Friulian language series: Esodo 23, lis leçs

In the twenty-third chapter of the book of Genesis, you continue to read about the rulings begun in the last two chapters. From the subject lines: dovês di justizie (obligations of justice); an sabatic e sabide (sabbatical year and sabbath); fiestis di vie pal an (annual feasts [feasts during the year]); e ven imprometude la tiere di Canaan (the land of Canaan is promised). The masculine dovê is the Friulian for obligation, duty; as for vignî imprometût, this means to get promised, to be promised (literally, to come promised).

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Read Esodo 23

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Versets 1-5

Vocabulary: la cjacare (chatter, gossip, talk, rumour), spampanâ (to spread), vêr (true), tignî (to keep, to hold), la man (hand), il trist (wicked man, wretched man), testemoneâ (to testify, to bear witness), il fals (falsehood), metisi (to put oneself, to place oneself), la bande (side), jessi in plui (to be numerous), fâ il mâl (to do wrong), la cause (cause; of the court), butâ (to throw, to cast), fâ lâ fûr di troi (to lead astray), il troi (path), la justizie (justice), la diference (difference, distinction), il puar (poor man), intivâsi in (to come across, to encounter), il bo (ox), il mus (ass, donkey), il nemì (enemy), pierdi (to lose), la strade (way, road), tornâ a fâ (to do again), menâ dongje (to bring back), viodi (to see), vê in asse (to hate), colâ (to fall), sot di (under, below), la cjame (load, burden), tirâsi di bande (to turn away), (to give).

Verse 1: No sta spampanâ cjàcaris (do not spread rumours) che no son veris (which are not true). No sta tignî man al trist (do not join hands with [hold hand {out} to] the wicked man) testemoneant il fals (by bearing false witness [testifying a (the) falsehood]).

Verse 2: No sta metiti de bande (do not side with [do not put yourself on the side]) là che a son in plui (the multitude [where they are more]) par fâ il mâl (so as to do wrong) e no sta testemoneâ intune cause (and do not testify in a cause) butanti là che and è di plui (siding with the multitude [casting yourself to where there are more of them]) par fâ lâ fûr di troi la justizie (so as to pervert justice [so as to make justice go off (go out of) the path]).

Verse 3: No sta fâ diferencis pal puar intune cause: do not make distinctions for the poor man in a cause.

Verse 4: Se tu ti intivis tal bo o tal mus dal to nemì (if you encounter your enemy’s ox or ass) che al à pierdude la strade (which has lost its way), tornijal a menâ dongje (bring it back to him [bring it back to him again]). Consider: menâ dongje (to bring back); tornâ a menâ dongje (to bring back again); torne a menâ dongje (bring back again; second-person singular imperative); tornijal a menâ dongje (bring it back to him again; second-person singular imperative). Tornijal: torne (second-person singular imperative) + i (unto him) + lu (it).

Verse 5: Se tu viodis il mus di chel che tu âs in asse (if you see the ass of he whom you hate) a colâ sot de sô cjame (falling under its burden), no sta tirâti di bande (do not turn away); tu âs di dâi une man (you must lend it [give to it] a hand).

Versets 6-9

Vocabulary: tibiâ (to trample upon), il dirit (right), il puar (poor man), la cause (cause; of the court), tignîsi (to keep oneself), lontan di (away from, far from), fals (false), perî (to perish, to die), fâ perî (to kill), il nocent (innocent man), ni (nor), il just (just man, righteous man), dâi reson a (to declare right, to side with), jessi in tuart (to be in the wrong), cjapâ (to take), il regâl (gift), la sorte (fortune, fate), svuarbâ (to blind), la int (people), vê bon voli (to have a good eye), mandâ in malore (to bring to ruin), il galantom (honest man), meti (to put, to place), il pît (foot), il cuel (neck), il forest (foreigner, stranger), volê dî (to signify, to mean), il mont (world), la tiere (land).

Verse 6: No sta tibiâ il dirit dal puar inte sô cause: do not trample upon the rights (the right) of the poor man in his cause.

Verse 7: Tenti lontan di une cause false: stay clear of (keep yourself far from) a false cause. No sta fâ perî il nocent ni il just (cause neither the innocent man to perish nor the righteous one) e no sta dâi reson a di chel che al è in tuart (and do not declare right he who is in the wrong).

