Friulian language series: Esodo 23, lis leçs

In the twenty-third chapter of the book of Genesis, you continue to read about the rulings begun in the last two chapters. From the subject lines: dovês di justizie (obligations of justice); an sabatic e sabide (sabbatical year and sabbath); fiestis di vie pal an (annual feasts [feasts during the year]); e ven imprometude la tiere di Canaan (the land of Canaan is promised). The masculine dovê is the Friulian for obligation, duty; as for vignî imprometût, this means to get promised, to be promised (literally, to come promised).

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Read Esodo 23

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Versets 1-5

Vocabulary: la cjacare (chatter, gossip, talk, rumour), spampanâ (to spread), vêr (true), tignî (to keep, to hold), la man (hand), il trist (wicked man), testemoneâ (to testify, to bear witness), il fals (falsehood), metisi (to put oneself), la bande (side), jessi in plui (to be numerous), il mâl (ill), la cause (cause; of the court), butâ (to cast), il troi (path), fûr di troi (off the path), la justizie (justice), la diference (difference, distinction), il puar (poor man), intivâsi in (to come across, to encounter), il bo (ox), il mus (ass, donkey), il nemì (enemy), pierdi (to lose), la strade (way, road), tornâ a fâ (to do again), menâ dongje (to lead alongside), viodi (to see), la asse (hatred), colâ (to fall), sot di (under), la cjame (charge), tirâsi di bande (to draw oneself away), (to give).

Verse 1: No sta spampanâ cjàcaris (do not spread rumours) che no son veris (which are not true). No sta tignî man al trist (do not join hands with [hold hand {out} to] the wicked man) testemoneant il fals (by bearing false witness [testifying a (the) falsehood]).

Verse 2: No sta metiti de bande (do not put yourself on the side) là che a son in plui (of the multitude [where they are more]) par fâ il mâl (to do ill) e no sta testemoneâ intune cause (and do not testify in a cause) butanti là che and è di plui (siding with the multitude [casting yourself to where there are more of them]) par fâ lâ fûr di troi la justizie (to make justice go off the path). To ‘make justice go off the path’ is to pervert it.

Verse 3: No sta fâ diferencis pal puar intune cause: do not make distinctions for the poor man in a cause.

Verse 4: Se tu ti intivis tal bo o tal mus dal to nemì (if you encounter your enemy’s ox or ass) che al à pierdude la strade (which has lost its way), tornijal a menâ dongje (lead it back alongside him). Consider: menâ dongje (to lead alongside); tornâ a menâ dongje (to lead back alongside); torne a menâ dongje (lead back alongside; second-person singular imperative); tornijal a menâ dongje (lead it back alongside him; second-person singular imperative). Tornijal: torne (second-person singular imperative) + i (unto him) + lu (it).

Verse 5: Se tu viodis il mus di chel che tu âs in asse (if you see the ass of he whom you have in hatred) a colâ sot de sô cjame (falling under its charge), no sta tirâti di bande (do not draw yourself away); tu âs di dâi une man (you must lend it a hand).

Versets 6-9

Vocabulary: tibiâ (to downtrod), il dirit (right), il puar (poor man), la cause (cause; of the court), tignîsi (to keep oneself), lontan di (far from), fals (false), perî (to perish, to die), fâ perî (to kill), il nocent (innocent man), ni (nor), il just (just man, righteous man), dâi reson a (to declare right, to side with), jessi in tuart (to be in the wrong), cjapâ (to take), il regâl (gift), la sorte (sort, kind), svuarbâ (to blind), la int (people), vê bon voli (to have a good eye), mandâ in malore (to bring to ruin), il galantom (honest man), meti (to put), il pît (foot), il cuel (neck), il forest (foreigner), volê dî (to mean), il mont (world), la tiere (land).

Verse 6: No sta tibiâ il dirit dal puar inte sô cause: do not downtrod the rights (the right) of the poor man in his cause.

Verse 7: Tenti lontan di une cause false: keep yourself far from a false cause. No sta fâ perî il nocent ni il just (cause neither the innocent man to perish nor the righteous one) e no sta dâi reson a di chel che al è in tuart (and do not declare right he who is in the wrong).

