Friulian language series: Esodo 25, leçs sul santuari

The subjects of the twenty-fifth chapter of the book of Exodus are: leçs sul santuari e sui predis (laws regarding the sanctuary and priests); la part di dâ pal santuari (the portion to give for the sanctuary); la tende e il so furniment (the tent and its furnishing); l’arcje (the ark); la taule pai pans de ufierte (the table of the bread of offering); il cjandelîr (the lampstand).

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Read Esodo 25

To read the Friulian text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Bibie par un popul and consult Esodo 25. An archived version of the text can be found here.

Versets 1-9

Vocabulary: fevelâ (to speak), (to say), il fi (son), (to give), la part (portion, part, contribution), cjapâ sù (to gather), la cussience (conscience), cjapâ (to take), l’aur (gold), l’arint (silver), il bronç (bronze), la purpure viole (purple-blue), il ros vîf (bright red), il crem (crimson), il fîl (yarn, thread), il lin (linen), il pêl (hair), la cjavre (goat), la piel (skin), il roc (ram), intenzi (to dye), ros (red), il tac (badger), il len (wood), la agace (acacia; also agacie), il vueli (oil), la lampade (lamp), il balsim (balsam), il vueli di ongi (anointing oil; also onzi), l’incens (incense), profumât (fragrant, scented), la piere (stone), la sardonie (sardonyx), di ornament (ornamental), l’efod (ephod), il petorâl (breastpiece), il santuari (sanctuary), in mût che (in order that), podê (may, can, to be able), stâ framieç di (to dwell amongst), il stamp (stamp, model, form, pattern), sul stamp di (after the manner of), la robe (items, things, matter), meti dentri (to put inside), mostrâ (to show).

Verses 1-2: Il Signôr i fevelà a Mosè cussì (thus spoke the Lord to Moses): dîsiur ai fîs di Israel (tell the sons of Israel) di dâ une part par me (to make [give] a contribution to me). O cjaparês sù (you shall gather [you shall take up]) dut ce che a dan (all that which give) chei che a àn cussience* (those who have conscience). *That is to say, those who give intentionally.

Verses 3-7: Ve la part che o cjaparês di lôr (this is the contribution that you shall gather from them): aur, arint e bronç (gold, silver and bronze); purpure viole e ros vîf (purple-blue and bright red), crem (crimson), fîl di lin (linen yarn) e pêl di cjavre (and goat hair); piels di roc intenzudis a ros (ram skins dyed red), piel di tac e len di agace (badger skin and acacia wood); vueli pes lampadis (oil for the lamps), balsim par vueli di ongi (balsam for the anointing oil) e incens profumât (and fragrant incense); pieris di sardonie (sardonyx stones), pieris di ornament pal efod* (ornamental stones for the ephod) e pal petorâl (and for the breastpiece). On the human body (arm, leg, etc., or in a beard, moustache), a single strand of hair is un pêl (plural i pêi); for instance, i pêi de barbe means hairs of the beard. A single strand of hair on the human head is un cjaveli; all the hair on the human head is referred to collectively as i cjavei. In verse 4, pêl is used collectively to refer to the hairs on an animal: pêl di cjavre (goat hair). Colours: mention is made in verse 4 of purpure viole. Viole is the Friulian for purple. Purpure is a reddish purple. Purpure viole is a bluish purple. Other colours: turchin (blue; in between blu and celest), blu (dark/navy blue), celest (light/baby blue), zâl (yellow), ros (red), rose (pink), grîs (grey), vert (green), naranç (orange), maron (brown), scûr (very dark brown; also black to almost black), neri (black). The Friulian for white is blanc. The colours mentioned in verse 4 are used as nouns because they refer to dyed yarns. *The ephod is a square garment worn by priests, hanging down from the shoulders.

Verse 8: Fâsimi un santuari (make me a sanctuary) in mût che jo o puedi stâ framieç di lôr (that I may dwell [may be able to dwell] amongst them).

Verse 9: Tu fasarâs dut sul stamp dal santuari (you shall make the whole after the manner of the sanctuary) e sul stamp de robe che tu âs di meti dentri (and after the manner of the items that you are to put inside it), come che ti mostrarai (as I will show you).