Verse 8: No sta cjapâ regâi di sorte (do not take gifts of {good} fortune), parcè che il regâl al svuarbe la int che e à bon voli (for the gift blinds the open-eyed [the people who have good eye]) e al mande in malore lis causis dai galantoms (and brings to ruin the cause of [sends into ruin the causes of] righteous men). Regâi di sorte: gifts of {good} fortune; that is to say, bribes.

Verse 9: No sta metii il pît sul cuel al forest*: do not put your foot on the foreigner’s neck. O savês ce che al vûl dî jessi pal mont+ (you know what it means to be about the world), parcè che ancje vualtris o vês stât forescj te tiere dal Egjit (for you yourselves were foreigners in the land of Egypt). *To put one’s foot on the neck of another is to oppress him. +Jessi pal mont: to be about the world, which is to say, to be away from home in a foreign land.

Versets 10-13

Vocabulary: sîs (six), un an (year), semenâ (to sow), la tiere (land, earth), cjapâ sù (to harvest), setim (seventh), lassâ (to leave), pustot (uncultivated, abandoned), nuie (nothing), i puars (the poor), il popul (people), int (thereof), mangjâ (to eat), la bestie (beast), salvadi (wild), cjoli (to take), vanzâ (to be left over, to remain in surplus), compagn (likewise, in like manner), il vignâl (vineyard), un ulivâr (olive grove), la vore (work, task, labour), la zornade (day), polsâ (to rest), il bo (ox), il mus (ass, donkey), tirâ flât (to take a breath), il leç (son), la sierve (female servant, handmaid), il forest (foreigner, stranger), tignî a ments (to bear/keep in mind), (to say, to tell), vê indiment (to mention, to make mention of, to invoke), altri (other), il diu (god), scjampâ (to escape), la bocje (mouth), nancje (not even), il non (name).

Verses 10-11: Par sîs agns (for six years) tu semenarâs la tiere (you shall sow the land) e tu cjaparâs sù (and shall harvest), ma il setim an (but {in} the seventh year) tu âs di lassâle pustote (you are to leave it uncultivated) e no tu âs di cjapâ sù nuie (and must not harvest anything); i puars dal to popul int mangjaran (the poor from {amongst} your people shall eat thereof) e lis bestiis salvadiis a cjolaran ce che ur varà vanzât (and the wild beasts shall eat what they leave [what will have remained in surplus unto them]). Compagn tu âs di fâ tal to vignâl e tal to ulivâr: likewise shall you do in your vineyard and in your olive grove.

Verse 12: Par sîs dîs (for six days) tu fasarâs lis tôs voris (you shall do your labours) e la setime zornade tu polsarâs (and {on} the seventh day you shall rest), par che al polsi il to bo e il to mus (that your ox and your ass may rest) e par che al tiri flât il leç de tô sierve e il forest (and that the son of your maidservant and the foreigner may take a breath).

Verse 13: Tignît a ments dut ce che us ài dit (bear all that I have told you in mind) e no stait a vê indiment altris dius (and make no mention of other gods); che no us scjampi di bocje nancje il non (let not even the name {of them} escape from your mouth). Consider the following: no sta vê indiment altris dius (do not mention other gods; second-person singular); no stait a vê indiment altris dius (do not mention other gods; second-person plural); no stin a vê indiment altris dius (let us not mention other gods; first-person plural).

Versets 14-19

Vocabulary: la fieste (feast, festival), trê (three), un viaç (time), un an (year), rispietâ (to observe, to keep, to respect), il pan (bread), cence (without), il levan (leaven), siet (seven), il dì (day), ordenâ (to order, to command), il timp (time), distinât (designated; also destinât), il mês (month), saltâ fûr (to come/go out), presentâsi (to present oneself), denant di (before), cu lis mans spacant (empty-handed), la ricolte (harvest; also racuelte), il forment (grain), lis primiziis (firstfruits), semenâ (to sow), il cjamp (field), a fin dal an (at the end of the year), puartâ dongje (to gather), regonâ (to retrieve), a sun di vitis (by toil, with difficulty), il mascjo (male), ufrî (to offer), il sanc (blood), la vitime (victim, sacrifice), jevât (risen), il gras (fat), meti (to put, to place), vie (away), pal indoman (for the next day), puartâ (to bring, to carry), la cjase (house), il miôr (the best), il teren (ground, soil), mai (never), boli (to boil), il cjavret (kid, goatling), il lat (milk), la mari (mother).