Verse 8: No sta cjapâ regâi di sorte (do not take any manner of gifts), parcè che il regâl al svuarbe la int che e à bon voli (for the gift blinds the open-eyed [the people who have good eye]) e al mande in malore lis causis dai galantoms (and brings to ruin the cause of [sends into ruin the causes of] righteous men).

Verse 9: No sta metii il pît sul cuel al forest: do not put your foot upon the foreigner’s neck. O savês ce che al vûl dî jessi pal mont (you know what it means to be out in the world), parcè che ancje vualtris o vês stât forescj te tiere dal Egjit (for you yourselves were foreigners in the land of Egypt).

Versets 10-13

Vocabulary: sîs (six), un an (year), semenâ (to sow), la tiere (land, earth), cjapâ sù (to take up), setim (seventh), lassâ (to leave), pustot (uncultivated, abandoned), nuie (nothing), i puars (the poor), il popul (people), int (thereof), mangjâ (to eat), la bestie (beast), salvadi (wild), cjoli (to take), vanzâ (to be remanent), compagn (likewise), il vignâl (vineyard), un ulivâr (olive grove), lis voris (tasks), la zornade (day), polsâ (to rest), il bo (ox), il mus (ass, donkey), tirâ flât (to draw breath), il leç (son), la sierve (female servant, handmaid), il forest (foreigner), tignî a ments (to keep in mind), (to say, to tell), vê indiment (to mention), altri (other), il diu (god), scjampâ (to escape), la bocje (mouth), nancje (not even), il non (name).

Verses 10-11: Par sîs agns (for six years) tu semenarâs la tiere (you shall sow the land) e tu cjaparâs sù (and shall harvest [take up]), ma il setim an (but the seventh year) tu âs di lassâle pustote (you are to leave it uncultivated) e no tu âs di cjapâ sù nuie (and are not to harvest [take up] anything); i puars dal to popul int mangjaran (the poor of your people shall eat thereof) e lis bestiis salvadiis a cjolaran ce che ur varà vanzât (and the wild beasts shall take that which is [will have been] remanent unto them). Compagn tu âs di fâ tal to vignâl e tal to ulivâr: likewise shall you do in your vineyard and in your olive grove.

Verse 12: Par sîs dîs (for six days) tu fasarâs lis tôs voris (you shall do your tasks) e la setime zornade tu polsarâs (and {on} the seventh day you shall rest), par che al polsi il to bo e il to mus (that your ox and your ass may rest) e par che al tiri flât il leç de tô sierve e il forest (and that the son of your maidservant and the foreigner may draw breath).

Verse 13: Tignît a ments dut ce che us ài dit (keep in mind all that I have told you) e no stait a vê indiment altris dius (and make no mention of other gods); che no us scjampi di bocje nancje il non (let not even the name {of them} escape from your mouth). Consider the following: no sta vê indiment altris dius (do not mention other gods; second-person singular); no stait a vê indiment altris dius (do not mention other gods; second-person plural); no stin a vê indiment altris dius (let us not mention other gods; first-person plural).

Versets 14-19

Vocabulary: la fieste (feast), trê (three), un viaç (time), un an (year), rispietâ (to respect), il pan (bread), cence (without), il levan (leaven), siet (seven), il dì (day), ordenâ (to order), il timp (time), distinâ (to destine), il mês (month), saltâ fûr (to come forth), presentâsi (to present oneself), denant di (before), cu lis mans spacant (empty-handed), la ricolte (harvest; also racuelte), il forment (wheat), lis primiziis (firstfruits), semenâ (to sow), il cjamp (field), a fin dal an (at the end of the year), puartâ dongje (to bear alongside), regonâ (to retrieve), lis vitis (toilings), il mascjo (male), ufrî (to offer), il sanc (blood), la vitime (victim), jevât (arisen), il gras (fat), meti (to put), vie (away), pal indoman (for the next day), puartâ (to bear), la cjase (house), il miôr (the best), il teren (ground), mai (never), boli (to boil), il cjavret (kid, goatling), il lat (milk), la mari (mother).

Verse 14: Tu âs di fâmi fieste trê viaçs ad an: you are make feast to me three times a year.