Versets 10-16

Vocabulary: un’arcje (ark), il len (wood), la agace (acacia; also agacie), lunc (long), doi (two), il comedon (cubit, elbow), e mieç (and a half), larc (wide), alt (tall), fodrâ (to cover, to overlay), l’aur rût (pure gold), par dentri (on the inside), par difûr (on the outside), un ôr (rim, edge), torator (round about), fondi (to meld, to cast), cuatri (four), un anel (ring), saldâ (to secure, to attach), il pît (foot), la bande (side), la stangje (pole), rivestî (to cover, to overlay; also rivistî), passâ par (to pass through), di ca e di là (on either side), podê (may, can, to be able), puartâ (to carry, to bear), stâ (to stay, to remain), tirâ vie (to remove), meti (to put, to place), la testemoneance (testimony), (to give).

Verse 10: Tu fasarâs un’arcje di len di agace (you shall make an ark of acacia wood), lungje doi comedons e mieç (two and a half cubits long), largje un comedon e mieç (a cubit and a half wide) e alte un comedon e mieç (and a cubit and a half tall). In Gjenesi 6, you read about Noah’s ark, where the Friulian for ark is the feminine arcje (un’arcje or une arcje; depending on whether or not the contraction is observed). In the current verse, it is not question of an ark as in the one used by Noah, but of a chest or coffer: the arcje was used to contain the lastris di clap. The masculine comedon is the Friulian for elbow; it is used here in the sense of cubit. The feminine forms of lunc, larc and alt are lungje, largje and alte; they are in feminine form in the text of this verse to agree with the feminine arcje.

Verse 11: Tu le fodrarâs di aur rût (you shall overlay it with pure gold) par dentri e par difûr (inside and out [inside and outside]), e tu i fasarâs un ôr d’aur torator (and you shall make a rim of gold for it round about).

Verse 12: Tu fondarâs, par jê, cuatri anei d’aur (you shall cast four rings of gold for it) e tu ju saldarâs ai siei cuatri pîts (and you shall secure them to its four feet); doi anei di une bande (two rings on one side) e doi anei di chê altre (and two rings on the other).

Verse 13: Tu fasarâs ancje stangjis di len di agace (you shall also make poles of acacia wood); tu lis rivestissarâs d’aur (you shall overlay them with gold). Regarding rivestî, see the notes at verse 24 below.

Verse 14: Tu fasarâs passâ lis stangjis pai anei (you shall insert the poles into the rings [you shall make the poles pass through the rings]) di ca e di là de arcje (on either side of the ark), par podêle puartâ (so as to be able to carry it). The expression di ca e di là (on either side) is composed of di ca (over here) and di là (over there).

Verse 15: Lis stangjis a staran tai anei de arcje (the poles shall remain in the rings of the ark) e no lis tirarês vie (and you shall not remove them).

Verse 16: Te arcje tu metarâs la testemoneance che jo ti darai: in the ark you shall place the testimony that I will give you.

Versets 17-22

Vocabulary: il propiziatori (propitiatory), l’aur rût (pure gold), lunc (long), il comedon (elbow, cubit), doi (two), e mieç (and a half), larc (wide), il cherubin (cherub), l’aur batût (beaten gold), insomp e dapît (at either end, at both ends; also insom e da pît), meti (to put, to place), la estremitât (extremity, end), in mût che (in order that), fâ dutun cun (to be as one with), une ale (wing), viert (opened), par in sù (upwards), protezi (to protect), la muse (face), muse cun muse (face to face), voltât de bande di (turned towards), parsore di (over, above), la arcje (ark), sistemâ (to set, to place), la testemoneance (testimony), vignî (to come), cjatâ (to meet), tal mieç (in the middle), (to give), un ordin (order, command), il fi (son).

Verse 17: Tu fasarâs ancje un propiziatori d’aur rût (you shall also make a propitiatory of pure gold), lunc doi comedons e mieç (two and a half cubits long) e larc un comedon e mieç (and a cubit and a half wide).

Verse 18: Tu fasarâs ancje doi cherubins in aur batût (you shall also make two cherubim of beaten gold); tu ju fasarâs insomp e dapît dal propiziatori. Aur batût (beaten gold) is gold beaten into shape by hammer; the Friulian for to beat is bati, and its past participle is batût.

