Friulian language series: Esodo 22, lis leçs (II)

With Esodo 22, or chapter 22 of the book of Exodus in Friulian version, you continue to read about the rulings that began in the twenty-first chapter.

If you are arriving on this site for the first time, begin your study of the Friulian language here.

Read Esodo 22

To read the Friulian text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Bibie par un popul and consult Esodo 22. An archived version of the text can be found here.

Versets 1-3

Vocabulary: il lari (thief), intivâ (to find), sbusâ (to put a hole in, to make a breach in), il mûr (wall), cjapâ un colp (to take a blow, to take a hit), lassâ sec (to leave dead), rispuindi par (to take revenge for), il sanc (blood), il soreli (sun), biel jevât (fully risen), svindicâ (to avenge, to vindicate), tornâ (to return, to restitute), vendi (to sell), rifondi (to reimburse, to compensate), puartâ vie (to take away, to steal), il nemâl (animal), robât (stolen), il bo (ox), il mus (donkey), il cjâf (head), la robe minude (small livestock; sheep), cjatâ (to find), ancjemò vîf (still alive), la man (hand), il dopli (double, twice the amount).

Verse 1: Se un lari, intivât a sbusâ un mûr: if a thief, found making a breach (or making a hole) in a wall; digging through a wall was the typical way of breaking into a dwelling. Se […] al cjape un colp che lu lasse sec: if he takes a blow that leaves him dead; this refers to a mortal blow that might be delivered to the thief by the householder; in this case, the thief was not to be avenged: nissun nol à di rispuindi pal so sanc (nobody must avenge his blood; nobody is to take revenge for his blood).

In verse 2, you read that the thief was to be avenged if the mortal blow was delivered in daylight (verse 1 deals with darkness); in the light of day, it would have been possible for the householder to apprehend the thief, whereas at night he would have acted in self-defence not knowing the intentions of the intruder. From this verse, understand the following portions: ma se però il soreli al jere biel jevât (if the sun was fully risen); se nol à cun ce (if he cannot [make restitution]; literally, if he does not have with what [to make restitution]), si lu vent par rifondi ce che al à puartât vie (one is to sell him to compensate for what was stolen [taken away]).

Verse 3: Se […] si cjatilu ancjemò vîf tes sôs mans: if it is found still alive in his hands; if one finds it still alive in his hands. Tornâ il dopli: to return double; to restore twice the amount.

Versets 4-5

Vocabulary: fâ passonâ (to put to pasture), il cjamp (field), il vignâl (vineyard), balinâ (to amble, to stroll, to walk), butâ (to produce), lassâ passonâ (to let be eaten), la stime (evaluation, appraisal), la ricolte (harvest; also racuelte), bon (good; feminine, buine), cjapâ fûc (to catch fire), cjatâ (to find, to meet with), il baraçâr (bush, shrub), arsinî (to burn), la mede (haystack), il balçûl (bundle, sheaf), il forment (wheat, grain), dâ fûc (to set fire), brusâ (to burn).

Verse 4: Se un al fâs passonâ: if a man feeds his flock; literally, if one makes graze. Se un […] al lasse passonâ: if a man lets his flock feed; literally, if one lets graze. Di chei altris is to be understood as meaning of another (literally, of those others). Of the man who feeds his flock on the field of another, you read: al à di tornâ ce che il cjamp balinât al butave (he must restore what the tread-upon field produced [was producing]).

The expression cjapâ fûc means to catch fire; in verse 5, you read: se il fûc, cjapant, al cjate baraçârs (if fire, [whilst] catching, meets with shrubs; that is, if fire breaks out and burns shrubs). Cjapant is the present participle of cjatâ. You first encountered the masculine balçûl in Gjenesi 37:7, in the telling of Joseph’s dreams. Chel che al à dât fûc: he who set the fire.

