Friulian language series: Esodo 26, implant de tende

You will now read the twenty-sixth chapter of the book of Exodus through the Friulian language; in Esodo 26, the subjects are: il santuari e il furniment (sanctuary and [its] furnishing), l’implant de tende (structure of the tent), il vêl (veil).

If you are arriving on this site for the first time, begin your study of the Friulian language here.

Read Esodo 26

To read the Friulian text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Bibie par un popul and consult Esodo 26. An archived version of the text can be found here.

Versets 1-5

Vocabulary: rivuart a (regarding), il santuari (sanctuary), la striche (strip), la tele (cloth), il fîl (thread), rituart (twisted, twined), la purpure viole (purple-blue), la scarlate (scarlet), il crem (crimson), ricamâ (to embroider), il cherubin (cherub), lunc (long), vincjevot (twenty-eight), il comedon (cubit; elbow), compagn (identical; likewise), cinc (five), unî (to unite, to join), meti (to put, to place), atac di (alongside, beside, next to; also a tac di), la peande (tether, cordon), il camuf (hem, pleat), prin (first), dapît di (at the end of; also da pît di), il mac (set), sierâ (to close, to shut), secont (second), cincuante (fifty), la tirele (tab, flap), rimpet di (opposite, in front of).

Verse 1: Tu lu fasarâs di dîs strichis di tele (you shall make it from ten strips of cloth) di fîl rituart (of twined thread). Ricamât a cherubins: embroidered with cherubs. Regarding purpure viole and crem, see the notes at Esodo 25:4. The Friulian for scarlet as an adjective is scarlat; in this verse, you find instead the feminine noun scarlate. The colours mentioned are used as nouns because they refer to dyed threads.

Verse 2: For notes regarding measurements using lunc and larc, see the notes at Esodo 25:10. Lis strichis a varan di jessi compagnis: the strips must be identical.

Verse 3: Unidis une cun chê altre: joined to one another; literally, joined the one with the other. Unît is the past participle of the verb unî; you find it here as unidis, in feminine plural form, to agree with strichis. Also: chês altris cinc a saran metudis ancje chês (and the other five shall also be placed, those [ones] as well) une atac di chê altre (alongside one another; literally, one alongside the other; one beside the other). The sense of this verse is that five of the strips must be put together to form one set, and the other five put together to form a second set.

Supplementary example using a tac di: la speziarie e je a tac dal ospedâl (the pharmacy is next to the hospital). Speziarie is pronounced with the stress on the accented syllable: speziarìe.

Verse 4: Tu fasarâs peandis (you shall make tethers) di purpure viole (of purple-blue) tal camuf de prime striche (in the hem of the first strip), dapît dal mac (at the end of the set), e compagn tu fasarâs (and likewise shall you make) tal camuf de striche (in the hem of the strip) ch’e siere il secont mac (that closes the second set). The sense here is the following: on the outside edge of the first strip of the first set, tethers must be attached; these tethers will join up with those made in the corresponding strip of the second set.

Verse 5: In mût che lis tirelis a sedin une rimpet di chê altre: in order that the tabs be opposite one another; literally, in order that the tabs be one opposite the other. In this verse, the tethers are referred to as both peandis and tirelis. The sense here is that the tethers (or tabs) of the strip of the first set must align with those of the corresponding strip of the second.

Versets 6-9

Vocabulary: cincuante (fifty), il cjan (clasp, joint), d’aur (made of gold), dâ dongje (to join, to put together), la strissule (strip), midiant di (by way of), il santuari (sanctuary), tignî adun (to keep together), la striche (strip), la tele (cloth), il pêl di cjavre (goat hair), la tende (tent), parsore di (over, above), undis (eleven), lunc (long), trente (thirty), il comedon (cubit; elbow), larc (wide), cuatri (four), compagn (identical), cinc (five), la bande (side), sîs (six), dopleâ (to double), sest (sixth), par denant di (in front of).

