Polish language series: Rdz 44, srebrny puchar

In Rdz 44, or the forty-fourth chapter of the book of Genesis in Polish version, you will read about the following: Józef poddaje braci ostatniej próbie (Joseph puts his brothers to the last test). Learn or review: poddawać (impf., to put, to surrender), ostatni (last, final), próba (f., test, trial).

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Read Rdz 44

To read the Polish text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Biblia Tysiąclecia and consult Rdz 44. An archived version of the text can be found here.

Wersety 1-3

  • unieść (pf.), to lift, to bear, to carry
  • powkładać (impf.), to deposit, to put
  • świt (m.), dawn, daybreak

Review: tymczasem (meanwhile), polecenie (n., instruction, order), przełożony (m., chief, superior), dom (m., house), napełnić (impf., to fill), torba (f., bag), ludzie (pl., men), żywność (f., food), zdołać (pf., to manage, to succeed), pieniądze (pl., money), wierzch (m., top), każdy (each), puchar (m., goblet, chalice), srebrny (of silver), włożyć (pf., to put, to place), najmłodszy (m., youngest), oprócz (apart from), zboże (n., grain), rozkazać (pf., to order, to command), wyprawić (pf., to send off), wraz z (along with), osioł (m., donkey), droga (f., way, road).

In the first verse, Joseph orders his chief fill the sacks of his brothers with food and their own money. Understand: napełnij torby tych ludzi żywnością (fill the bags of these men with food), ile tylko zdołają unieść (however much they manage to bear; however much they can carry).

In verse 2, he orders his chief put his silver cup at the top of Benjamin’s sack. Benjamin is referred to as najmłodszy (the youngest). His chief did as he was told: uczynił tak, jak mu Józef rozkazał (he did as Joseph had ordered him).

Declension of torba (f.)

sing. pl.
nom. torba torby
gen. torby toreb
torb
*
dat. torbie torbom
acc. torbę torby
instr. torbą torbami
loc. torbie torbach
voc. torbo torby

* You encountered the alternative and rare genitive plural torb in Rdz 43 (see verses 12, 18, 21, 22 and 23). Of the current chapter, there is an example of it in verse 8 ahead. (The recorded version uses toreb.)

Verse 3: o świcie (at dawn, at daybreak) wyprawiono ich (one sent them off; they were sent off) wraz z ich osłami (along with their donkeys) w drogę (on [their] way). Wyprawić w drogę is to be understood as to send on one’s way.

Wersety 4-5

  • zaledwie, barely, only just
  • podążyć (pf.), to follow
  • co prędzej, without delay, at once
  • odpłacić (pf.), to repay, to return
  • pijać (impf.), to drink (habitually)
  • wróżyć (impf.), to divine, to prophesy

Review: wyjść (pf., to exit, to go out), miasto (n., town, city), ujść (pf., to escape, to flee), daleko (far away), dogonić (pf., to overtake, to catch up to), czemu (why), zło (n., evil), dobro (n., good), wszak (after all), skraść (pf., to steal), potrafić (pf., impf., can, to be able), źle (badly, wrong), postąpić (pf., to behave, to act), dopuszczać się (impf., to commit), czyn (m., deed).

Verse 4: zaledwie jednak wyszli z miasta (they had only just gone out of the city however); podąż co prędzej za nimi (follow them at once; za nimi, behind them). Once Joseph’s chief has caught up to his brothers, he is to ask them: czemu odpłaciliście złem za dobro? (why have you returned evil for good?). The instrumental złem can be understood as meaning with evil, by evil (that is, to repay with evil).

What the chief is to say to Joseph’s brothers continues in verse 5; understand: skradliście (you have stolen); srebrny puchar (silver goblet, silver chalice); z którego (from which). Pijać can be understood as to drink (habitually; occasionally); z którego pija pan mój can be translated as from which my lord drinks, but with the nuance of from which my lord is in the habit of drinking; from which my lord drinks from time to time. You read that it is from the silver goblet that Joseph also divines.

