Friulian language series: Esodo 22, lis leçs

The twenty-second chapter of the book of Exodus continues to relate the rulings that began in the previous chapter. From the heading: damps particolârs (specific damages), where the masculine damp (standardised dam) means harm, damage.

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Read Esodo 22

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Versets 1-5

Vocabulary: il lari (thief), intivâ (to find, to come across), sbusâ (to put a hole in, to make a breach in), il mûr (wall), cjapâ un colp (to take a blow, to take a hit), lassâ sec (to leave dead), rispuindi (to respond), il sanc (blood), il soreli (sun), biel jevât (fully arisen), svindicâ (to avenge), tornâ (to return), vendi (to sell), rifondi (to reimburse, to compensate), puartâ vie (to bear away), il nemâl (animal), robât (stolen), il bo (ox), il mus (ass, donkey), il cjâf (head), la robe (matter), minût (little), cjatâ (to find), ancjemò (yet), vîf (living), la man (hand), il dopli (double, twice the amount), fâ passonâ (to put to pasture), il cjamp (field), il vignâl (vineyard), balinâ (to tread), butâ (to cast), lassâ (to let), la stime (valuation), la ricolte (harvest; also racuelte), bon (good), il fûc (fire), cjapâ fûc (to catch fire), il baraçâr (bush), arsinî (to consume), la mede (haystack), il balçûl (sheaf), il forment (wheat), dâ fûc (to set fire), brusâ (to burn).

Verse 1: Se un lari (if a thief), intivât a sbusâ un mûr* ({having been} caught making a breach in a wall), al cjape un colp che lu lasse sec (takes a blow which leaves him dead), nissun nol à di rispuindi pal so sanc (no one need respond for his blood). *That is, making forcible entry into a house.

Verse 2: Ma se però il soreli al jere biel jevât (but if the sun was fully arisen), il so sanc al sarà svindicât (his blood shall be avenged). Al varà di tornâ dut e (he shall have to make full restitution [return all] and), se nol à cun ce (if he has not with which {to make full restitution}), si lu vent (he is to be sold [one sells him]) par rifondi ce che al à puartât vie (to compensate for that which he has borne away).

Verse 3: Se il nemâl robât (if the stolen animal), bo, mus o cjâf di robe minude ({whether} ox, ass or a head of little livestock [matter]), si cjatilu ancjemò vîf tes sôs mans (is found yet living in his hands), al à di tornâ il dopli (he must pay double).

Verse 4: Se un al fâs passonâ tun cjamp (if a one sets {his flocks} to pasture in a field) o tun vignâl (or in a vineyard) e al lasse passonâ tal cjamp di chei altris (and lets {his flocks} graze in the field of those others), al à di tornâ ce che il cjamp balinât al butave (he must make restitution for what the tread-upon land would produce [cast]). Se al à lassât passonâ dut il cjamp (if he let the entire field be grazed), al à di tornâ su la stime (he must make restitution according to the valuation) de ricolte plui buine (of the best harvest) dal cjamp o dal vignâl (of the field or of the vineyard).

Verse 5: Se il fûc, cjapant (if when a fire catches [if a fire, {in} taking]), al cjate baraçârs (it finds bushes) e al arsinìs medis, balçûi di forment o cjamps (and consumes haystacks, sheaves of wheat or fields), chel che al à dât fûc al à di rifondi ce che al à brusât (he who started the fire [he who gave fire] must compensate for what he has burnt).

Versets 6-14

Vocabulary: dâ in consegne (to give in safekeeping), i bêçs (money), la robe (matter), strafuî (to steal), il lari (thief), brincâ (to apprehend), paiâ il dopli (to pay double), vignî fûr (to come forth), il paron (master), la cjase (house), lâ dongje (to go alongside), testemoneâ (to testify), tocjâ (to touch), ogni viaç (every time, whenever), cavilâ (to cavil), il bo (ox), il mus (ass, donkey), il cjâf (head), il nemâl minût (little animal), pierdût (lost), (to say), la cuistion (matter), lâ a finî (to end up), jessi colpe (to be guilty), il manç (ox), la bestie (beast), crepâ (to die), rompisi (to break, to fracture {unto oneself}), puartâ vie (to bear away), viodi (to see), il zurament (oath), decidi (to decide), la part (part), il vuardean (guardian), slungjâ (to extend), la man (hand), tignî (to keep), restâ (to remain), il dirit (right), tornâ (to return, to restore), nuie (nothing), robât (stolen), rifondi (to compensate, to reimburse), fâ fûr (to do away with), la besteate (wild beast), mostrâ (to show), slambrâ (to rend apart), domandâ ad imprest (to ask to borrow), dâ a nauli (to let out {for hire}).

