâr (on the west side); this translates literally as on the side of the sea but is to be understood as on the west side, the Hebrew for sea being the regular word for west. See also Esodo 26:22, where you encountered viers dal mâr with the same sense.

Verse 13: de bande di soreli jevât (on the east side; literally, on the side of the risen sun).

Verse 14: suntune ale (on one wing); a wing being an entrance into the sacred court.

Verse 15: su la seconde ale (on the second wing).

Versets 16-19

Vocabulary: la puarte (door), il sagrât (sacred court), vincj (twenty), il comedon (cubit; elbow), la tende (screen, curtain), damascâ (to damask), la purpure viole (purple-blue), la scarlate (scarlate), il crem (crimson), il fîl rituart (twined thread), cuatri (four), la colone (column), il çocul (base), torator di (around, surrouding), tignî adun (to keep together), il listel (listel, fillet), di arint (made of silver), il rimpin (hook), di bronç (made of bronze), lunc (long), cent (hundred), larc (wide), cincuante (fifty), alt (tall), cinc (five), il tendon (screen), il furniment (furnishing), funzionâ (to officiate), il santuari (sanctuary), il pichet (peg, stake).

Verse 16: damascât (damasked).

Verse 17: torator dal sagrât (surrounding the sacred court).

Verse 19: ducj i furniments par funzionâ tal santuari (all the furnishings for officiating in the sanctuary), ducj i siei pichets (all its pegs; all its stakes) e chei dal sagrât (and those of the sacred court) a saran di bronç (shall be of bronze). The pichets were used to fasten the tendons to the ground.

Versets 20-21

Vocabulary: il fî (son), proviodi (to provide), il vueli (oil), la ulive (olive), masanâ (to crush, to grind), fâ lusôr (to give off light), il cjandelîr (lampstand, menorah), ardi (to burn), sistemâ (to set, to place), la cunvigne (meeting, congregation), par difûr di (outside of), il vêl (veil), colâ jù (to hang down), par denant di (before, in front of), la testemoneance (testimony), di sere (in the evening), la buinore (morning), un ordin (order, command), eterni (eternal, everlasting), la gjenerazion (generation).

Verse 20: vueli di ulivis masanadis (oil of crushed olives); par che al sedi un cjandelîr che al art simpri (such that it may be a menorah [lampstand] that always burns). Al art is the masculine, third-person singular of the present tense of ardi.

Verse 21: te tende de cunvigne (in the congregation tent; in the meeting tent); par difûr dal vêl che al cole jù par denant de testemoneance (outside the veil that hangs down before the testimony), par che al ardi (in order that it burn); di sere fintremai a buinore (from evening to morning).

al art
it burns

par che al ardi
so that it burns