Past tense of the perfective skraść:

(masculine)
skradłem (1.ps)
skradłeś (2.ps)
skradł (3.ps)
skradliśmy (1.pp)
skradliście (2.pp)
skradli (3.pp)

(feminine)
skradłam (1.ps)
skradłaś (2.ps)
skradła (3.ps)
skradłyśmy (1.pp)
skradłyście (2.pp)
skradły (3.pp)

1.ps = first-person singular
1.pp = first-person plural, etc.

From the remainder of verse 5: źle postąpiliście (you have behaved badly), dopuszczając się takiego czynu (committing such a deed).

Wersety 6-9

  • postępowanie (n.), behaviour, conduct
  • kradzież (f.), theft

Review: dogonić (pf., to overtake, to catch up to), rzecz (f., thing), sługa (m., servant), daleki (far, distant), przecież (after all), znaleźć (pf., to find), wierzch (m., top), torba (f., bag), przynieść (pf., to bring back), jakże (how, how on earth), dopuszczać się (impf., to commit), złoto (n., gold), lub (or), srebro (n., silver), znaleźć się (pf., to be found), umrzeć (pf., to die), stać się (pf., to become), niewolnik (m., slave).

In verse 6, ten stands in for przełożony. When the chief catches up to Joseph’s brothers, he says unto them as he had been instructed.

The brothers, in verse 7, then respond: jak możesz (how can you), panie mój (my lord), mówić takie rzeczy? (say such things?). Note the vocative panie mój. In the remainder of verse 7, you read: dalekie jest od sług twoich takie postępowanie (far from your servants is such behaviour). Dalekie is the nomintive neuter form of the adjective daleki; it agrees here with the neuter postępowanie.

daleki (nom., m., sing.)
daleka (nom., f., sing.)
dalekie (nom., n., sing.)

Verse 8: na wierzchu naszych torb (at the top of our bags); z Kanaanu (from Canaan).

Verse 9: u którego z twoich sług (with whomsoever of your servants). Knowing that they were all innocent, the brothers say that the thief amongst them must die and that the remaining brothers will become slaves.

Of the verb znaleźć, learn the perfective future and past tense:

Perfective future

znajdę (1.ps)
znajdziesz (2.ps)
znajdzie (3.ps)
znajdziemy (1.pp)
znajdziecie (2.pp)
znajdą (3.pp)

Past tense

(masculine)
znalazłem (1.ps)
znalazłeś (2.ps)
znalazł (3.ps)
znaleźliśmy (1.pp)
znaleźliście (2.pp)
znaleźli (3.pp)

(feminine)
znalazłam (1.ps)
znalazłaś (2.ps)
znalazła (3.ps)
znalazłyśmy (1.pp)
znalazłyście (2.pp)
znalazły (3.pp)

1.ps = first-person singular
1.pp = first-person plural, etc.

Wersety 10-13

  • istotnie, indeed, really
  • jednakże = jednak
  • przeszukiwać (impf.), to search
  • począć (pf.), to start, to begin
  • kończyć (impf.), to end, to finish
  • objuczyć (pf.), to load

Review: powinien (ought), znaleźć się (pf., to be found), zostać (pf., to remain), wolny (free), wina (f., guilt, fault, sin), pospiesznie (quickly, hurriedly), zdjąć (pf., to take off), postawić (pf., to place, to put), otworzyć (pf., to open), zacząć (pf., to start, to begin), najstarszy (m., eldest, oldest), rozedrzeć (pf., to tear), żal (m., regret, sorrow), szata (f., garment), osioł (m., donkey), wrócić (pf., to return), miasto (n., town, city).

In verse 10, the chief says to the brothers: istotnie, powinno tak być, jak mówicie (indeed, it ought to be as you say). He also says: jednakże ten, u którego [puchar] się znajdzie (whereas he with whom the goblet will be found), zostanie niewolnikiem (shall remain a slave), wy zaś będziecie wolni od winy (you on the other hand shall be free of fault).