Verse 6: Cjans d’aur: golden clasps. Tu darâs dongje une strissule cun chê altre midiant dai cjans: you shall join one strip to (with) the other by way of the clasps. Cussì il santuari al sarà tignût dut adun: the sanctuary shall thus be kept entirely together.

Verse 7: Par fâ une tende parsore dal santuari: in order to make a tent over the sanctuary. Tu ’nt fasarâs undis: you shall make eleven of them. In tu ’nt fasarâs undis, the ’nt means of them and stands in for strichis di tele (strips of cloth).

Verse 8: Dutis lis undis strichis (all eleven strips) a saran compagnis (shall be identical).

Verse 9: Tu darâs dongje cinc strichis (you shall assemble five strips) di une bande (on one side) e sîs strichis di chê altre (and six strips on the other) e tu doplearâs la seste (and you shall double the sixth), par denant de tende (in front of the tent). The sense of tu doplearâs la seste par denant de tende is that the sixth strip was to be turned up at the entrance of the tent.

Versets 10-14

Vocabulary: cincuante (fifty), la tirele (tab, flap), sul ôr di (on the edge of), prin (first), la striche (strip), dapît di (at the end of), il mac (set), secont (second), il cjan (clasp, joint), il bronç (bronze), dentri di (inside of), tignî unît (to keep joined), tignî dut intun (to keep all as one), la tende (tent), colâ (to hang over, to fall), mieç (half), vanzâ (to be in excess), propit daûr di (right behind), il comedon (cubit; elbow), di ca e di là (on either side), la lungjece (length), in bande di (along the side of), cuviergi (to cover; also cuvierzi), il cuviertor (covering), la piel (skin, leather), il roc (ram), tenzi di ros (to dye red), par parsore (overtop, overhead), il telon (screen, tarp), il corean (hide, leather), fin (fine).

Verse 11: Cjans di bronç: bronze clasps. Tu metarâs i cjans dentri des tirelis (you shall put the clasps into the tabs) par tignî la tende (in order to keep the tent) dute unide (all together; entirely joined) e dute intun (and all in one; and all as one).

Verse 12: Ce che al colarà (that which hangs over) des strichis de tende (of the strips of the tent), miege de striche ch’e vanze (half of the strip that is in excess) tu le fasis colâ propit daûr dal santuari (you shall make it hang over right behind the sanctuary). Mieç is the Friulian for half; its feminine form is mieze, also expressed as the variant miege. Examples: o ai let mieç libri (I have read half the book), pesâ une mieze tonelade (to weigh half a tonne).

Verse 13: Il comedon che al vanzarà di ca e di là (the cubit that will be in excess on either side), su la lungjece des strichis de tende (in the length of the strips of the tent), tu lu fasarâs colâ in bande dal santuari (you shall make it hang over along the side of the sanctuary), di ca e di là (on either side), par cuviergilu (in order to cover it).

Verse 14: Tu i fasarâs a la tende (you shall make for the tent; literally, you shall make unto the tent) un cuviertor di piel di roc (a covering of ram skin) tenzude di ros (dyed red) e par parsore un telon di corean fin (and overtop a tarp of fine hide). The verb tenzi means to dye; its past participle is tenzût. Tenzût di ros means dyed red; in the text, you find tenzût in feminine form as tenzude to agree with the feminine piel.

Versets 15-25

Vocabulary: il santuari (sanctuary), un pôc di (some), la bree (plank), il len di agace (acacia wood), meti par in pîts (to set afoot, to set upright), lunc (long), dîs (ten), il comedon (cubit; elbow), larc (wide), e mieç (and a half), un incjastri (joint, peg), compagn (likewise), vincj (twenty), la façade (façade, face), disot (southern; at the bottom; see note below), a misdì (in the south; at midday; see note below), corante (forty; also cuarante), il çocul (base), d’arint (made of silver), sot di (under, below), a miegegnot (in the north; at midnight; see note below); viers di (towards), il mâr (sea), sîs (six), doi (two), il cjanton (corner), dapît di (at the end of), compagnâ (to couple), a doi a doi (two by two), abàs (at the bottom), unît (united, joined), fint insomp (up at the top; also fin insom), a l’altece di (at the height of), prin (first), un anel (ring), distinâ (to designate, to intend; also destinâ), sicheduncje (therefore), vot (eight), vadì (that is to say), sedis (sixteen).