Verse 15: Tu âs di rispietâ la fieste dal pan cence levan: you are to respect* the feast of bread without leaven. Par siet dîs (for seven days) tu mangjarâs pan cence levan (you shall eat bread without leaven), come che ti ài ordenât jo (as I have ordered you), tal timp distinât tal mês di Abib (at the destined time in the month of Abib), parcè che al è in chel mês (for it was [for it is] in that month) che tu sês saltât fûr dal Egjit (that you came forth from Egypt). No tu âs di presentâti denant di me cu lis mans spacant: you are not to present yourself before me empty-handed. — *as in keep

Verse 16: Tu âs di rispietâ la fieste de ricolte dal forment (you are to respect* the feast of the wheat harvest), des primiziis di ce che tu âs semenât tai cjamps (of the firstfruits of that which you sowed in the fields), e la fieste de ricolte, a fin dal an (and the feast of the harvest at the end of the year), cuant che tu varâs puartât dongje (when you bear [will have borne] alongside) dut ce che tu varâs regonât tai cjamps (all that which you retrieve [will have retrieved] in the fields) a sun di vitis (by dint of toilings). — *as in keep

Verse 17: Trê viaçs ad an (three times a year), ducj i mascjos a àn di presentâsi denant dal Signôr Diu (all the males are to present themselves before the Lord God).

Verse 18: No sta mai ufrî il sanc de vitime (do not ever offer the blood of the victim) cun pan jevât (with arisen bread) e il gras de mê fieste (and {as for} the fat of my feast) no tu âs di metilu vie pal indoman (you are not to put it away for the next day).

Verse 19: Tu puartarâs te cjase dal Signôr to Diu (you shall bear into the house of the Lord your God) il miôr des primiziis dal to teren (the best of the firstfruits of your ground). No sta mai fâ boli un cjavret (do not ever make a kid boil) tal lat di sô mari (in its mother’s milk).

Versets 20-24

Vocabulary: mandâ (to send), un agnul (angel), denant di (before), tignî (to keep), vuardât (guarded, under watch), la strade (way, road), menâ (to lead), il lûc (place), distinâ (to destine), rispietâ (to respect), scoltâ (to heed), (to say), metisi cuintri di (to put oneself against), perdonâ (to forgive, to pardon), par mai (never), il mâl (ill), il non (name), la vôs (voice), il nemì (enemy), dâ jù (to give down), rangjâ (to sort out), (to go), fiscâ (to destroy), butâsi in genoglon (to cast oneself on one’s knees), il diu (god), il sacrifici (sacrifice), la sorte (sort, kind), splantâ (to unplant), la lidrîs (root), parâ in sflichignis (to smash to bits), il colonel (column).

Verse 20: Ve che jo ti mandarai un agnul denant di te (see that I will send an angel before you) par che ti tegni vuardât pe strade (that he may keep you guarded by the way) e ti meni tal lûc che jo o ài distinât par te (and {that he may} lead you to the place which I have destined for you).

Verse 21: Rispietilu e scoltilu ce che ti dîs (respect* it and heed it, that which he says to you); no sta metiti cuintri di lui (do not put yourself against him): no us perdonarès par mai il mâl che o fasês (he will never pardon the ill which you do), parcè che il gno non al è cun lui (for my name is with him). — *as in keep

Verse 22: Ma se però tu scoltis la sô vôs (but if you heed his voice) e tu fasis ce che o dîs jo (and do what I say), o sarai il nemì dai tiei nemîs (I will be the enemy of your enemies) e chei che ti dan jù ju rangjarai jo (and those who attack [give down unto] you will I sort out).

Verse 23: Il gno agnul al larà denant di te (my angel will go before you) e ti menarà (and will lead you) dai amoreus (to the Amorites), dai itits (to the Hittites), dai peressits (to the Perizzites), dai cananeus (to the Canaanites), dai eveus (to the Hivites), dai gjebuseus ({and} to the Jebusites) e ju fiscarai (and I will destroy them).

Verse 24: No sta butâti in genoglon denant dai lôr dius (do not cast yourself on your knees before their gods) e no sta fâur sacrificis di sorte (and do not make any manner of sacrifices to them); no sta fâ come che a fasin lôr (do not do as they do) ma tu âs di *splantâ di lidrîs* i lôr dius (rather you are to unplant by the root their gods) e tu âs di parâ in sflichignis¬ i lôr colonei (and you are to smash to bits [send into bits] their columns). *Splantâ di lidrîs: used figuratively in the sense of to eradicate utterly. ¬Parâ in sflichignis: to smash to bits; taken literally, to send into bits, to drive into bits.