Verse 14: Tu âs di fâmi fieste trê viaçs ad an: you are to hold a feast for me (make for me a feast) three times a year.

Verse 15: Tu âs di rispietâ la fieste dal pan cence levan: you are to observe (respect) the feast of unleavened bread (bread without leaven). Par siet dîs (for seven days) tu mangjarâs pan cence levan (you shall eat unleavened bread [bread without leaven]), come che ti ài ordenât jo (as I have commanded you), tal timp distinât tal mês di Abib (at the designated time in the month of Abib), parcè che al è in chel mês (for it was [for it is] in that month) che tu sês saltât fûr dal Egjit (that you came forth from Egypt). No tu âs di presentâti denant di me cu lis mans spacant: you are not to present yourselves before me empty-handed.

Verse 16: Tu âs di rispietâ la fieste de ricolte dal forment (you are to observe [respect] the feast of the grain harvest), des primiziis di ce che tu âs semenât tai cjamps (of the firstfruits of that which you sowed in the fields), e la fieste de ricolte, a fin dal an (and the feast of the harvest at the end of the year), cuant che tu varâs puartât dongje (when you gather [when you will have gathered]) dut ce che tu varâs regonât tai cjamps (all that you retrieve [all that you will have retrieved] in the fields) a sun di vitis (by toil).

Verse 17: Trê viaçs ad an (three times a year), ducj i mascjos a àn di presentâsi denant dal Signôr Diu (all the males are to present themselves before the Lord God).

Verse 18: No sta mai ufrî il sanc de vitime (do not ever offer the sacrifice’s blood [the blood of the victim]) cun pan jevât (with leavened [risen] bread) e il gras de mê fieste (and {as for} the fat of my feast) no tu âs di metilu vie pal indoman (you are not to put it aside [put it away] for the next day).

Verse 19: Tu puartarâs te cjase dal Signôr to Diu (you shall bring to the house of the Lord your God) il miôr des primiziis dal to teren (the best of the firstfruits of your soil). No sta mai fâ boli un cjavret (do not ever boil [make boil] a kid) tal lat di sô mari (in its mother’s milk).

Versets 20-24

Vocabulary: mandâ (to send), un agnul (angel), denant di (before), tignî (to keep), vuardât (guarded, under watch), la strade (way, road), menâ (to lead, to bring, to conduct), il lûc (place, site), distinâ (to designate; also destinâ), rispietâ (to observe, to keep, to respect), scoltâ (to listen, to heed), (to say), metisi cuintri di (to disobey), perdonâ (to forgive, to pardon), par mai (never), il mâl (wrong, wrongdoing), il non (name), la vôs (voice), il nemì (enemy, foe), dâ jù (to attack), rangjâ (to bring down), (to go), fiscâ (to destroy), butâsi in genoglon (to go down [throw oneself] on one’s knees; also zenoglon), il diu (god), il sacrifici (sacrifice), la sorte (fortune, fate), splantâ (to uproot), la lidrîs (root), parâ in sflichignis (to smash to bits), il colonel (pillar).

Verse 20: Ve che jo ti mandarai un agnul denant di te (see that I shall send an angel before you) par che ti tegni vuardât pe strade (that he may keep you guarded on the way) e ti meni tal lûc che jo o ài distinât par te (and {that he may} bring you to the place that I have designated for you).

Verse 21: Rispietilu e scoltilu ce che ti dîs (keep what he says to you and heed it [keep (respect) it and heed (hear) it, that which he says to you]); no sta metiti cuintri di lui (do not disobey him [do not put yourself against him]): no us perdonarès par mai il mâl che o fasês (he shall never pardon the wrongdoings that you commit [that you do]), parcè che il gno non al è cun lui (for my name is with him).

Verse 22: Ma se però tu scoltis la sô vôs (but if you heed his voice) e tu fasis ce che o dîs jo (and do what I say), o sarai il nemì dai tiei nemîs (I shall be the enemy of your enemies) e chei che ti dan jù ju rangjarai jo (and I shall bring down those who attack you [and, those who attack you, I shall bring them down]).

Verse 23: Il gno agnul al larà denant di te (my angel shall go before you) e ti menarà (and shall bring you) dai amoreus (to the Amorites), dai itits (to the Hittites), dai peressits (to the Perizzites), dai cananeus (to the Canaanites), dai eveus (to the Hivites), dai gjebuseus ({and} to the Jebusites) e ju fiscarai (and I shall destroy them).

