Friulian language series: Esodo 22, lis leçs

The twenty-second chapter of the book of Exodus continues to relate the rulings that began in the previous chapter. From the heading: damps particolârs (specific damages), where the masculine damp (standardised dam) means harm, damage.

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Read Esodo 22

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Versets 1-5

Vocabulary: il lari (thief), intivâ (to find, to come across), sbusâ (to put a hole in, to make a breach in), il mûr (wall), cjapâ un colp (to take a blow, to take a hit), lassâ sec (to leave dead), rispuindi par (to answer for, to account for), il sanc (blood), il soreli (sun), biel jevât (fully risen), svindicâ (to avenge, to vindicate), tornâ (to return), vendi (to sell), rifondi (to reimburse, to compensate), puartâ vie (to take/carry away), il nemâl (animal), robât (stolen), il bo (ox), il mus (ass, donkey), il cjâf (head), la robe minude (small livestock, beasts of the flock, sheep), cjatâ (to find), ancjemò (yet, still), vîf (alive, live, living), la man (hand), il dopli (double, twice the amount), fâ passonâ (to put to pasture), il cjamp (field), il vignâl (vineyard), balinâ (to roam, to ramble), butâ (to produce, to yield), lassâ (to let, to allow), la stime (estimate, evaluation, appraisal), la ricolte (harvest; also racuelte), bon (good), il fûc (fire), cjapâ fûc (to catch fire), cjatâ (to find, to meet with), il baraçâr (bush, shrub), arsinî (to burn), la mede (haystack), il balçûl (bundle, sheaf), il forment (wheat, grain), dâ fûc (to set fire), brusâ (to burn).

Verse 1: Se un lari (if a thief), intivât a sbusâ un mûr* ({having been} caught making a breach in a wall), al cjape un colp che lu lasse sec (takes a blow which leaves him dead), nissun nol à di rispuindi pal so sanc (his blood need not be accounted for [no one need account (no one must answer) for his blood]). *That is, making forcible entry into a house.

Verse 2: Ma se però il soreli al jere biel jevât (but if the sun was fully risen), il so sanc al sarà svindicât (his blood shall be avenged). Al varà di tornâ dut (he must make full restitution [he shall have to return everything]) e, se nol à cun ce (but if he is unable [and if he has not with which {to make full restitution}]), si lu vent (he is to be sold [one sells him]) par rifondi ce che al à puartât vie (to compensate for what he stole [to compensate for what he has carried away]).

Verse 3: Se il nemâl robât (if the stolen animal), bo, mus o cjâf di robe minude ({whether} ox, ass or small beast of the flock [head of small stock]), si cjatilu ancjemò vîf tes sôs mans (is found yet alive in his hands), al à di tornâ il dopli (he must pay double).

Verse 4: Se un al fâs passonâ tun cjamp (if one sets {his flocks} to pasture in a field) o tun vignâl (or in a vineyard) e al lasse passonâ tal cjamp di chei altris (and allows {his flocks} to graze in another’s field [in the field of others]), al à di tornâ ce che il cjamp balinât al butave (he must make restitution for what the grazed [rambled-upon] land produced [was producing]). Se al à lassât passonâ dut il cjamp (if he allowed the entire field to be grazed), al à di tornâ su la stime (he must make restitution according to the estimated value) de ricolte plui buine (of the best harvest) dal cjamp o dal vignâl (of the field or of the vineyard).

Verse 5: Se il fûc, cjapant (if when a fire catches [if a fire, {in} taking]), al cjate baraçârs (it meets with shrubs) e al arsinìs medis, balçûi di forment o cjamps (and burns haystacks, sheaves or fields), chel che al à dât fûc al à di rifondi ce che al à brusât (he who started the fire [he who gave fire] must compensate for what he has burnt).

Versets 6-14

Vocabulary: dâ in consegne (to give in safekeeping), i bêçs (money), la robe (goods, things), strafuî (to steal), il lari (thief), brincâ (to catch, to capture), paiâ il dopli (to pay double), vignî fûr (to come out), il paron (master, owner), la cjase (house), lâ dongje di (to go unto, to approach), testemoneâ (to testify), tocjâ (to touch), ogni viaç (every time, whenever), cavilâ (to quarrel), il bo (ox), il mus (ass, donkey), il cjâf (head), il nemâl minût (small animal, beast of the flock), pierdût (lost), (to say), la cuistion (matter, case), lâ a finî (to end up), jessi colpe (to be guilty), il manç (ox), la bestie (beast), crepâ (to die), rompisi (to break, to fracture {unto oneself}), puartâ vie (to take/carry away), viodi (to see), il zurament (oath), decidi (to decide), la part (side, party), il vuardean (custodian, safekeeper), slungjâ (to extend, to stretch out), la man (hand), tignî (to keep), restâ (to remain), il dirit (right), tornâ (to return, to restore), nuie (nothing), robât (stolen), dongje di (by, alongside), rifondi (to compensate, to reimburse), fâ fûr (to kill), la besteate (wild beast), mostrâ (to show), slambrât (ripped apart, mangled), domandâ ad imprest (to ask to borrow), dâ a nauli (to let out {for hire}).