Versets 25-33

Review: ingenoglâsi (to kneel down; also inzenoglâsi), dome (only, but), benedî (to bless), il pan (bread), la aghe (water), tignî (to keep), lontan (far), ogni (every), la disgracie (misfortune), la tiere (land), la femine (woman), abortî (to miscarry), i fruts (children), gjoldi (to enjoy, to relish), il dì (day), fint insomp (completely, through and through; also fin insom), semenâ (to sow), il terôr (terror), scjampâ (to escape, to flee), il fum (smoke), il popul (people), talonâ (to pursue), il nemì (enemy), mandâ (to send), un avon (hornet), cori (to run), tirâ vie (to draw away), deventâ (to become), il desert (desert), moltiplicâsi (to multiply, to increase), il damp (detriment), la bestie (beast), salvadi (wild), un pôc (a little, a bit), la volte (time), fintremai che (until), avonde (enough, sufficiently), fuart (mighty), podê (to be able), paronâ (to rule), segnâ (to mark), il cunfin (boundary), il mâr (sea), la cjanusse (reed), fint a (as far as), il flum (river), meti (to pu), la man (hand), la int (people), sgorneâ vie (to drive away), il pat (pact), la sorte (sort, kind), stiçâ (to instigate, to incite), metisi cuintri di (to put oneself against), butâsi (to cast oneself), il tramai (snare).

Verse 25: O vês di ingenoglâsi (you are to kneel down) dome denant dal Signôr vuestri Diu (but before the Lord your God) e alore jo o benedissarai il to pan e la tô aghe (and then I will bless your bread and your water) e o tignarai lontane ogni disgracie (and will keep far every misfortune).

Verse 26: Te tô tiere (in your land) no sarà nissune femine (there shall be no woman) ch’e abortìs o cence fruts (who miscarries or {who is} without children), e jo ti fasarai gjoldi i tiei dîs (and I will make you relish your days) fint insomp (through and through).

Verse 27: O semenarai il terôr denant di te (I will sow terror before you), o fasarai scjampâ come il fum ducj i popui (I will make all the peoples flee like smoke) là che tu larâs (wherever you go [there where you will go]), o fasarai talonâ ducj i tiei nemîs (I will have all your enemies pursued).

Verse 28: O mandarai denant di te i avons (before you I will send hornets), che a fasaran cori i eveus, i cananeus e i itits lontan di te (which shall make the Hivites, Canaanites and Hittites run far from you).

Verse 29: Jo no tai tirarai vie di te (I will not draw them away from you) ducj intun an (all in a {single} year), par che la tiere no deventi un desert (lest the land become a desert [that the land may not become a desert]) e che si moltiplichin a to damp lis bestiis salvadiis (and the wild beasts multiply to your detriment). Tai is a contraction of ti + ju. Consider: la tiere e devente; par che la tiere e deventi (the land becomes; that the land may become); la tiere no devente; par che la tiere no deventi (the land does not become; that the land may not become).

Verse 30: Ju fasarai scjampâ (I will make them flee) un pôc a la volte (a little at a time), fintremai che no tu sarâs avonde fuart (until you are [will be] mighty enough) di podê paronâ tu (to be able to rule, you yourself).

Verse 31: O segnarai i tiei cunfins (I will mark your boundaries) dal mâr des Cjanussis (from the Sea of Reeds) fint al mâr dai filisteus (as far as the Sea of the Philistines) e dal desert al flum (and from the desert to the river), parcè che us metarai tes vuestris mans (for I will put into your hands) dute la int di chê tiere (all the people of that land) e tu tu ju sgornearâs vie lontan di te (and you shall drive them far from you).

Verse 32: No sta fâ pat di sorte ni cun lôr ni cui lôr dius: do not make any manner of pact either with them or with their gods.

Verse 33: No staran te tô tiere (they shall not remain in your land) par che no ti sticin a metiti cuintri di me (lest they incite [that they may not incite] you to put yourself against me), parcè che tu ti butaressis cui lôr dius (for you would cast yourself unto [with] their gods) e chest al sarès par te un tramai (and this would be a snare for you).