Versets 6-8

Vocabulary: il damp (damage; also dam), particolâr (specific), dâ in consegne (to give in safekeeping), i bêçs (money), la robe (goods, things), strafuî (to steal), il lari (thief), brincâ (to catch, to seize), paiâ il dopli (to pay double), vignî fûr (to be revealed; found), il paron di cjase (master of the house), lâ dongje di (to go unto, to approach), testemoneâ (to testify), tocjâ (to touch), ogni viaç (every time, whenever), cavilâ (to quarrel), il bo (ox), il mus (donkey), il cjâf (head), il nemâl minût (small animal; sheep), pierdût (lost), (to say), la cuistion (matter, issue), lâ a finî (to end up), jessi colpe (to be guilty).

From the subject line, note that damp is a variant spelling of the standardised dam (damage). This is the same pronunciation phenomenon that you have encountered with omp (standandised as om [man]), whereby a p sound can be realised after the final m.

Verse 6: Se un i dà in consegne a di un altri bêçs o robe: if a man gives to another money or goods in safekeeping. As for se […] jai strafuissin, this is to be understood as if they are stolen from him (literally, if they steal them unto him). Recall that jai is a contraction of i + ju (unto him + them).

Review the contractions produced when the indirect object pronouns in purple come into contact with the direct object pronouns in blue:

lu le ju lis
mi mal me mai mes
ti tal te tai tes
i jal je jai jes
si sal se sai ses
nus nus al nus e nus ai nus es
us us al us e us ai us es
ur ur al ur e ur ai ur es

Verse 7: Se il lari nol ven fûr: if the thief is not found.

Verse 8: Ogni viaç […] che un al disi: every time that one may happen to say. Al disi is the masculine, third-person singular of the present subjunctive of the verb dî.

al dîs
he says

ogni viaç che un al disi
every time that one may (happen to) say
every time that one should (happen to) say, etc.

Also from verse 8: chel che Diu al varà dit che al è colpe lui (whomever God will have said is guilty).

Versets 9-14

Vocabulary: dâ in consegne (to give in safekeeping), il mus (donkey), il manç (ox), il cjâf (head), il nemâl (animal), la bestie (beast), crepâ (to die), rompisi (to break, to fracture [unto oneself]), puartâ vie (to take away, to steal), viodi (to see), il zurament (judgement), decidi (to decide), la part (side, party), il vuardean (custodian, safekeeper), slungjâ la man (to extend one’s hand), il paron (master, owner), tignî (to keep), restâ (to remain), il dirit (right), robât (stolen), dongje di (next to, alongside), rifondi (to compensate, to reimburse), fâ fûr (to kill), la besteate (wild beast), mostrâ (to show), slambrât (ripped apart, mangled), domandâ ad imprest (to ask to borrow), dâ a nauli (to let out for hire).

Verse 9: Se […] la bestie e crepe (if the beast dies), si romp alc (breaks something [unto itself]; that is, injures itself) o le puartin vie (or it is stolen; literally, or they take it away) cence che nissun nol viodi (without anybody’s seeing). The verb rompi means to break; for example, rompi la glace means to break the ice. In this verse, you find the reflexive rompisi, which is to be understood as to break unto oneself; for example, rompisi la conole means to break one’s wrist (to break the wrist unto oneself): si è rot la conole (he broke his wrist). Si romp alc, then, translates literally as breaks something unto itself; that is, maims itself, injures itself, etc. Note the use of the subjunctive following cence che:

nissun nol viôt
nobody sees

cence che nissun nol viodi
without anybody seeing

Verse 10: Tra lis dôs parts: between the two parties. The owner of the animal is referred to as il paron (master), whereas the man to whom the animal was entrusted is il vuardean (guardian).

Verse 12: Nol à nuie ce rifondi: he need not reimburse anything. Un nemâl slambrât (mangled animal) is one that has been ripped apart, torn to shreds; here, by a wild beast: une besteate.

