Polish language series: Rdz 43, Józef ucztuje z braćmi

You will now study the Polish text of Rdz 43, or the forty-third chapter of the book of Genesis. In this chapter, Joseph feasts with his brothers: Józef ucztuje z braćmi. The imperfective verb ucztować means to feast.

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Read Rdz 43

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Wersety 1-5

  • do ostatka, to the very end
  • spożyć (pf.), to consume
  • pokazywać się (impf.), to show oneself
  • pojechać (pf.), to go, to leave

Review: kraj (m., land, country), panować (impf., to reign, to rule), ciężki (heavy, grievous), głód (m., famine, hunger), zboże (n., grain), sprowadzić (pf., to bring), Egipt (m., Egypt), ojciec (m., father), znów (again), kupić (pf., to buy, to purchase), trochę (a little, a bit of), żywność (f., food), powiedzieć (pf., to say), władca (m., ruler), surowo (sternly, severely), przykazać (pf., to command, to tell), oko (n., eye), brat (m., brother), jeżeli (if), gotów (willing, prepared, ready), posłać (pf., to send), chcieć (impf., to want, to intend), bo przecież (for after all).

In the first verse, you read that a grievous famine reigned in the land. In the second verse, from the noun ostatek (m., remainder, rest) comes the expression do ostatka (to the very end, to the last). You read: a kiedy do ostatka spożyli zboże (and when they had consumed the grain to the very end; that is, and when they had eaten the last of the grain). Jacob (Israel) tells his sons: idźcie znów (go again) kupić dla nas (to buy for us) trochę żywności (a little food).

Verse 3: Judah restates what Joseph had said to them: nie pokazujcie mi się na oczy (do not show yourselves before my eyes), jeśli brata waszego nie będzie z wami (if your brother will not be with you); that is, do not come before me if your brother is not with you.

Verse 4: Jeżeli jesteś gotów posłać z nami naszego brata (if you are willing to send our brother with us), pojedziemy i kupimy ci żywności (we shall go and buy you food).

Verse 5: A jeżeli nie chcesz go posłać: whereas if you will not send him.

Wersety 6-10

  • narazić (pf.), to expose
  • wypytywać się (impf.), to inquire
  • dokładnie, thoroughly
  • odpowiadać (impf.), to answer, to reply
  • pytanie (n.), question
  • darować (pf.), to excuse, to overlook

Review: czemu (why), niedola (f., adversity, distress), jeszcze (yet), odpowiedzieć (pf., to answer, to reply), władca (m., ruler), rodzina (f., family), pytać (impf., to ask), żyć (impf., to live, to be alive), zatem (therefore), wiedzieć (impf., to know), powiedzieć (pf., to say), sprowadzić (pf., to bring), po czym (thereupon, after which), posłać (pf., to send), chłopiec (m., boy), zaraz (at once, immediately), pojechać (pf., to go, to leave), ratować (impf., to rescue, to save), życie (n., life), pomrzeć (pf., to die), dziecko (n., child), żądać (impf., to demand, to require), oddać (pf., to give back, to return), przyprowadzić (pf., to bring), wina (f., sin, guilt, fault), zwlekać (impf., to linger, to delay), wrócić (pf., to return), raz (m., time).

In verse 6, Israel (Jacob) reprimands his sons, asking them: czemu naraziliście mnie na niedolę (why did you expose me to distress) mówiąc mu ([by] saying to him), że macie jeszcze brata? (that you have yet a brother?).

The sons respond in verse 7: ów władca wypytywał się dokładnie (that ruler was inquiring thoroughly) o nas (about us) i o naszą rodzinę (and about our family). They say that they were asked the following questions by the ruler (Joseph): czy jeszcze żyje wasz ojciec? (is your father still living?), czy macie jeszcze brata? (have you yet a brother?). Whereas you have encountered many times the perfective odpowiedzieć, you now come across the imperfective odpowiadać (to answer, to reply): odpowiadaliśmy mu zatem na jego pytania (we were therefore answering his question). The sons also say: czyż mogliśmy wiedzieć (how ever could we have known), że powie (that he would say): sprowadźcie waszego brata (bring your brother).

Verse 8: Poślij ze mną tego chłopca: send this boy (Benjamin) with me. Abyśmy nie pomarli: so that we do not die. Wraz z naszymi dziećmi: along with our children.

Verse 9: Odpowiadać za means to answer for, to be responsible for: ja odpowiadam za niego (I am responsible for him). In the remainder of the verse Judah also says that if he does not bring Benjamin back to his father, then his father will be in the right to never forgive him for it: jeżeli nie przyprowadzę go do ciebie (if I shall not bring him [back] to you), możesz mi nigdy nie darować mej winy (you can unto me never excuse my fault).