Verse 19: Tu metis un cherubin (you shall put [you put] one cherub) intune estremitât (at one end) e chel altri cherubin (and the other cherub) in chê altre estremitât (at the other end): tu fasarâs i cherubins (you shall make the cherubim) in mût che a fasin dutun cul propiziatori (so that they are as one with the propitiatory), insomp e dapît (at either end).

Verse 20: I cherubins a varan lis alis viertis par in sù (the cherubim shall have their wings opened upwards) e a protezaran cu lis lôr alis il propiziatori muse cun muse (and, face to face, they shall protect the propitiatory with their wings). Lis musis dai cherubins a saran voltadis de bande dal propiziatori: the faces of the cherubim shall be turned towards the propitiatory.

Verse 21: Tu metarâs il propiziatori parsore de arcje (you shall place the propitiatory over the ark) e te arcje tu sistemarâs la testemoneance che jo ti darai (and in the ark you shall set the testimony which I will give you).

Verse 22: Al è li che jo o vignarai a cjatâti: it is there that I will come to meet you. Al è parsore dal propiziatori (it is over the propitiatory), tal mieç dai doi cherubins che a son su l’arcje de testemoneance (between [in the middle of] the two cherubim which are upon the ark of the testimony) che jo ti darai i miei ordins pai fîs di Israel (that I will give you my commands for the sons of Israel).

Versets 23-30

Vocabulary: la taule (table), il len (wood), la agace (acacia; also agacie), lunc (long), doi (two), il comedon (elbow, cubit), larc (wide), alt (tall), e mieç (and a half), riviestî (to cover, to overlay; also rivistî), l’aur rût (pure gold), torator (round about), un ôr (rim, edge), di aur, d’aur (of gold), la curnîs (moulding, border), une cuarte (span), cuatri (four), un anel (ring), meti (to put, to place), il cjanton (corner), il pecol (support, foot), dongje (by, next to, alongside), parâ dentri (to insert, to put [drive] in), la stangje (pole), puartâ (to bear, to carry), fodrâ (to cover, to overlay), coventâ (to be needed, to be necessary), il plat (plate), il bocâl (jug), une anfure (jar, amphora), la tace (cup), la libagjon (libation), lassâ (to leave), simpri (always), il pan (bread), la ufierte (offering).

Verse 23: Tu fasarâs une taule di len di agace (you shall make a table of acacia wood), lungje doi comedons (two cubits long), largje un comedon (a cubit wide) e alte un comedon e mieç (and a cubit and a half tall).

Verse 24: Tu le riviestissarâs di aur rût (you shall overlay it with pure gold) e tu i fasarâs torator un ôr di aur (and you shall make a rim of gold for it round about). In the text of this verse, you find tu le riviestissarâs, whereas in verse 13 you encountered tu lis rivestissarâs; these are variants of one another, the first issuing from the form riviestî and the second from the form rivestî. This verb has been standardised as rivistî.

Verse 25: Tu i fasarâs torator une curnîs largje une cuarte (you shall make a moulding for it of a span in width [wide a span]) e torator de curnîs tu fasarâs un ôr d’aur (and shall make a rim of gold round about the moulding).

Verse 26: Tu i fasarâs cuatri anei d’aur (you shall make four rings of gold for it) e tu metarâs anei (and shall put rings) tai cuatri cjantons (at its four corners [in the four corners]), tai cuatri pecoi (at its four feet [in the four feet]). Pecoi is the plural of the masculine pecol, which refers here to each foot or bottom-end support of the table.

Verse 27: I anei tu ju metarâs dongje de curnîs (you shall put the rings alongside the moulding), par parâ dentri lis stangjis che a varan di puartâ la taule (that the poles which are to bear the table may be inserted {therein} [so as to insert [drive in] the poles which are to bear the table]).

Verse 28: Lis stangjis tu lis fasarâs di len di agace (you shall make the poles of acacia wood) e tu lis fodrarâs di aur (and shall overlay them with gold); a coventaran par puartâ la taule (they shall serve to carry the table).