Verse 15: Un pocjis di breis: some planks. Che tu lis metarâs par in pîts: which you shall set afoot; which you shall stand upright. Note that the feminine plural pocjis (from pôc) agrees in gender and number with breis. Other examples that you have seen using pôc in different agreements:

un pôc di balsim (m.sing.)
some balsam (Gjenesi 43:11)

un pocje di mîl (f.sing.)
some honey (Gjenesi 43:11)

un pôcs di pastôrs (
some shepherds (Esodo 2:17)

Verse 17: Ogni bree e varà doi incjastris: each plank shall have two joints; two pegs.

Verse 18: Vincj breis pe façade disot: twenty planks for the south face. A misdì: in the south. Disot (or di sot) is to be understood literally as at the bottom; in Friulian, disot can also take on the sense of southern. A misdì translates literally as at midday; in addition, it can take on the sense of in the south. (See also the notes at verse 20 regarding a miegegnot.) The pleonasm occurring in this verse (“south face in the south”) finds its explanation in the language of the original Hebrew.

Verse 19: Corante çocui d’arint: forty silver bases. The plural of çocul is çocui. Recall that pai is a contraction of par + i: pai siei doi incjastris (for its two joints).

Verse 20: A miegegnot: in the north. A saran ancje li vincj breis: there shall be twenty planks there as well. A miegegnot (or a miezegnot) translates literally as at midnight; it is also used in the sense of in the north, in opposition to a misdì (at midday; in the south), encountered in the eighteenth verse.

Verse 22: Recall that pe is a contraction of par + la (that is, for the). As for viers dal mâr, (literally, towards the sea; facing the sea), this is to be understood as meaning facing west, the Hebrew for sea being the regular word for west.

Verse 23: Doi (two) is used before masculine plural nouns; dôs is used before feminine plural nouns: dôs breis (two planks).

Verse 24: Lis breis a saran compagnadis (the planks shall be coupled) a dôs a dôs abàs (two by two at the bottom), e a restaran unidis fint insomp (and they shall remain joined up at the top), a l’altece dal prin anel (at the height of the first ring). A doi a doi is found in feminine form here as a dôs a dôs to agree with the feminine plural breis. Also: compagn pes dôs breis (likewise for the two planks) distinadis pai doi cjantons (intended for the two corners).

Verse 25: Sicheduncje a saran vot breis: there shall therefore be eight planks.

Versets 26-30

Vocabulary: il traviersin (crossbar), il len di agace (acacia wood), cinc (five), la bree (plank), prin (first), la façade (façade, face), il santuari (sanctuary), secont (second), daûr di (behind), de bande dal amont (on the west side), mezan (central, middle), plaçâ (to place), a miege altece (halfway up; literally, at mid-height), tignî unît (to keep joined), la estremitât (end, extemity), riviestî (to cover, to overlay), un anel (ring), d’aur (made of gold), passâ dentri (to insert), fâ sù (to build, to erect), il stamp (manner, model), fâ viodi (to show), la mont (mount).

Verse 26: Tu fasarâs un pôcs di traviersins di len di agace: you shall make some crossbars of acacia wood. Regarding the masculine plural un pôcs di, see the notes at verse 15.

Verse 27: Pes breis: for the planks; pes is a contraction of par + lis. Par daûr dal santuari: for behind the sanctuary. De bande dal amont: on the west side.

Verse 28: Il traviersin miezan: the central crossbar; the middle crossbar. Plaçât a miege altece: placed halfway up; placed at mid-height.