Verse 24: No sta butâti in genoglon denant dai lôr dius (do not go down [do not throw yourself] on your knees before their gods) e no sta fâur sacrificis di sorte* (and do not make sacrifices of fortune to them); no sta fâ come che a fasin lôr+ (do not do as they do) ma tu âs di splantâ di lidrîs# i lôr dius (rather you are to demolish [uproot] their gods) e tu âs di parâ in sflichignis¬ i lôr colonei (and you are to smash their pillars to bits). *Sacrificis di sorte: sacrifices of fortune; that is, sacrifices performed in the hope of receiving a favourable outcome. +No sta fâ come che a fasin lôr: do not do as they do; or, worded differently, do not follow their practices. #Splantâ di lidrîs: to uproot; used figuratively here in the sense of to demolish, to utterly destroy. ¬Parâ in sflichignis: to smash to bits; taken literally, to send into bits, to drive into bits.

Versets 25-27

Review: ingenoglâsi (to kneel down; also inzenoglâsi), dome (only), benedî (to bless), il pan (bread), la aghe (water), tignî lontan (to keep away), ogni (every), la disgracie (misfortune), la femine (woman), abortî (to miscarry), il frut (child), gjoldi (to enjoy, to relish), il dì (day), fint insomp (completely, through and through; also fin insom), semenâ (to sow), il terôr (terror), scjampâ come il fum (to take off [like smoke]), talonâ (to pursue).

Verse 26: No sarà nissune femine ch’e abortìs (there shall be no woman who miscarries) o cence fruts (or without children). Jo ti fasarai gjoldi i tiei dîs fint insomp: I shall make you relish your days through and through.

In verse 27, the expression scjampâ come il fum can be understood literally as to take off like smoke; fâ scjampâ come il fum is used figuratively here to mean to get rid of (literally, to make take off like smoke): o fasarai scjampâ come il fum ducj i popui là che tu larâs (I shall get rid of all the people wherever you will go). Also: o fasarai talonâ ducj i tiei nemîs (I shall make your enemies be pursued).

Versets 28-33

Vocabulary: mandâ (to send), un avon (hornet), fâ cori (to drive out; literally, to make run), lontan (far, distant), tirâ vie (to drive away), deventâ (to become), il desert (desert), moltiplicâsi (to multiply, to increase), a to damp (to your detriment; also a to dam), la bestie (beast), salvadi (wild), fâ scjampâ (to drive away; literally, to make take off), un pôc a la volte (bit by bit, a little at a time), fintremai che (until), avonde (enough, sufficiently), fuart (strong), podê (to be able), paronâ (to rule), segnâ (to mark), il cunfin (confine; also confin), il mâr (sea), la cjanusse (reed), fint a (all the way to; also fin a), il flum (river), la man (hand), la int (people), sgorneâ vie (to drive away), fâ pat di sorte (to make a covenant of fortune), stiçâ (to instigate, to incite), butâsi cun (to go with, to be drawn to), il tramai (trap, bind).

Verse 28: O mandarai denant di te i avons: I shall send hornets before you.

Verse 29: Jo no tai tirarai vie di te ducj intun an (I shall not drive them all away from you within one year), par che la tiere no deventi un desert (so that the land does not become a desert) e che si moltiplichin a to damp lis bestiis salvadiis (and [so that] the wild beasts [do not] multiply to your detriment).

Verse 30: Fintremai che no tu sarâs avonde fuart (until you will be sufficiently strong) di podê paronâ tu (so as to be able to rule you yourself).

Verse 31: Il mâr des Cjanussis: Sea of Reeds. Un filisteu is a Philistine: il mâr dai filisteus (Sea of the Philistines).

Verse 33: No staran te tô tiere (they shall not dwell in your land) par che no ti sticin a metiti cuintri di me (so that they do not incite you to go against me), parcè che tu ti butaressis cui lôr dius (because you would be drawn to their gods) e chest al sarès par te un tramai (and this would be for you a trap; that is, an occasion for further sin). Tu ti butaressis is the second-person singular of the condizionâl presint; tu ti butaressis cui lôr dius can be understood more literally as meaning you would go with their gods (that is, you would be drawn to their gods, you would follow their gods, you would side with their gods, etc.).