Friulian language series: Esodo 23, lis leçs

The twenty-third chapter of the book of Exodus continues to recount the laws. From the subject headings of this chapter: dovês di justizie (duties of justice); an sabatic e sabide (sabbatical year and sabbath); fiestis di vie pal an (feasts occurring during the year); e ven imprometude la tiere di Canaan (the land of Canaan cometh promised).

The first-time visitor to this site ought to begin his study of the Friulian language here.

Read Esodo 23

To read the Friulian text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Bibie par un popul and consult Esodo 23. An archived version of the text is found here.

Versets 1-5

Vocabulary: lis cjàcaris (idle talkings), spampanâ (to spread), vêr (true), tignî man (to hold hand), la man (hand), il trist (wicked man), testemoneâ (to testify), il fals (falsehood), metisi (to put oneself), la bande (side), là che (where), jessi in plui (to be more), (to do, to make), il mâl (ill), la cause (cause), butâ (to cast), (to go), fûr di troi (off the path), il troi (path), la justizie (justice), la diference (difference), il puar (poor man), intivâsi in (to come upon), il bo (ox), il mus (ass), il nemì (enemy), pierdi (to lose), la strade (way), tornâ a menâ (to lead back), menâ dongje (to lead alongside), viodi (to see), (to have), la asse (hatred), colâ (to fall), sot di (under), la cjame (charge), tirâsi di bande (to draw oneself away), (to give).

Verse 1: No sta spampanâ cjàcaris (spread not idle talkings) che no son veris (which are not true). No sta tignî man al trist (hold not hand unto the wicked man) testemoneant il fals (in testifying falsehood).

Verse 2: No sta metiti de bande (put not thyself on the side) là che a son in plui (thither where they are more) par fâ il mâl (to do ill) e no sta testemoneâ intune cause (and testify not in a cause) butantti là che and è di plui (in casting thyself thither where there are more) par fâ lâ fûr di troi la justizie (to make justice go off the path).

Verse 3: No sta fâ diferencis (make not differences*) pal puar intune cause (for the poor man in a cause). — *as in distinctions, here referring to undue favour

Verse 4: Se tu ti intivis tal bo o tal mus dal to nemì (if thou come upon the ox or the ass of thine enemy) che al à pierdude la strade (which hath lost its way), *tornijal a menâ dongje* (lead it back alongside him). — *Consider: menâ dongje (to lead alongside); tornâ a menâ dongje (to lead back alongside); torne a menâ dongje (lead back alongside; second-person singular imperative); tornijal a menâ dongje (lead it back alongside him; second-person singular imperative). Tornijal is the contraction of torne (second-person singular imperative) + i (unto him) + lu (it).

Verse 5: Se tu viodis il mus (if thou see the ass) di chel che tu âs in asse (of that one whom thou hast in hatred) a colâ sot de sô cjame (falling under its charge), no sta tirâti di bande (draw not thyself away); tu âs di dâi une man (thou art to give him* a hand). — *the owner

Versets 6-9

Vocabulary: tibiâ (to downtrod), il dirit (right), il puar (poor man), la cause (cause), tignîsi (to keep oneself), lontan di (far from), fals (false), (to make), perî (to perish), il nocent (innocent man), il just (just man), (to give), la reson (reason), jessi in tuart (to be in the wrong), cjapâ (to take), il regâl (gift), di sorte (of any sort), svuarbâ (to blind), la int (people), (to have), bon (good), il voli (eye), mandâ in malore (to send into ruin), il galantom (righteous man), meti (to put), il pît (foot), il cuel (neck), il forest (foreigner), savê (to know), volê dî (to mean), il mont (world), la tiere (land).

Verse 6: No sta tibiâ il dirit dal puar inte sô cause: downtrod not the right of the poor man in his cause.

Verse 7: Tenti lontan di une cause false: keep thyself far from a false cause. No sta fâ perî il nocent ni il just (make not the innocent man perish nor the just man) e no sta dâi reson a di chel che al è in tuart (and give not reason unto that one who is in the wrong).

Verse 8: No sta cjapâ regâi di sorte (take not gifts of any sort), parcè che il regâl al svuarbe la int che e à bon voli (for the gift blindeth people who have good eye) e al mande in malore lis causis dai galantoms (and sendeth into ruin the causes of righteous men).

Verse 9: *No sta metii il pît sul cuel al forest*: put not thy foot upon the foreigner’s neck. O savês ce che al vûl dî jessi pal mont (ye know that which it meaneth to be through the world), parcè che ancje vualtris o vês stât forescj te tiere dal Egjit (for ye too were foreigners in the land of Egypt). — *Taken apart: no sta metii (put not unto him) il pît (the foot) sul cuel (upon the neck) al forest (unto the foreigner).