Verse 29: Lis breis tu lis riviestissarâs di aur: you shall cover (or overlay) the planks in gold. You find riviestî here; in Esodo 25:13, you found the variant rivestî. (The standardised form is rivistî.) From the remainder of the verse: tu ur fasarâs anei d’aur (you shall make golden rings for them) par passâ dentri traviersins (in order to insert crossbars) e ancje i traviersins tu ju riviestissarâs d’aur (and also the crossbars, you shall cover them in gold).

Verse 30: E cussì tu fasarâs sù il santuari (and thus shall you erect the sanctuary; and in this way shall you build the sanctuary) sul stamp che jo ti ài fat viodi su la mont (after the manner that I showed you on the mount).

Versets 31-34

Vocabulary: il vêl (veil), la purpure viole (purple-blue), la scarlate (scarlet), il crem (crimson), il fîl rituart (twined thread), ricamâ (to embroider), il cherubin (cherub), meti (to put), cuatri (four), la colone (column), di agace (made of acacia), cuviert (covered), la plache (sheet, plate), d’aur (made of gold, golden), furnî (to furnish), doi (two), il rimpin (hook), pojâ (to place, to set down; also poiâ), il çocul (base), d’arint (made of silver), sot di (under, below), il cjan (clasp, joint), meti dentri (to put inside), daûr di (behind), l’arcje (ark), il pat (covenant), segnâ (to mark), il cunfin (confine, border; also confin), fra (between), sant (holy), parsore di (upon), il propiziatori (propitiatory).

Verse 31: See the notes at verse 1 regarding the language here.

Verse 32: Tu lu metarâs su cuatri colonis di agace (you shall put it on four columns of acacia wood) e dutis cuviertis di plachis d’aur (and [the columns] all covered in sheets of gold), furnidis di doi rimpins di aur (furnished with two hooks of gold) e pojadis su cuatri çocui d’arint (and set upon four bases of silver).

Verse 33: Arcje dal pat: ark of the covenant; see Esodo 25. Il vêl al segnarà par vualtris (the veil shall mark for you) il cunfin fra il Sant e il Sant dai Sants (the confine between the Holy and the Holy of Holies).

Verse 34: Parsore de arcje dal pat (upon the ark of the covenant), tal Sant dai Sants (in the Holy of Holies), tu metarâs il propiziatori (you shall put the propitiatory). See the notes in Esodo 25 regarding the propitiatory.

Versets 35-37

Vocabulary: plaça (to place), la taule (table), il pan (bread), la ufierte (offering), par difûr di (outside of), il vêl (veil), denant di (before, in front of), il cjandelîr (lampstand, menorah), de bande di (on the side of), a misdì (in the south; at midday; see note below), invezit (on the other hand, as for), meti (to put), de bande par in sù (on the north side; on the top side; see note below), la jentrade (door, entry), la tende (tent), il tendon (screen), ricamâ (to embroider), la purpure viole (purple-blue), la scarlate (scarlet), il crem (crimson), il fîl rituart (twined thread), cinc (five), la colone (column), di agace (made of acacia), riviestî (to cover, to overlay), la plache (sheet, plate), d’aur (golden, of gold), il rimpin (hook), fondâ (to cast), par chel cont (on this account), il çocul (base), il bronç (bronze).

Verse 35: La taule dai pans de ufierte: the table of the bread of offering. Par difûr dal vêl: outside the veil. De bande dal santuari, a misdì: on the side of the sanctuary, in the south. La taule invezit: as for the table. De bande par in sù: on the north side. Regarding a misdì, see the notes at verse 18. As for de bande par in sù (literally, on the top side), this is to be understood here as meaning on the north side; compare the notion of “top” in the sense of north(ern) to that of “bottom” in the sense of south(ern) mentioned in the notes at verse 18.

Verse 36: The tendon mentioned here is to be understood as a sort of screen or curtain to cover the entrance to the sacred tent.

Verse 37: Tu fondarâs par chel cont: you shall cast on this account. Cinc çocui di bronç: five bases of bronze.