Verse 13: Se un i domande ad imprest un nemâl a di un altri: if a man asks unto another to borrow an animal. Cuant che nol è il paron: when the master is not present; when the owner is not there.

In relation to ad imprest (on loan) from verse 13, learn the following: prestâ, imprestâ (to lend); la biblioteche e preste al massim trê libris par volte (the library lends at most three books at a time); mi à prestât cent euros (he lent me one hundred euros); cuâi* libris ur âstu imprestâts? (what books have you lent to them?). Ad imprest from verse 13 is to be understood as on loan; domandâ ad imprest, then, means to ask (for something) on loan; that is, to ask to borrow. Examples: i ài domandât un libri ad imprest (I asked to borrow a book from him, I asked him for a book on loan); o ài chest libri ad imprest (I have borrowed this book, I have this book on loan).

*The four forms of cuâl are: cuâl (, cuâi (; cuale (, cualis ( Examples: cuâl libri, cuâi libris; cuale cjase, cualis cjasis.

Verse 14: Se il paron al è un che al dà a nauli (if the owner is one who lets out for hire), al à dirit di vê il so (he has the right to what is due to him [to have (what is) his]); that is, he is to be paid only for the price of the hire. Other examples of nauli that you might employ in your own use of Friulian: cjapâ a nauli une machine (to hire a car, to rent a car), paiâ il nauli di une machine (to pay the hire for a car, to pay the rental for a car).

Versets 15-23

Vocabulary: tradî (to betray, to lead astray), la fantate (girl, maiden), imprometût (promised), lâ cun (to lie with, to have relations with), paiâ (to pay), il presit (price, cost), cjoli (to take), il pari (father), butâ fûr (to provide), la some (sum), compagn di (equal to), distinât (designated; also destinât), lassâ in vite (to let live), la maghe (witch), la bestie (beast, animal), ufrî (to offer), il sacrifici (sacrifice), forest (foreign), bandî (to proscribe), fâ malegraciis (to be rude, to speak harshly), tibiâ (to oppress), maltratâ (to mistreat), la vedue (widow), il vuarfin (orphan), berlâ (to cry out, to yell out), viers di (towards), scoltâ (to hear; to listen), il berli (outcry), vignî sù (to arise, to come up), la fumate (anger; literally, smoke), fâ murî (to kill), la spade (sword), la femine (wife), il fi (son).

Verse 15: The unmarried man who lies with an unbetrothed maiden must pay the price for her and take her as wife. The verb tradî means to betray. For example, no sta tradî un amî pai bêçs (Sir 7:18) means do not betray a friend for money, whereas tradî l’om means to betray (cheat on) one’s husband. In this verse, tradî means to betray in the sense of to lead astray, to seduce: se un al tradìs une fantate (if a man betrays [leads astray] a maiden); that is, if he seduces her.

You continue to read: che no je ancjemò imprometude a di un om (who is not yet promised [betrothed] to a man) e al va cun jê (and he lies with her; literally, and he goes with her), al à di paiâ il presit (he must pay the price [to her parents]) e al à di cjolile (and he must take her [as his wife]). Because the father of a maiden would receive a sum from the man to whom he gave his virgin daughter, the loss of a maiden’s virginity diminished her value; the unmarried seducer was therefore required to pay and take the unbetrothed daughter as his wife.

Although I have translated it as maiden in the paragraph above, la fantate is the usual word for (adolescent) girl in contemporary Friulian. Its masculine equivalent is il fantat ([adolescent] boy). Il frut (boy) and la frute (girl) are used for younger, pre-pubescent children.

Verse 16: Se so pari nol vûl dâje: if her father does not want to give her to him. Regarding the je of dâje, this is a contraction of i + le (unto him + her).

Verse 18: Chel che al va cuntune bestie: he who lies with a beast.

Verse 19: Si à di bandîlu: one must proscribe him; he shall be proscribed. The basic sense of bandî is to set apart; in this way, si à di bandîlu can also be taken as one must set him apart (one must exclude him, one must cut him off).

