Friulian language series: Esodo 25, leçs sul santuari

With this post, you will study the twenty-fifth chapter of the book of Exodus and the Friulian language used in it. The subjects of Esodo 25 are: leçs sul santuari e sui predis (judgements regarding the sanctuary and priests), la part di dâ pal santuari (the portion to give for the sanctuary), la tende e il so furniment (the tent and its furnishing), l’arcje (the ark), la taule pai pans de ufierte (the table for the breads [loaves] of the offering), il cjandelîr (the menorah). Some pronunciation notes appear at the end of this post.

If you are arriving on this site for the first time, begin your study of the Friulian language here (Gjenesi 1).

Read Esodo 25

To read the Friulian text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Bibie par un popul and consult Esodo 25. An archived version of the text can be found here.

Versets 1-9

Vocabulary: fevelâ (to speak), (to say), il fi (son), (to give), la part (portion, part, contribution), cjapâ sù (to gather), la cussience (awareness, integrity, consciousness), cjapâ (to take), l’aur (gold), l’arint (silver), il bronç (bronze), la purpure viole (purple-blue), il ros vîf (bright red), il crem (crimson), il fîl (thread), il lin (linen), il pêl (hair), la cjavre (goat), la piel (skin), il roc (ram), intenzi (to dye), ros (red), il tac (badger), il len (wood), la agace (acacia; also agacie), il vueli (oil), la lampade (lamp), il balsim (balsam), il vueli di ongi (anointing oil; also onzi), l’incens (incense), profumât (fragrant, scented), la piere (stone), la sardonie (sardonyx), di ornament (ornamental), l’efod (ephod), il petorâl (breast, chest), il santuari (sanctuary), stâ framieç di (to dwell amongst), sul stamp di (after the manner of), la robe (items), meti dentri (to put inside), mostrâ (to show).

Verse 2: dîsiur ai fîs di Israel (tell the sons of Israel); dut ce che a dan chei che a àn cussience (everything that those who have awareness give; the sense of this would seem to be everything given by those who give willingly [in awareness]).

Verse 4: fîl di lin (linen thread); pêl di cjavre (goat hair). On the human body (arm, leg, etc., or in a beard, moustache), a single strand of hair is un pêl, and the plural is i pêi; for example, i pêi de barbe means hairs of the beard. A single strand of hair on the human head is un cjaveli; all the hair on the human head is referred to collectively as i cjavei. In this verse, pêl is used collectively to refer to the hairs on an animal: pêl di cjavre (goat hair).

Colours. Mention is made in verse 4 of purpure viole. Viole is the Friulian for purple. Purpure is a reddish purple. Purpure viole is a bluish purple. Other colours: turchin (blue; in between blu and celest), blu (dark [navy] blue), celest (light [baby] blue), zâl (yellow), ros (red), rose (pink), grîs (grey), vert (green), naranç (orange), maron (brown), scûr (very dark brown; also black to almost black), neri (black). The Friulian for white is blanc, which obviously cannot be highlighted in white. In verse 4, the colours mentioned are used as nouns because they refer to dyed threads.

Verse 5: intenzudis a ros (dyed red); piel di tac (badger skin); len di agace (acacia wood).

Verse 6: vueli pes lampadis (oil for the lamps).

Verse 7: pieris di sardonie (sardonyx stones); pieris di ornament pal efod (ornamental stones for the ephod) e pal petorâl (and for the breast). Efod: square cloak hanging down from the shoulders worn by priests.

Verse 8: fâsimi un santuari (make me a sanctuary) in mût che jo o puedi (such that I may be able) stâ framieç di lôr (to dwell amongst them).

Verse 9: sul stamp dal santuari (after the manner [model] of the sanctuary).

Versets 10-16

Vocabulary: un’arcje (ark; see note below), il len di agace (acacia wood), lunc (long), larc (wide), alt (tall), il comedon (cubit; elbow), e mieç (and a half), fodrâ (to cover, to overlay), l’aur rût (pure gold), par dentri (on the inside), par difûr (on the outside), un ôr (edge, rim), torator (around, round about), fondi (to meld, to cast), un anel (ring), saldâ (to attach; to solder), il pît (foot; see note below), la bande (side), la stangje (pole), rivestî (to cover, to overlay; also rivistî), passâ (to pass), di ca e di là (on either side), puartâ (to carry), tirâ vie (to remove), la testemoneance (testimony).