Versets 10-13

Vocabulary: sîs (six), un an (year), semenâ (to sow), la tiere (land), cjapâ sù (to harvest), setim (seventh), vê di (to have to), lassâ (to leave), pustot (deserted), nuie (not a thing), i puars (the poor), il popul (people), int (thereof), mangjâ (to eat), la bestie (beast), salvadi (wild), cjoli (to take), vanzâ (to be remanent), compagn (likewise), il vignâl (vineyard), un ulivâr (olive grove), il dì (day), (to do), lis voris (tasks), la zornade (day), polsâ (to rest), il bo (ox), il mus (ass), tirâ (to draw), il flât (breath), il fi (son), la sierve (maidservant), il forest (foreigner), tignî a ments (to keep in mind), dut (all), (to say), vê indiment (to mention), altri (other), il diu (god), scjampâ (to flee), la bocje (mouth), nancje (not even), il non (name).

Verses 10-11: Par sîs agns (for six years) tu semenarâs la tiere (thou shalt sow the land) e tu cjaparâs sù (and shalt harvest), ma il setim an (but {in} the seventh year) tu âs di lassâle pustote* (thou art to leave it deserted) e no tu âs di cjapâ sù nuie (and art not to harvest a thing); i puars dal to popul int mangjaran (the poor of thy people will eat thereof) e lis bestiis salvadiis a cjolaran (and the wild beasts will take) ce che ur varà vanzât (that which will have been remanent unto them). Compagn tu âs di fâ (likewise art thou to do) tal to vignâl e tal to ulivâr (in thy vineyard and in thine olive grove). — *As a point of interest, the adjective pustot entered Friulian by way of the neighbouring Slovene language, a Slav tongue. The inquisitive reader may wish to consider the Friulian pustot alongside, for instance, the following Polish words (Polish also being a Slav tongue), which appear in the Polish study presented on this same site: pustkowie (noun meaning waste{land}); pustynia (noun meaning desert); pusty (adjective meaning empty).

Verse 12: Par sîs dîs (for six days) tu fasarâs lis tôs voris (thou shalt do thy tasks) e la setime zornade tu polsarâs (and {on} the seventh day thou shalt rest), par che al polsi il to bo e il to mus (that thine ox and thine ass may rest) e par che al tiri flât il fi* de tô sierve e il forest (and that the son of thy maidservant and the foreigner may draw breath). — *The text originally had masculine leç here, but this has since been changed to fi in the printed version of this Bible from 2018; I have incorporated the change.

Verse 13: Tignît a ments dut ce che us ài dit (keep in mind all that which I have said unto you) *e no stait a vê indiment altris dius* (and mention not other gods); +che no us scjampi di bocje nancje il non+ (let not flee from your mouth even the name {thereof}). — *No stait a (+infinitive) is the second-person plural of the negated imperative; consider all the following instances: e no sta vê indiment altris dius (and mention not other gods; second-person singular); e no stait a vê indiment altris dius (and mention not other gods; second-person plural); e no stin a vê indiment altris dius (and let us not mention other gods; first-person plural). +Taken apart: che (let) no (not) us (unto you) scjampi (flee) di bocje (from mouth) nancje (not even) il non (the name).

Versets 14-19

Vocabulary: vê di (to have to), (to make), la fieste (feast), trê (three), un viaç (time), ad an (per year), rispietâ (to respect), il pan (bread), cence (without), il levan (leaven), siet (seven), il dì (day), mangjâ (to eat), ordenâ (to order), il timp (time), distinâ (to destine), il mês (month), saltâ fûr (to come forth), presentâsi (to present oneself), denant di (before), cu lis mans spacant (empty-handed), la ricolte (harvest), il forment (wheat), lis primiziis (firstfruits), semenâ (to sow), il cjamp (field), il fin (ending), puartâ dongje (to bear alongside), dut (all), regonâ (to fetch), a sun di (by dint of), lis vitis (toilings), il mascjo (male), ufrî (to offer), il sanc (blood), la vitime (victim), jevât (arisen), il gras (fat), meti vie (to put away), pal indoman (for next day), puartâ (to bear), la cjase (house), il miôr di (the best of), il teren (ground), mai (not ever), boli (to boil), il cjavret (kid), il lat (milk), la mari (mother).

Verse 14: Tu âs di fâmi fieste trê viaçs ad an: thou art to make feast unto me three times per year.