Verses 29-30: Tu fasarâs i plaçs, i bocâi, lis anfuris e lis tacis pe libagjon: you shall make its plates, jugs, jars and libation cups (cups for the libation). Tu ju fasarâs di aur rût (you shall make them of pure gold) e tu lassarâs simpri su la taule (and shall always leave on the table), denant di me (before me), i pans de ufierte (the bread of the offering). Plaçs: this is a variant of the plural plats. I pans de ufierte can also be found referred to in English bread of the presence, bread of display, show bread. The Friulian pan (bread) can be pluralised as pans; this plural can be taken in English as bread in a collective sense, or as bread loaves.

Versets 31-40

Vocabulary: il cjandelîr (lampstand), di aur rût (of pure gold), il pît (base), il poc (shaft), ribatût (beaten), il cjaliç (calyx), il bocul (bud), il flôr (flower, blossom), fâ bloc cun (to be as one with), di ca e di là (on either side), partî (to originate, to issue), sîs (six), il braç (arm, branch), trê (three), la bande (side), prin (first), la forme (form), il mandolâr (almond tree), secont (second), compagn par (likewise for), cuatri (four), sot di (under), ultin (last, final), ven a stâi (which is to say), il bloc (block, lot), siet (seven), la lampade (lamp), sistemâ (to set, to arrange), in mût che (in order that), fâ lusôr (to give off light), il smocjadôr (pincer, tong), il platel (small plate), il furniment (furnishing), lâi a un (to cost one), un talent (talent; Hebrew weight of gold), cjalâ ben (to note [look] well), seont (according to), il stamp (stamp, model, form, pattern), viodi (to see), la mont (mount, mountain).

Verse 31: Tu fasarâs un cjandelîr di aur rût (you shall make a lampstand of pure gold); il cjandelîr, il pît e il poc a saran ribatûts (the lampstand, its base and its shaft, shall be beaten*); i cjaliçs, i bocui e i flôrs a fasaran bloc cun lui (its calyxes, buds and blossoms shall be as one with it). *That is to say, of hammered work.

Verse 32: Di ca e di là a partissaran sîs braçs (on either side shall six branches issue): trê braçs dal cjandelîr di une bande (three branches of the lampstand on one side) e trê braçs dal cjandelîr di chê altre (and three branches of the lampstand on the other).

Verse 33: Il prin braç al varà trê cjaliçs a forme di flôr di mandolâr (the first branch shall have three calyxes in the form of an almond blossom), cun bocui e flôr (with buds and a flower) e ancje il secont braç al varà (and the second branch shall also have) trê cjaliçs a forme di flôr di mandolâr (three calyxes in the form of an almond blossom) cun bocui e flôr (with buds and a flower); compagn par ducj i sîs braçs (likewise for all six branches) che a partissaran dal cjandelîr (which issue [will issue] from the lampstand).

Verses 34-35: Ancje il cjandelîr al varà cuatri cjaliçs a forme di flôr di mandolâr (so too shall the lampstand have four calyxes in the form of an almond blossom), cun bocul e flôr (with a bud and a flower), un bocul sot dai prins doi braçs (a bud under the first two branches) che a partissin dal cjandelîr (which issue from the lampstand), un bocul sot di chei altris doi braçs (a bud under the other two branches) e un bocul sot dai ultins doi braçs (and a bud under the last two branches), ven a stâi tai sîs braçs che a partissin dal cjandelîr (which is to say, under [in] the six branches that issue from the lampstand).

Verse 36: I bocui e i braçs a fasaran bloc cul cjandelîr (the buds and the branches shall be as one with the lampstand) e dut al sarà fat in trê blocs di aur rût ribatût (and the whole shall be made of three lots of beaten gold).

Verse 37: Tu fasarâs ancje siet lampadis: you shall also make seven lamps. Si sistemarà lis lampadis (the lamps shall be set [one shall set the lamps]) in mût che a fasin lusôr denant di lui (so that they give off light before it).

Verse 38: I siei smocjadôrs e i platei a saran di aur rût: its pincers and plates [small plates] shall be made of pure gold. Platel (small plate, little plate) is the diminutive of plat (plate).

Verse 39: Par fâlu cun ducj i siei furniments (to make it with all its furnishings) ti larà un talent di aur rût (it will cost you [unto will go] a talent of pure gold).

Verse 40: Cjale ben (note well [look well]) e fâs seont il stamp (and execute after the manner) che tu âs viodût su la mont (which you saw on the mountain).