Verse 11: każdy z nich zdjął swoją torbę (each of them took off his bag); that is, each took his bag off his donkey. Each bag was then placed on the ground and opened.

Their sacks are searched in verse 12. Understand: począwszy od najstarszego (having started from the eldest), a kończąc na najmłodszym (and ending at the youngest). The goblet is found in Benjamin’s sack.

Verse 13: rozdarli z żalu swe szaty (they tore in sorrow their garments); objuczywszy każdy swego osła (each having loaded his donkey).

Declension of osioł (m.)

sing. pl.
nom. osioł osły
gen. osła osłów
dat. osłu
osłowi
*
osłom
acc. osła osły
instr. osłem osłami
loc. ośle osłach
voc. ośle osły

* rare

Wersety 14-16

  • zastać (pf.), to come across, to find
  • usprawiedliwienie (m.), justification
  • oddawać (impf.) się, to surrender oneself
  • zarówno… jak i…, both… and…

Review: przyjść (pf., to arrive, to come), paść (pf., to fall), twarz (f., face), ziemia (f., earth), dopuścić się (pf., to commit), czyn (m., deed), wiedzieć (impf., to know), człowiek (m., man), potrafić (pf., impf., can, to be able), wróżyć (impf., to divine, to prophesy), rzec (pf., to say), powiedzieć (pf., to say), wina (f., sin, guilt, fault), sługa (m., servant), niewola (f., slavery, servitude).

Verse 14: zastali go tam jeszcze (they came across him there yet); padli przed nim twarzą ku ziemi (they fell before him with [their] face[s] to the ground).

Joseph, in verse 15, says to his brothers: jak mogliście się dopuścić takiego czynu? (how could you have committed such a deed?). He also says: czy nie wiedzieliście (were you not knowing), że taki człowiek jak ja (that such a man as I) potrafi wróżyć? (is able to divine?).

Verse 16: cóż mamy rzec tobie, panie mój? (what ever have we to say to you, my lord?; what ever shall we say to you, my lord?); cóż możemy powiedzieć na nasze usprawiedliwienie? (what ever can we say in self-justification?; that is, what ever can we say to justify ourselves?). Na nasze usprawiedliwienie: in our justification. Also: oddajemy się w niewolę tobie (we surrender ourselves to you in servitude); zarówno my jak i ten (both us and the one), u którego został znaleziony puchar (with whom the goblet was found).

został znaleziony
it was found
it got found

został znaleziony puchar
the goblet was found
the goblet got found

Wersety 17-19

Review: daleki (far, distant), postąpić (pf., to behave, to act), znaleźć (pf., to find), puchar (m., goblet, chalice), niewolnik (m., slave), spokojnie (peacefully, calmly), odejść (pf., to leave, to depart), podejść (pf., to approach, to walk up to), pozwolić (pf., to permit, to let), słowo (n., word), wobec (before, towards), gniewać się (impf., to be angry), wszakże (after all), faraon (m., pharaoh), pytać (impf., to ask).

Joseph, in verse 17, says: jestem daleki od tego, abym miał tak postąpić (I am far from behaving thus); by this, Joseph means to say that he will not take Judah and his brothers as slaves, as Judah had offered in verse 16. The one who had stolen the goblet, however, he indeed must become his slave: tylko ten, u którego znaleziono puchar (only the one with whom one found the goblet; only the one with whom the goblet was found), będzie moim niewolnikiem (shall be my slave). Joseph then tells his brothers that they can return in peace unto their father (without Benjamin, of course).

Verse 18: powiedzieć słowo wobec ciebie (to say a word to you); nie gniewaj się na twego sługę (do not be angry with your servant); wszakżeś ty jak faraon (after all as a pharaoh you are).

Verse 19: czy macie ojca lub brata? (have you a father or brother?).