Verse 10: Gdybyśmy nie zwlekali (if we had not lingered), już wrócilibyśmy dwa razy (we would have already returned twice).

Wersety 11-14

  • wór (m.), large sack
  • najcenniejszy, most valuable
  • miód (m.), honey
  • pistacja (f.), pistachio
  • migdał (m.), almond
  • podwójny, double
  • pomyłka (f.), mistake, error
  • wolno, freely
  • samotny, bereft

Review: musieć (impf., to have to, must), zabrać (pf., to take), zanieść (pf., to take, to bring), człowiek (m., man), dar (m., gift), nieco (a little, some), wonny (fragrant), żywica (f., resin), korzeń (m., root), olejek (m., oil), owoc (m., fruit), wziąć (pf., to take), suma (f., sum), pieniądze (pl., money), oddać (pf., to return, to give back), powrót (m., return), włożyć (pf., to put, to place), torba (f., bag), ruszać (impf., to set off), droga (f., way, road), powrotny (return), Bóg Wszechmocny (m., God Almighty), sprawić (pf., to cause, to bring about), zlitować się (pf., to take pity), puścić (pf., to let go, to release), zostać (pf., to remain).

Verse 11: Jeżeli tak być musi: if it must be so. Zabierzcie: take; second-person plural imperative. Zanieście: take; second-person plural imperative. W darze: as a gift. Following nieco, you find the genitive: nieco wonnej żywicy (a little fragrant resin), nieco miodu (a little honey), wonnych korzeni (fragrant roots), olejków (oils), owoców (fruits), pistacji (pistachios) i migdałów (and almonds).

cennycenniejszynajcenniejszy
valuablemore valuablemost valuable

Verse 12: Weźcie z sobą: take with yourselves; second-person plural imperative. Abyście: so that you. Na powrót włożono: one put back; one returned. Przez pomyłkę: in error. The genitive plural of the feminine torba is toreb or the rare torb; you find torb in the text but hear toreb in the recorded version.

Declension of pieniądze (pl.)

nom. pieniądze
gen. pieniędzy
dat. pieniądzom
acc. pieniądze
instr. pieniędzmi
loc. pieniądzach
voc. pieniądze

Verse 13: Ruszajcie w drogę powrotną (set off on the return way) do owego władcy (unto that ruler); that is, head back to that ruler.

Verse 14: Zlitować się nad wami: to take pity on us. Puścić wolno: to set free. Also: skoro mam zostać samotny (if I must remain bereft), to niech tak już będzie (so shall it be).

Wersety 15-16

  • dwukrotny, twofold
  • południe (n.), noon, midday

Review: zabrać (pf., to take), dar (m., gift), suma (f., sum), pieniądze (pl., money), ruszyć (pf., to set off), droga (f., way, road), przybyć (pf., to arrive, to come), stanąć (pf., to stand upright), ujrzeć (pf., to see), polecenie (n., instruction, order), przełożony (m., chief, superior), dom (m., house), zaprowadzić (pf., to lead, to guide, to conduct), kazać (impf., to order, to command), zabić (pf., to kill), przyrządzić (pf., to prepare), jakiś (a, some), sztuka (f., piece, unit, head), bydło (n., cattle), gdyż (for, because), jeść (impf., to eat), dziś (today).

Verse 15: Zabrali oni dary (they took the gifts), dwukrotną sumę pieniędzy (the twofold sum of money; that is, the double sum of money). A gdy stanęli przed Józefem: and when they stood before Joseph.

Verse 16: Ten: this one; that is, Joseph. Ujrzawszy wśród nich Beniamina: having seen Benjamin amongst them. Joseph gives an order to his chief: zaprowadź tych ludzi (conduct these men) do domu (to the house) i każ zabić (and order to kill; that is, have one slaughter [an animal]) i przyrządzić jakąś sztukę bydła (and to prepare a head of cattle), gdyż będą oni ze mną jedli dziś w południe (for they will eat with me today at noon). Jakąś is the feminine accusative of jakiś: jakaś sztuka (nom., a head; unit); przyrządzić jakąś sztukę (acc., to prepare a head; unit). As for the neuter południe, you have of course seen this numerous times in the sense of south; here, it is used with the meaning of noon, midday: w południe means at noon, at midday. Conversely, the feminine północ, which you have met before in the sense of north, also means midnight.

Wersety 17-18

  • przejęty, seized, taken over
  • poprzedni, previous, last

Review: przełożony (m., chief, superior), uczynić (pf., to do, to make), polecić (pf., to instruct, to command), zaprowadzić (pf., to lead, to guide, to conduct), lęk (m., fear), kazać (impf., to order, to command), mówić (impf., to say), powód (m., cause, reason), raz (m., time), włożyć (pf., to put, to place), torba (f., bag), napaść (pf., to attack, to assault), przemoc (f., violence), niewolnik (m., slave), zabrać (pf., to take), osioł (m., donkey).