Verse 6: Se un i dà in consegne a di un altri bêçs o robe (if a one gives money or matter to another in safekeeping) e jai strafuissin (and they are stolen [and they steal them from him (unto him)]), il lari, se lu brinchin (the thief, if apprehended [the thief, if they apprehend him]), al à di paiâ il dopli (must pay double). Jai is a contraction of i + ju (unto him + them). Review the contractions produced when the indirect object pronouns in orange come into contact with the direct object pronouns in blue:

lu le ju lis
mi mal me mai mes
ti tal te tai tes
i jal je jai jes
si sal se sai ses
nus nus al nus e nus ai nus es
us us al us e us ai us es
ur ur al ur e ur ai ur es

Verse 7: Se il lari nol ven fûr (if the thief goes unidentified [does not come forth*]), il paron di cjase (the master of the house) al à di lâ dongje di Diu (must go alongside God) e testemoneâ che lui nol à tocjade la robe di chel altri (and testify that he has not touched the matter of that other). *The sense of vignî fûr (to come forth) as used here is to be revealed, to have one’s identity come to light.

Verse 8: Ogni viaç che si cavile (whenever men cavil) par un bo, un mus o un cjâf di nemâl minût (for an ox, an ass or a head of little animal) o un’altre robe pierdude (or another lost matter) e che un al disi (and the one should say): al è propit chest (it is squarely this), la cuistion e larà a finî denant di Diu (the matter shall go to finish before God). Chel che Diu al varà dit che al è colpe lui (that one whom God will have deemed guilty), al varà di tornâi il dopli a di chel altri (shall have to restore double to that other).

Verses 9-10: Se un i dà in consegne a di un altri un mus, un manç, un cjâf di robe minude o ancje un altri nemâl (if a one gives to another in safekeeping an ass, an ox, a head of little livestock [matter] or even some other animal) e la bestie e crepe (and the beast dies), si romp alc (maims itself [breaks something unto itself]) o le puartin vie (or is borne away [or they bear it away]) cence che nissun nol viodi (without anyone’s seeing), un zurament sul Signôr (an oath before [on] the Lord) al decidarà tra lis dôs parts (shall decide between the two parts), se il vuardean al à slungjade la man su la robe di chel altri o no ({to decide} whether or not the guardian has extended his hand upon the matter of that other). Il paron al tignarà ce che al reste (the master shall keep what remains) e il vuardean nol à nissun dirit di tornâ nuie (and the guardian has no obligation [right] to make restitution [return anything]). The verb rompi means to break; for instance, rompi la glace means to break the ice. In the text of verse 9, you find the reflexive rompisi, meaning to break unto oneself; for instance, rompisi la conole means to break one’s wrist (to break the wrist unto oneself): si è rot la conole (he broke his wrist). Consider the following: nissun nol viôt (nobody sees); cence che nissun nol viodi (without anybody’s seeing).

Verse 11: Ma se il nemâl robât al jere dongje di lui (but if the stolen animal was alongside him), al à di rifondi al so paron (he must compensate the master; he must make restitution to the master).

Verse 12: Se il nemâl lu à fat fûr une besteate (if the animal was done away with by a wild beast [if the animal, a wild beast did away with it]), al à di mostrâ il nemâl slambrât (he must produce [show] the rent apart animal) e nol à nuie ce rifondi (and need not make restitution [and has nothing {for} which to compensate]).