Verse 10: tu fasarâs un’arcje di len di agace (you shall make an ark of acacia wood). In Gjenesi 6, you read about Noah’s ark, where the Friulian for ark is the feminine arcje (un’arcje or une arcje; l’arcje or la arcje, depending on whether or not the contraction is observed in writing). In the current verse, it is not question of an ark as in the one used by Noah, but of a chest or coffer. The arcje was used to contain the lastris di clap. The measurements to be taken by the ark: lungje doi comedons e mieç (two cubits and a half long), largje un comedon e mieç (one cubit and a half wide) e alte un comedon e mieç (and one cubit and a half tall). The masculine comedon is the Friulian for elbow; it is used here as a measurement meaning cubit.

long: lunc (m.) — lungje (f.)
wide: larc (m.) — largje (f.)
tall: alt (m.) — alte (f.)

un’arcje lungje doi comedons e mieç
literally, an ark long two cubits and a half
that is, an ark two and a half cubits long

Verse 11: tu le fodrarâs (you shall cover it; you shall overlay it) di aur rût (in pure gold) par dentri e par difûr (inside and out), e tu i fasarâs un ôr d’aur torator (and you shall make a rim of gold for it all around).

Verse 12: tu fondarâs, par jê (you shall cast for it) cuatri anei d’aur (four rings of gold; four golden rings) e tu ju saldarâs (and you shall attach them) ai siei cuatri pîts (to its four feet); doi anei di une bande (two rings on one side) e doi anei di chê altre (and two rings on the other). The Friulian pît means foot; it refers here to each of the four short legs of the ark serving as a support, such that, when carried on men’s shoulders, the ark would be elevated and not come into contact with the body of the bearers. The plural of anel is anei.

Verse 13: stangjis di len di agace (poles of acacia wood); tu lis rivestissarâs d’aur (you shall cover them in gold; you shall overlay them with gold). Regarding rivestî, see the note at verse 24.

Verse 14: tu fasarâs passâ lis stangjis pai anei (you shall insert the poles into the rings; literally, you shall make pass the poles through the rings) di ca e di là de arcje (on either side of the ark), par podêle puartâ (in order to carry it). The expression di ca e di là (on either side) is composed of di ca (over here) and di là (over there).

Verse 15: a staran (shall be; shall stay).

Versets 17-22

Vocabulary: il propiziatori (propitiatory), l’aur rût (pure gold), il comedon (cubit; elbow), e mieç (and a half), il cherubin (cherub), l’aur batût (beaten gold; see note below), insomp e dapît (at either end, at both ends; also insom e da pît), la estremitât (extremity, end), fâ dutun cun (to be as one with), une ale (wing), viert (opened), par in sù (upwards), protezi (to protect), la muse (face), muse cun muse (face to face), voltât de bande di (turned towards), parsore di (atop, upon), sistemâ (to set, to place), la testemoneance (testimony), vignî (to come), cjatâ (to find, to meet), tal mieç (in the middle), un ordin (order, command), il fi (son).

Verse 17: The propiziatori (propitiatory; also called mercy seat) was a slab of gold laid atop the ark; it was of the same length and width as the ark (compare to verse 10): lunc doi comedons e mieç (two cubits and a half long) e larc un comedon e mieç (and one cubit and a half wide).

Verse 18: doi cherubins in aur batût (two cherubs in beaten gold); tu ju fasarâs insomp e dapît dal propiziatori (you shall make them at either end of the propitiatory; at both ends of the propitiatory). Aur batût (beaten gold) is gold beaten into shape by hammer. The Friulian for to beat is bati; its past participle is batût.

Verse 19: e chel altri cherubin (and the other cherub) in chê altre estremitât (at the other end); in mût che a fasin dutun cul propiziatori (such that they are as one with the propitiatory).

Verse 20: alis viertis par in sù (wings opened upwards); voltadis de bande dal propiziatori (turned towards the propitiatory). The Friulian for to open is vierzi (in this version of the Friulian Bible, the variant viergi is used instead); its past participle is viert.

Verse 21: parsore de arcje (upon the ark).

Verse 22: al è li che jo o vignarai a cjatâti (it is there that I shall come to meet you); al è parsore dal propiziatori […] che (it is upon the propitiatory that).

Versets 23-30

Vocabulary: la taule (table), il len di agace (acacia wood), lunc (long), larc (wide), alt (tall), e mieç (and a half), riviestî (to cover, to overlay; also rivistî), l’aur rût (pure gold), un ôr (edge, rim), torator (around, round about), la curnîs (moulding, border), une cuarte (span), un anel (ring), il cjanton (corner), il pecol (support, foot), meti dongje (to put beside), parâ dentri (to insert, to put in), la stangje (pole), puartâ (to bear, to carry), fodrâ (to cover, to overlay), coventâ (to be needed, to be necessary), il plaç (plate, dish; also il plat), il bocâl (cup, beaker), une anfure (urn, amphora), la tace (glass), la libagjon (libation; that is, ritual pouring of liquid), lassâ (to leave), il pan (bread), la ufierte (offering).