Wersety 20-22

  • by, would

Review: odpowiedzieć (pf., to reply), stary (old), ojciec (m., father), jeszcze jeden (one more, yet another), najmłodszy (youngest), brat (n., brother), zrodzić (pf., to beget), starość (f., old age), żyć (impf., to live, to be alive), zostać (pf., to remain), ten sam (the very same), matka (f., mother), dlatego (that is why), pokochać (pf., to feel affection for), rozkazać (pf., to order, to command), sprowadzić (pf., to bring), zobaczyć (pf., to see), chłopiec (m. boy), opuścić (pf., to abandon, to leave), bo gdyby (for if), umrzeć (pf., to die).

Verse 20: mamy starego ojca (we have an old father) i jeszcze jednego, najmłodszego brata (and yet another youngest brother; that is, Joseph), zrodzonego przez niego (begot by him) już w starości (already in his old age). Zrodzony: begot.

Still in verse 20, Judah also says: brat tego najmłodszego nie żyje (the brother of this youngest one [= the brother of Benjamin; that is, Joseph] is not alive). He continues: został on więc jeden (he therefore remained alone [that is, the only one]) z tej samej matki (from the very same mother; that is, Benjamin remained the only child left of his mother Rachel after the supposed death of his brother Joseph) i dlatego ojciec go pokochał (and that is why his father loved him).

Verse 21: sługom twoim (unto your servants); sprowadźcie (bring; second-person plural imperative); do mnie (unto me).

Verse 22: nie może chłopiec opuścić ojca (the boy cannot leave his father), bo gdyby go opuścił (for if he left him; for should he leave him), ojciec by umarł (his father would die).

Wersety 23-26

  • powtórzyć (pf.), to repeat
  • pokazać (pf.) się, to show oneself

Review: przyjść (pf., to arrive, to come), pokazywać się (impf., to show oneself), oko (n., eye), słowo (n., word), iść (impf., to go), znów (again), zakupić (pf., to buy, to purchase), żywność (f., food), pójść (pf., to go), mąż (m., man).

Judah continues to recall the words of Joseph. From verse 23, understand the following portions: jeśli nie przyjdzie (if he will not come; that is, if he does not come); z wami (with you); nie pokazujcie mi się na oczy (do not show yourselves before my eyes). In this verse, you find the imperfective pokazywać się; in verse 26 ahead, you find the perfective pokazać się.

Verse 24: przyszliśmy (we came, we arrived); powtórzyliśmy (we repeated). Of przyjść, review the perfective future, as well as the masculine and feminine of the past tense:

Perfective future

przyjdę (1.ps)
przyjdziesz (2.ps)
przyjdzie (3.ps)
przyjdziemy (1.pp)
przyjdziecie (2.pp)
przyjdą (3.pp)

Past tense

(masculine)
przyszedłem (1.ps)
przyszedłeś (2.ps)
przyszedł (3.ps)
przyszliśmy (1.pp)
przyszliście (2.pp)
przyszli (3.pp)

(feminine)
przyszłam (1.ps)
przyszłaś (2.ps)
przyszła (3.ps)
przyszłyśmy (1.pp)
przyszłyście (2.pp)
przyszły (3.pp)

1.ps = first-person singular
1.pp = first-person plural, etc.

Verse 25: idźcie znów (go again).

Verse 26: pójdziemy tylko wtedy (we shall go only then), gdy z nami pójdzie nasz najmłodszy brat (when with us will go our youngest brother); owemu mężowi (unto that man).

Perfective future of pójść:

pójdę (1.ps)
pójdziesz (2.ps)
pójdzie (3.ps)
pójdziemy (1.pp)
pójdziecie (2.pp)
pójdą (3.pp)

1.ps = first-person singular
1.pp = first-person plural, etc.