Verse 15: Tu âs di rispietâ la fieste dal pan cence levan: thou art to respect* the feast of bread without leaven. Par siet dîs (for seven days) tu mangjarâs pan cence levan (thou shalt eat bread without leaven), come che ti ài ordenât jo (as I have ordered thee), tal timp distinât tal mês di Abib (in the destined time in the month of Abib), parcè che al è in chel mês (for it is in that month) che tu sês saltât fûr dal Egjit (when thou camest forth from Egypt). No tu âs di presentâti denant di me cu lis mans spacant: thou art not to present thyself before me empty-handed. — *as in keep

Verse 16: Tu âs di rispietâ la fieste de ricolte dal forment (thou art to respect* the feast of the wheat harvest), des primiziis di ce che tu âs semenât tai cjamps (of the firstfruits of that which thou hast sown in the fields), e la fieste de ricolte, a fin dal an (and the feast of the harvest at the ending of the year), cuant che tu varâs puartât dongje (when thou wilt have borne alongside) dut ce che tu varâs regonât tai cjamps (all that which thou wilt have fetched in the fields) a sun di vitis (by dint of toilings). — *as in keep

Verse 17: Trê viaçs ad an (three times per year), ducj i mascjos a àn di presentâsi (all the males are to present themselves) denant dal Signôr Diu (before the Lord God).

Verse 18: No sta mai ufrî il sanc de vitime cun pan jevât (offer not ever the blood of the victim with *arisen bread*) e il gras de mê fieste no tu âs di metilu vie pal indoman (and the fat of my feast art thou not to put away for next day). — *as in leavened bread; pan jevât is rendered literally as arisen bread wheresoever it appears

Verse 19: Tu puartarâs te cjase dal Signôr to Diu (thou shalt bear into the house of the Lord thy God) il miôr des primiziis dal to teren (the best of the firstfruits of thy ground). No sta mai fâ boli un cjavret (make not ever boil a kid) tal lat di sô mari (in its mother’s milk).

Versets 20-24

Vocabulary: mandâ (to send), un agnul (angel), denant di (before), tignî vuardât (to keep guarded), la strade (way), menâ (to lead), il lûc (place), distinâ (to destine), rispietâ (to respect), scoltâ (to hearken), (to say), metisi cuintri di (to put oneself against), perdonâ (to pardon), par mai (not ever), il mâl (ill), (to do, to make), il non (name), ma se però (but if), la vôs (voice), il nemì (enemy), dâ jù (to give down), rangjâ (to sort out), (to go), fiscâ (to destroy), butâsi in genoglon (to cast oneself on one’s knees), il diu (god), il sacrifici (sacrifice), di sorte (of any sort), vê di (to have to), splantâ (to unplant), la lidrîs (root), parâ (to drive), lis sflichignis (bits), il colonel (column).

Verse 20: Ve che jo ti mandarai un agnul denant di te (so it is that I shall send thee an angel before thee) par che ti tegni vuardât pe strade (that he may keep thee guarded by the way) e ti meni tal lûc che jo o ài distinât par te (and lead thee into the place which I have destined for thee).

Verse 21: Rispietilu e scoltilu ce che ti dîs (respect* it+ and hearken unto it+, that which he saith unto thee); no sta metiti cuintri di lui (put not thyself against him): no us perdonarès par mai il mâl che o fasês (he will not ever pardon you the ill which ye do), parcè che il gno non al è cun lui (for my name is with him). — *as in keep +that which is said by the angel

Verse 22: Ma se però tu scoltis la sô vôs (but if thou hearken unto his voice) e tu fasis ce che o dîs jo (and do that which I say), o sarai il nemì dai tiei nemîs (I shall be the enemy of thine enemies) e chei che ti dan jù ju rangjarai jo (and those who smite* thee shall I sort out). — *literally, give down unto

Verse 23: Il gno agnul al larà denant di te (my angel will go before thee) e ti menarà (and will lead thee) dai amoreus, dai itits, dai peressits, dai cananeus, dai eveus, dai gjebuseus (unto the Amorites, the Hittites, the Perizzites, the Canaanites, the Hivites {and} the Jebusites) e ju fiscarai (and I shall destroy them).

Verse 24: No sta butâti in genoglon denant dai lôr dius (cast not thyself on thy knees before their gods) e no sta fâur sacrificis di sorte (and make not sacrifices unto them of any sort); no sta fâ come che a fasin lôr (do not as they do) ma tu âs di splantâ di lidrîs i lôr dius (but thou art to unplant from the root their gods) e tu âs di parâ in sflichignis i lôr colonei (and art to drive into bits their columns).