Verse 13: Se un i domande ad imprest un nemâl a di un altri (if a one asks to borrow [asks on loan] an animal from another) e chel si romp alc (and it [that one] maims itself [breaks something unto itself]) o al crepe cuant che nol è il paron (or dies when its master is not about), al à di rifondi (he must make restitution). Supplementary examples related to ad imprest (on loan): prestâ, imprestâ (to lend); la biblioteche e preste al massim trê libris par volte (the library lends at most three books at a time); mi à prestât cent euros (he lent me one hundred euros); cuâi* libris ur âstu imprestâts? (which books have you lent to them?); domandâ ad imprest (to ask to borrow [to ask on loan]); mi à domandât un libri ad imprest (he asked to borrow a book from me; he asked me for a book on loan); o vin chest libri ad imprest (we have borrowed this book; we have this book on loan). *The four forms of cuâl are: cuâl (masculine singular); cuâi (masculine plural); cuale (feminine singular); cualis (feminine plural); examples: cuâl libri, cuâi libris, cuale cjase, cualis cjasis.

Verse 14: Se però il paron al jere dongje de bestie (but if its master was alongside the beast), nol à nuie ce rifondi (he need not make restitution [has nothing {for} which to compensate]). Se il paron al è un che al dà a nauli (if the master is one who lets out {for hire}), al à dirit di vê il so (he is entitled to what is his [he has {the} right to have {what is} his]). Supplementary examples of nauli: cjapâ a nauli une machine (to hire/rent a car); paiâ il nauli di une machine (to pay the hire/rental for a car).

Versets 15-23

Vocabulary: tradî (to betray, to lead astray), la fantate (maiden), imprometût (promised), un om (man), (to go), paiâ (to pay), il presit (price, cost), cjoli (to take), il pari (father), volê (to will), (to take), butâ fûr (to cast forth), la some (sum), compagn di (like), distinâ (to destine), lassâ (to leave), la vite (life), la maghe (witch), la bestie (beast), ufrî (to offer), il sacrifici (sacrifice), il diu (god), forest (foreign), bandî (to ban), la malegracie (ill manner), tibiâ (to downtrod), la tiere (land), maltratâ (to mistreat), la vedue (widow), il vuarfin (orphan), berlâ (to cry forth), viers di (unto), scoltâ (to heed), il berli (outcry), vignî sù (to arise, to come up), la fumate (smoke {cloud}), murî (to die), la spade (sword), la femine (wife), il fi (son).

Verse 15: Se un al tradìs une fantate (if a one seduces [betrays] a maiden) che no je ancjemò imprometude a di un om (who is not yet betrothed [promised] to a man) e al va cun jê (and he lies with her [and he goes with her]), al à di paiâ il presit (he must pay the {marriage-}price) e al à di cjolile (and must take her {for wife}). The verb tradî means to betray; for instance, no sta tradî un amì pai bêçs means do not betray a friend for money, and tradî l’om means to betray (cheat on) one’s husband. In the text of this verse, tradî means to betray in the sense of to lead astray, to seduce.

Verse 16: Se so pari nol vûl dâje (if her father will not give her to him), al à di butâ fûr une some (he must produce [cast forth] a sum) compagne di ce che al è stât distinât (like that which has been destined) pes fantatis (for maidens). Dâje = + i + le (to give + unto him + her).

Verse 17: No tu âs di lassâ in vite nissune maghe: you must not leave in life any witch.

Verse 18: Chel che al va cuntune bestie al à di murî: he who lies (goes) with a beast must die.

Verse 19: Chel che ur ufrìs sacrificis a dius forescj, si à di bandîlu: he who offers sacrifices to foreign gods must be banned (one is to ban him).

Verse 20: No sta fâi malegraciis al forest (make not ill manners unto a foreigner) e no sta tibiâlu (and downtrod him not), parcè che ancje vualtris o vês stât forescj te tiere dal Egjit (for you too were foreigners in the land of Egypt).

Verse 21: No stait a maltratâ une vedue o un vuarfin: mistreat not a widow or an orphan.