Wersety 27-31

  • umiłować (pf.), to take in affection

Review: wiedzieć (impf., to know), żona (f., wife), urodzić (pf., to bear), syn (m., son), wyjść (pf., to go out), pomyśleć (pf., to think), rozszarpać (pf., to tear to pieces), już więcej (no more), widzieć (impf., to see), zabrać (pf., to take), spotkać (pf., to meet), jakieś (a, some), nieszczęście (n., misfortune), siwizna (f., greyness [of hair]), zstąpić (pf., to descend), wśród (amongst), niedola (f., distress, misery), chłopiec (m., boy), zobaczyć (pf., to see), umrzeć (pf., to die), przyczyna (f., cause, reason), zgryzota (f., trouble, anguish).

In verse 27, Judah recalls Jacob’s words to Joseph: wiecie (you know), że jedna z mych żon (that one of my wives) urodziła mi dwóch synów (bore two sons unto me). Jedna is of course the feminine form of jeden because it refers to a female: Rachel. Mych is a variant of moich; review the declension of Polish possessive pronouns.

Present tense of the imperfective wiedzieć:

wiem (1.ps)
wiesz (2.ps)
wie (3.ps)
wiemy (1.pp)
wiecie (2.pp)
wiedzą (3.pp)

1.ps = first-person singular
1.pp = first-person plural, etc.

Declension of dwa (plural only)

m. (pers.) m. (npers.),
n.
f.
nom.,
voc.
dwaj
dwóch
dwa dwie
gen. dwóch dwóch dwóch
dat. dwóm dwóm dwóm
acc. dwóch dwa dwie
instr. dwoma dwoma dwoma
dwiema
loc. dwóch dwóch dwóch

m. (pers.), masculine personal
m. (npers.), masculine non-personal

Verse 28: wyszedł ode mnie (he went out from me; that is, he left [died on] me); pomyślałem sobie (I thought to myself); został rozszarpany (he got torn to pieces; he was torn to pieces).

Verse 29: jeżeli i tego drugiego zabierzecie ode mnie (if you will also take this other one from me); moja siwizna zstąpi (my greyness [of hair] will descend; that is, my grey hairs will descend); do Szeolu (to Sheol; the abode of the dead: Szeol); wśród niedoli (in misery).

Perfective future of zabrać:

zabiorę (1.ps)
zabierzesz (2.ps)
zabierze (3.ps)
zabierzemy (1.pp)
zabierzecie (2.pp)
zabiorą (3.pp)

1.ps = first-person singular
1.pp = first-person plural, etc.

Verse 30: gdybym (if I); i nie byłoby z nami chłopca (and there would not be with us the boy), tak przez niego umiłowanego (so beloved by him). Umiłowany, from the perfective umiłować, means beloved.

Verse 31: będziemy przyczyną (we shall be the reason); ze zgryzoty (from anguish).

Wersety 32-34

  • odpowiedzialność (f.), responsibility

Review: wziąć (pf., to take), chłopiec (m., boy), względem (in relation to, towards), przyprowadzić (pf., to bring), darować (pf., to excuse, to overlook), wina (f., sin, fault, guilt), zostać (pf., to remain), zamiast (instead of), niewolnik (m., slave), jakże (how, how on earth), chcieć (impf., to want), patrzeć (impf., to look), nieszczęście (n., misfortune), dotknąć (pf., to touch, to affect, to afflict).

From Rdz 43:9, you will recall having met odpowiadać za, meaning to answer for, to be responsible for: ja odpowiadam za niego (I am responsible for him). Now, in verse 32 of the current chapter, you find: wziąłem na siebie odpowiedzialność za tego chłopca (I took upon myself responsibility for this boy). Also from verse 32: może mi nigdy mój ojciec nie darować mojej winy (my father can [that is, has the right to] never excuse my fault).

Verse 33: niechaj ja […] zostanę (may I remain) zamiast chłopca (instead of the boy) niewolnikiem (as slave) pana mego (of my lord).

Verse 34: jeśliby nie było go ze mną (if he is not with me); nie chciałbym patrzeć na nieszczęście mego ojca (I would not want to look upon the misfortune of my father), które by go dotknęło (which would afflict him).