Verse 23: tu fasarâs une taule (you shall make a table).

Verse 24: You find tu le riviestissarâs in this verse, whereas in verse 13 you encountered tu lis rivestissarâs. These are variants of the same verb: riviestî, rivestî (standardised rivistî).

Verse 25: tu i fasarâs torator une curnîs (you shall make a moulding around it) largje une cuarte (wide a span) e torator de curnîs (and around the moulding) tu fasarâs un ôr d’aur (you shall make a rim of gold).

Verse 26: tai cuatri cjantons (at the four corners), tai cuatri pecoi (at the four feet). Pecoi is the plural of pecol, which refers here to each foot or bottom-end support of the table.

Verse 27: par parâ dentri lis stangjis (in order to insert the poles) che a varan di puartâ la taule (that will serve to carry the table; literally, that will have to carry the table).

Verse 28: a coventaran par puartâ la taule (they will be needed to carry the table; they will be necessary to carry the table).

Verse 29: i plaçs (plates, dishes; standard Friulian i plats); i bocâi (cups, beakers); lis anfuris (urns, amphorae); lis tacis pe libagjon (libation glasses).

Verse 30: e tu lassarâs simpri (and you shall always leave) su la taule, denant di me (on the table before me), i pans de ufierte (the breads [loaves] of the offering; the offering breads [loaves]). I pans de ufierte might be found referred to in English bread of the presence.

Versets 31-40

Vocabulary: il cjandelîr (menorah, lampstand), il pît (base), il poc (shaft), ribatût (beaten), il cjaliç (calyx), il bocul (bud), il flôr (flower), fâ bloc cun (to be as one with), di ca e di là (on either side), partî (to originate, to depart), il braç (arm, branch), la bande (side), prin (first), a forme di (in the form of), il mandolâr (almond tree), secont (second), compagn par (likewise for), sîs (six), cuatri (four), sot di (under), ultin (last, final), ven a stâi (that is to say), il bloc (block, lot), siet (seven), la lampade (lamp), sistemâ (to set, to arrange), fâ lusôr (to give off light), il smocjadôr (pincer, tong), il platel (small plate), il furniment (furnishing), un talent (talent; that is, a Hebrew weight of gold), cjalâ (to look), seont (according to), il stamp (manner, model), viodi (to see), la mont (mount).

Verse 31: tu fasarâs un cjandelîr di aur rût (you shall make a menorah of pure gold); il cjandelîr (the menorah), il pît (the base) e il poc (and the shaft) a saran ribatûts (shall be beaten); i cjaliçs (the calyces), i bocui (the buds) e i flôrs (and the flowers) a fasaran bloc cun lui (shall be as one with it). Un cjandelîr is a lampstand or menorah; that is, a candleholder with branches. Ribatût: derives from the verb ribati. In botany, the sepals function as protection for a flower in bud; collectively, the sepals can be referred to as a calyx, which is cognate with the masculine cjaliç found in the text. Fâ bloc cun: similar in meaning to fâ dutun cun from verse 19.

Verse 32: di ca e di là a partissaran sîs braçs (on either side shall originate six branches): trê braçs dal cjandelîr di une bande (three branches of the menorah on one side) e trê braçs dal cjandelîr di chê altre (and three branches of the menorah on the other). Di ca e di là: see note at verse 14.

Verse 33: il prin braç al varà trê cjaliçs (the first branch shall have three calyces) a forme di flôr di mandolâr (in the form of an almond blossom), cun bocui e flôr (with buds and flower). Compagn par ducj i sîs braçs: likewise for all six branches.

Verse 35: sot dai prins doi braçs (under the first two branches); sot di chei altris doi braçs (under the other two branches); sot dai ultins doi braçs (under the last two branches).

Verse 36: fâ bloc cun; see note at verse 31. Fat in trê blocs: made in three lots.

Verse 37: si sistemarà lis lampadis (one shall arrange the lamps; the lamps shall be arranged) in mût che a fasin lusôr denant di lui (such that they give off light before him).

Verse 38: i platei were small plates used to receive the burnt fragments of wick removed by the pincers. The singular of platei is platel, which is the diminutive of plat (plate).

Verse 39: par fâlu cun ducj i siei furniments (in order to make it with all its furnishings) ti larà un talent di aur rût (you will need a talent of pure gold). Ti larà is to be understood as you will require, you will need.

Verse 40: cjale ben (take heed; literally, look well) e fâs seont il stamp (and do [or undertake] after the manner) che tu âs viodût su la mont (that you saw on the mount).

Pronunciation notes. Listen to the pronunciation of cjaliçs (v.31) and braçs (v.32) in the recording; the ç is not realised before the s of the plural.