Verses 22-23: Se tu i fasis malegraciis (if you make ill manners unto them [unto him]) e lui al berle viers di me (and they cry forth [he cries forth] unto me), jo o scoltarai il so berli (I will heed their outcry [his outcry]); mi vignarà sù la fumate (my wrath will come upon me [unto me will come up the wrath (smoke)]) e us fasarai murî cu la spade (and I will kill you by the sword [make you die with the sword]): cussì lis vuestris feminis a restaran veduis (your wives shall thus remain widows) e i vuestris fîs vuarfins (and your children {shall thus remain} orphans). The literal meaning of the feminine fumate is smoke or smoke cloud; it is used figuratively here in the sense of anger, wrath.

Versets 24-30

Vocabulary: imprestâ (to lend), i bêçs (money), la gjernazie (line), il puar (poor man), jessi a stâ (to dwell), impignorâ (to impignorate), pratindi (to demand, to exact; also pretindi), l’interès (interest), cjoli (to take), il pegn (pledge), la manteline (mantle), tornâ (to return, to restore), il soreli (sun), lâ a mont (to set; of sun), taponâsi (to conceal oneself), invulucâsi (to wrap oneself up; also involuçâsi), pognisi (to lie down to sleep), berlâ (to cry forth), scoltâ (to heed), il cûr (heart), blestemâ (to blaspheme), bramâ cuintri (to utter a curse on, to imprecate), il sorestant (chief), il popul (people), tirâsi indaûr (to draw oneself back), (to give), la bondance (abundance), vanzâ (to be remanent), il primarûl (firstborn), il fi (son), il besteam grant (great cattle), il besteam minût (little cattle), siet (seven), il dì (day), la mari (mother), otâf (eighth), la zornade (day), la int (people), sant (holy), mangjâ (to eat), la cjar (flesh), il nemâl (animal), slambrâ (to rend apart), la bestie (beast), salvadi (wild), la campagne (open country), butâ (to cast), il cjan (dog).

Verse 24: Se tu i imprestis bêçs a di un de tô gjernazie (if you lend money to a one of your line), al puar che al è a stâ cun te (to the poor man who dwells with you), no sta fâ cun lui (do not deal with him [do not do with him]) compagn di chel che al impignore (like the one who impignorates); no sta pratindi nissun interès (do not exact any interest).

Verse 25: Se tu cjolis in pegn la manteline di un altri (if you take in pledge the mantle of another), tu âs di tornâje (you must return it to him) cuant che il soreli al va a mont (when the sun sets). Tornâje: like the je of dâje from verse 16, the je of tornâje is a contraction of i + le (unto him + it).

Verse 26: Al à dome chê par taponâsi (he has but that with which to conceal himself), e je la manteline che si invuluce (it is the mantle in which he wraps himself): cun ce àial di pognisi? (with what {else} is he to lie down to sleep?). Se al berle viers di me (if he cries forth unto me), jo lu scoltarai (I will heed him), parcè che jo o ài cûr (for I am merciful [for I have heart]).

Verse 27: No sta blestemâ Diu (do not blaspheme God) e no sta bramâ cuintri di un sorestant dal to popul (and do not imprecate against a chief from amongst your people [of your people]).

Verse 28: No sta tirâti indaûr (do not draw yourself back) tal dâ de tô bondance (in the giving of your abundance) e di ce che ti vanze (and of that which is remanent unto you). Il primarûl dai tiei fîs (the firstborn of your sons) tu âs di dâmal a mi (you are to give him to me). Dâmal = dâ + mi + lu (to give + unto me + him).

Verse 29: Tu âs di fâ compagn cul besteam grant e minût (likewise must you do with the cattle great and little): par siet dîs (for seven days) al* restarà cun sô mari (it shall remain with its mother) e l’otave zornade tu mal darâs (and on the eighth day you shall give it to me). *The male firstborn.

Verse 30: O sarês par me une int sante: you shall be for me a holy people. No mangjarês la cjar (you shall not eat the flesh) di un nemâl slambrât des bestiis salvadiis (of an animal rent apart by wild beasts) te campagne (in the open country); ur e butarês ai cjans (you shall cast it to the dogs). Ur e = ur + le (unto them + it); see the table at the notes for verse 6 to review.