Verse 23: Mi vignarà sù la fumate: I shall become angered; literally, the smoke will rise up in me. Us fasarai murî cu la spade: I shall kill you by the sword. Restâ vedue: to remain a widow. A restaran veduis: they will remain widows. Restâ vuarfin: to remain an orphan. A restaran vuarfins: they will remain orphans.

Versets 24-27

Vocabulary: imprestâ (to lend), i bêçs (money), la gjernazie (offspring), il puar (poor person), jessi a stâ (to live, to dwell), impignorâ (to pawn, to pledge, to impignorate; also impegnorâ), pratindi (to demand; also pretindi), l’interès (interest), il pegn (pawn, pledge), cjoli in pegn (to take in pawn, to receive in pledge), la manteline (robe, cloak), il soreli (sun), lâ a mont (to set [of the sun]), taponâsi (to cover oneself), invulucâsi (to wrap oneself up; also involuçâsi), pognisi (to lie down, to go to bed), berlâ (to cry out, to yell out), scoltâ (to hear; to listen), vê cûr (to be merciful; literally, to have heart), blestemâ (to curse), bramâ cuintri (to curse), il sorestant (chief).

Verse 24: No sta fâ cun lui compagn di chel che al impignore: do not proceed (literally, do not do) with him as with he who makes a pledge (or as with he who pawns). No sta pratindi nissun interès: do not demand any interest. Impignorâ (or impegnorâ), which equates to the archaic English to impignorate, refers to the act of pawning something in exchange for a loan. For example, impignorâ un orloi means to pawn a watch; impegnorâ une cjase means to mortgage a house.

Verse 25: Se tu cjolis in pegn la manteline di un altri: if you take in pledge the robe of another. Contrast: cjoli in pegn (to take in pawn, to receive in pledge); dâ in pegn (to give in pawn, to leave in pledge). You have encountered the masculine noun pegn before, but you met with it expressed as pen; this was in Gjenesi 38:17, when the harlot (who was in fact Tamar) asked Judah for a pledge until she received the goatling from him: tu âs di dâmi un pen (you must give me a pledge). Also from verse 25: tu âs di tornâje cuant che il soreli al va a mont (you must return it to him when the sun sets); like the je of dâje from verse 16, the je of tornâje is a contraction of i + le (unto him + it).

Verse 26: Al à dome chê par taponâsi (he has only that [with which] to cover himself), e je la manteline che si invuluce (it is the robe [with] which he wraps himself up): cun ce àial di pognisi? (with what [else] must he lie down to sleep?).

Versets 28-30

Vocabulary: tirâsi indaûr (to hold oneself back), la bondance (abundance, plenty), vanzâ (to remain in surplus, to be left over), il primarûl (firstborn), il besteam grant (large livestock; oxen), il besteam minût (small livestock; sheep), par siet dîs (for seven days), la mari (mother), otâf (eighth; feminine, otave), la zornade (day), la int (people), sant (holy), mangjâ (to eat), la cjar (flesh), il nemâl (animal), slambrât (mangled, torn apart), la bestie (beast), salvadi (wild), la campagne (field), butâ (to throw), il cjan (dog).

Verse 28: No sta tirâti indaûr tal dâ de tô bondance (do not hold back in the giving of your abundance) e di ce che ti vanze (and of that which you have in surplus). With tal dâ, is used as a noun to mean giving: tal dâ (in the giving). Also: tu âs di dâmal a mi (you must give him to me); the mal of dâmal is a contraction of mi + lu (unto me + him).

Verse 29: Tu mal darâs: you shall give it to me.

In verse 30, of the flesh torn by wild beasts, you read: ur e butarês ai cjans (you shall throw it to the dogs); ur e is a contraction of ur + le (unto them + it); see the chart above under the notes for verses 6-8 to review.