Verse 17: Tak, jak mu polecił Józef: just as Joseph had commanded him.

Verse 18: Przejęci lękiem (gripped with fear), że Józef kazał ich zaprowadzić do swego domu (that Joseph was ordering to bring them to his house). From what the brothers say, understand the following portions: z powodu owych pieniędzy (on account of that money); poprzednim razem (last time); na nas napadnie (he will attack us); przemocą (with violence); uczyni nas swymi niewolnikami (he will make us his slaves); zabierze nam (he will take from us).

Perfective future of zabrać:

zabiorę (1.ps)
zabierzesz (2.ps)
zabierze (3.ps)
zabierzemy (1.pp)
zabierzecie (2.pp)
zabiorą (3.pp)

1.ps = first-person singular
1.pp = first-person plural, etc.

Wersety 19-22

  • odwiązać (pf.), to untie, to unbind
  • odliczyć (pf.), to deduct

Review: wejście (n., entrance), zbliżyć się (pf., to draw near, to come unto), pozwolić (pf., to permit, to let), pierwszy (first), przybyć (pf., to arrive, to come), kupić (pf., to buy, to purchase), zboże (n., grain), wracać (impf., to return, to go back), torba (f., bag), gospoda (f., inn), znaleźć (pf., to find), wierzch (m., top), przywieźć (pf., to bring), inny (other), żywność (f., food), wiedzieć (impf., to know), włożyć (pf., to put, to place), tamten (that [one], the other [one]).

Verse 20: Po raz pierwszy: after the first time.

Verse 21: Odwiązanie: n., untying, unbinding. Po odwiązaniu naszych torb: after the untying of our bags; that is, after we had untied our bags. W gospodzie: at the inn. Na wierzchu torby każdego: at the top of the bags of each.

Verse 22: Mamy też i inne pieniądze: we also have other money. Nie wiemy, kto nam włożył [tamte] pieniądze do naszych torb: we do not know who placed unto us that other money in our bags. Tamten (found here as tamte, in its plural non-personal accusative form) has been added by the translators to clarify which money is being referred to: here, it indicates the first money that was mentioned (the money that had been returned to their bags) as opposed to the last money mentioned (the extra money brought with them to buy grain).

Present tense of the imperfective wiedzieć:

wiem (1.ps)
wiesz (2.ps)
wie (3.ps)
wiemy (1.pp)
wiecie (2.pp)
wiedzą (3.pp)

1.ps = first-person singular
1.pp = first-person plural, etc.

Wersety 23-25

  • skarb (m.), treasure
  • przywieść (pf.), to bring
  • stół (m.), table

Review: spokojny (quiet, calm, peaceful), bać się (impf., to be afraid, to fear), dojść (pf., to reach), wprowadzić (pf., to conduct, to bring, to usher), kazać (impf., to order, to command), podać (pf., to serve), woda (f., water), obmyć (pf., to wash), noga (f., foot), obrok (m., fodder), osioł (m., donkey), tymczasem (meanwhile), przygotować (pf., to prepare), dar (m., gift), zanim (before), nadejść (pf., to come, to approach), w południe (at noon), dowiedzieć się (pf., to find out, to learn), zasiąść (pf., to sit down).

Verse 23: Bądźcie spokojni: be at peace. Nie bójcie się: do not be afraid. Wasze pieniądze doszły do mnie: your money reached me; your money came unto me. Przywiódł do nich Symeona: he brought Simeon unto them.

Verse 24: Aby obmyli sobie nogi: so that they washed their feet. Dał obroku ich osłom: he gave fodder to their donkeys.

Verse 25: Zasiąść do stołu: to sit down to table (to eat).

Wersety 26-28

  • zdrowie (n.), health
  • uklęknąć (pf.), to kneel down

Review: przyjść (pf., to arrive, to come), trzymać (impf., to hold, to keep), ręka (f., hand), przynieść (pf., to bring), oddać pokłon (pf., to bow down), ziemia (f., earth), zapytać (pf., to ask), sędziwy (aged), ojciec (m., father), mówić (impf., to speak), dobrze (well, right), miewać się (impf., to feel, to be feeling), jeszcze (yet), żyć (impf., to live, to be alive), sługa (m., servant), znów (again).

Verse 26: Trzymając w rękach dary: holding the gifts in their hands.