Versets 25-33

Vocabulary: vê di (to have to), ingenoglâsi (to kneel oneself down), dome (but), denant di (before), alore (then), benedî (to bless), il pan (bread), la aghe (water), tignî (to keep), lontan (far), ogni (every), la disgracie (misfortune), la tiere (land), nissun (not any), la femine (woman), abortî (to miscarry), cence (without), i fruts (children), (to make), gjoldi (to relish), il dì (day), fint insomp (so far as up top), semenâ (to sow), il terôr (terror), scjampâ (to flee), il fum (smoke), dut (all), il popul (people), là che (whither), (to go), talonâ (to follow at the heel), il nemì (enemy), mandâ (to send), un avon (hornet), cori (to run), tirâ vie (to draw away), un an (year), la tiere (land), deventâ (to become), il desert (desert), moltiplicâsi (to multiply oneself), il damp (damage), la bestie (beast), salvadi (wild), un pôc (a little), une volte (one time), fintremai che (until), avonde (enough), fuart (mighty), podê (to be able), paronâ (to rule), segnâ (to mark), il cunfin (boundary), il mâr (sea), la cjanusse (reed), fint a (so far as), il flum (river), meti (to put), la man (hand), la int (people), sgorneâ vie (to gore away), il pat (pact), di sorte (of any sort), il diu (god), stâ (to dwell), stiçâ (to incite), metisi cuintri di (to put oneself against), butâsi (to cast oneself), il tramai (trap).

Verse 25: O vês di ingenoglâsi (ye are to kneel yourselves down) dome denant dal Signôr vuestri Diu (but before the Lord your God) e alore jo o benedissarai il to pan e la tô aghe (and then I shall bless thy bread and thy water) e o tignarai lontane ogni disgracie (and shall keep far every misfortune).

Verse 26: Te tô tiere (in thy land) no sarà nissune femine (will there not be any woman) ch’e abortìs o cence fruts (who miscarrieth or without children), e jo ti fasarai gjoldi i tiei dîs (and I shall make thee relish thy days) fint insomp (*through and through*). — *Literally, so far as up top; here employed figuratively to mean through and through. Fint insomp is standardised as fin insom. In Esodo 26:24 and Esodo 36:29, I have let the rendering so far as up top stand, as its use there is not figurative but literal.

Verse 27: O semenarai il terôr denant di te (I shall sow terror before thee), o fasarai scjampâ come il fum ducj i popui (I shall make flee like smoke all the peoples) là che tu larâs (whither thou wilt go), o fasarai talonâ ducj i tiei nemîs (I shall make all thine enemies followed at the heel).

Verse 28: O mandarai denant di te i avons (I shall send before thee hornets), che a fasaran cori i eveus, i cananeus e i itits lontan di te (which will make run the Hivites, the Canaanites and the Hittites far from thee).

Verse 29: Jo no tai* tirarai vie di te (I shall not draw them away from thee) ducj intun an (all in one year), +par che la tiere no deventi un desert+ (that the land may not become a desert) e che ¬si moltiplichin¬ a to damp lis bestiis salvadiis (and the wild beasts multiply themselves unto thy damage). — *Tai is the contraction of ti + ju (unto thee + them). +Consider the following: la tiere e devente; par che la tiere e deventi (the land becometh; that the land may become); la tiere no devente; par che la tiere no deventi (the land becometh not; that the land may not become). ¬Moltiplicâsi (to multiply oneself); heretofore ever encountered as the variant multiplicâsi.

Verse 30: Ju fasarai scjampâ (I shall make them flee) un pôc a la volte (a little at a time), fintremai che no tu sarâs avonde fuart (until thou will be mighty enough) di podê paronâ tu (to be able to rule, thou).

Verse 31: O segnarai i tiei cunfins (I shall mark thy boundaries) dal mâr des Cjanussis (from the Sea of Reeds) fint al mâr dai filisteus (so far as the Sea of the Philistines) e dal desert al flum (and from the desert unto the river), parcè che us metarai tes vuestris mans (for I shall put unto you into your hands) dute la int di chê tiere (all the people of that land) e tu tu ju sgornearâs vie lontan di te (and thou shalt gore them away far from thee).

Verse 32: No sta fâ pat di sorte (make not pact of any sort) ni cun lôr ni cui lôr dius (either with them or with their gods).

Verse 33: No staran te tô tiere (they shall not dwell in thy land) par che no ti sticin a metiti cuintri di me (that they may not incite thee to put thyself against me), parcè che tu ti butaressis cui lôr dius (for thou wouldest cast thyself with their gods) e chest al sarès par te un tramai (and this would be for thee a trap).