Verse 27: Zapytawszy ich o zdrowie: having asked about their health; that is, having asked whether they were well, having asked after them. Joseph asks about his father: czy wasz sędziwy ojciec (is your aged father), o którym mi mówiliście (about whom you were speaking to me), dobrze się miewa? (doing well?).

Present tense of the imperfective żyć:

żyję (1.ps)
żyjesz (2.ps)
żyje (3.ps)
żyjemy (1.pp)
żyjecie (2.pp)
żyją (3.pp)

1.ps = first-person singular
1.pp = first-person plural, etc.

Verse 28: Sługa twój, a nasz ojciec: your servant and our father; your servant our father. Uklękli: they knelt down.

Wersety 29-31

  • urwać (pf.), to slip out
  • wzruszenie (n.), affection, emotion
  • łza (f.), tear
  • nadbiegnąć, nadbiec (impf.), to run up
  • pokój (m.), room, chamber

Review: spojrzeć (pf., to look), dostrzec (pf., to perceive, to notice), syn (m., son), matka (f., mother), brat (m., brother), najmłodszy (youngest), zaraz (at once, immediately), dodać (pf., to add), oby (would to God, may), darzyć (impf., to grant, to bestow), łaska (f., mercy, grace), nagle (hastily, swiftly, suddenly), ogarnąć (pf., to seize, to grip), widok (m., view, sight), oko (n., eye), odejść (pf., to leave, to depart), rozpłakać się (pf., to burst into tears), obmyć (pf., to wash), twarz (f., face), wyjść (pf., to come out), usiłować (impf., to attempt, to try), panować (pf., to rule, to dominate), rozkaz (m., command, order), podać (pf., to serve), posiłek (m., meal).

Verse 29: A gdy spojrzawszy (and when, having looked), dostrzegł Beniamina, syna swej matki (he [Joseph] noticed Benjamin, his mother’s son) zapytał (he [Joseph] asked); that is, when [Joseph] looked and noticed Benjamin, his mother’s son, he asked. Oby cię Bóg darzył swą łaską: may God bestow you with his mercy. Note the vocative in synu mój (my son).

Verse 30: Nagle urwał: he swiftly slipped out; that is, Joseph left in haste the room where he was with his brothers, for he was very moved at the sight of Benjamin: ogarnęło go wielkie wzruszenie na widok brata (a great affection gripped him at the sight of his brother). Given that his eyes had begun to water: łzy nadbiegły mu do oczu (tears were running up to his eyes), he left to go cry in his chamber.

Verse 31: Obmywszy twarz: having washed his face. Usiłując panować nad sobą: attempting to rule over himself; that is, trying to gain dominion over himself, trying to exert self-control. Niech podadzą posiłek: may they serve the meal (that is, may the meal be served).

Wersety 32-34

  • wstrętny, repugnant
  • posadzić (pf.), to seat, to place
  • zdziwiony, astonished, marvelled
  • spoglądać (impf.), to look
  • porcja (f.), portion, serving
  • pięciokrotny, fivefold
  • ucztować (impf.), to feast
  • rozweselić się (pf.), to cheer up
  • wpływ (m.), influence

Review: podać (pf., to serve), osobno (separately, apart), Egipcjanin (m., Egyptian), jadać (impf., to eat), również (also), jeść (impf., to eat), razem z (along with), Hebrajczyk (m., Hebrew), rzecz (f., thing), najstarszy (oldest, eldest), najmłodszy (youngest), według (according to), wiek (m., age), po czym (thereupon, after which), polecić (pf., to instruct, to command), zanieść (pf., to take, to bring), stół (m., table), większy (great), wino (n., wine).

Verse 32: Jemu: unto him = mu. Podano więc jemu osobno: one then served him (Joseph) separately; that is, (Joseph) was then served apart (from the others). You read that Joseph was served separately, as were his brothers, and also the Egyptians who shunned eating with Hebrews: Egipcjanie bowiem nie mogli jeść razem z Hebrajczykami (for the Egyptians could not eat alongside the Hebrews). The reason is given: gdyż byłoby to (for this would be) dla Egipcjan (for the Egyptians) rzeczą wstrętną (a repugnant thing); that is, it was an abomination for the Egyptians.

Verse 33: Posadził przed sobą braci (he seated his brothers before him) od najstarszego do najmłodszego (from oldest to youngest). Spoglądali jeden na drugiego: they were looking at one another.

Verse 34: Polecił zanieść im ze swego stołu porcje: he ordered portions be brought to them from his table. Benjamin’s portion was five times larger: porcja dla Beniamina była pięciokrotnie większa (the portion for Benjamin was by five times great). The adjective pięciokrotny means fivefold; in this verse, you find pięciokrotnie, which is its related adverb. Pod wpływem wina: under the influence of the wine.