Verse 6: Se un i dà in consegne a di un altri bêçs o robe (if one gives money or goods to another in safekeeping) e jai strafuissin (and they are stolen [and they steal them from him (unto him)]), il lari, se lu brinchin (the thief, if caught [the thief, if they catch him]), al à di paiâ il dopli (must pay double). Jai is a contraction of i + ju (unto him + them). Review the contractions produced when the indirect object pronouns in purple come into contact with the direct object pronouns in blue:

lu le ju lis
mi mal me mai mes
ti tal te tai tes
i jal je jai jes
si sal se sai ses
nus nus al nus e nus ai nus es
us us al us e us ai us es
ur ur al ur e ur ai ur es

Verse 7: Se il lari nol ven fûr (if the thief goes unidentified [does not come out*]), il paron di cjase (the master of the house) al à di lâ dongje di Diu (must come before God [must draw near to God]) e testemoneâ che lui nol à tocjade la robe di chel altri (and testify that he has not touched the property of the other). *The sense of vignî fûr (to come out) as used here is to be revealed, to have one’s identity come to light.

Verse 8: Ogni viaç che si cavile (whenever men quarrel) par un bo, un mus o un cjâf di nemâl minût (over [for] an ox, an ass or a beast of the flock [a head of small animal]) o un’altre robe pierdude (or some other loss [or another lost thing]) e che un al disi (and one {of them} should say): al è propit chest (this here is the one), la cuistion e larà a finî denant di Diu (the matter shall come before God [the matter shall go to finish before God]). Chel che Diu al varà dit che al è colpe lui (he whom God declares guilty [he {of} whom God will have said he is guilty]), al varà di tornâi il dopli a di chel altri (must restore double to the other). Consider: al dîs (he says); ogni viaç che un al disi (whenever one should {happen to} say).

Verses 9-10: Se un i dà in consegne a di un altri un mus, un manç, un cjâf di robe minude o ancje un altri nemâl (if one gives to another an ass, an ox, a beast of the flock [a head of small stock] in safekeeping) e la bestie e crepe (and the beast dies), si romp alc (maims itself [breaks something unto itself]) o le puartin vie (or is stolen [or they carry it away]) cence che nissun nol viodi (without anyone’s seeing), un zurament sul Signôr (an oath before [on] the Lord) al decidarà tra lis dôs parts (shall decide between the two parties), se il vuardean al à slungjade la man su la robe di chel altri o no ({to decide} whether or not the custodian has laid [extended] his hand on the property of the other). Il paron al tignarà ce che al reste (the owner shall keep what remains) e il vuardean nol à nissun dirit di tornâ nuie (and the custodian has no obligation [right] to make restitution [return anything]). The verb rompi means to break; for example, rompi la glace means to break the ice. In the text of verse 9, you find the reflexive rompisi, meaning to break unto oneself; for example, rompisi la conole means to break one’s wrist (to break the wrist unto oneself): si è rot la conole (he broke his wrist). Consider the following: nissun nol viôt (nobody sees); cence che nissun nol viodi (without anybody’s seeing).

Verse 11: Ma se il nemâl robât al jere dongje di lui (but if the stolen animal was in his midst [alongside him; near him]), al à di rifondi al so paron (he must compensate the owner; he must make restitution to the owner).

Verse 12: Se il nemâl lu à fat fûr une besteate (if the animal was killed by a wild beast [if the animal, a wild beast killed it]), al à di mostrâ il nemâl slambrât (he must produce [show] the mangled animal) e nol à nuie ce rifondi (and need not make restitution [and has nothing {for} which to compensate]).

Verse 13: Se un i domande ad imprest un nemâl a di un altri (if one asks to borrow [asks on loan] an animal from another) e chel si romp alc (and it [that one] maims itself [breaks something unto itself]) o al crepe cuant che nol è il paron (or dies when its owner is not about), al à di rifondi (he must make restitution). Supplementary examples related to ad imprest (on loan): prestâ, imprestâ (to lend); la biblioteche e preste al massim trê libris par volte (the library lends at most three books at a time); mi à prestât cent euros (he lent me one hundred euros); cuâi* libris ur âstu imprestâts? (which books have you lent to them?); domandâ ad imprest (to ask to borrow [to ask on loan]); mi à domandât un libri ad imprest (he asked to borrow a book from me; he asked me for a book on loan); o vin chest libri ad imprest (we have borrowed this book; we have this book on loan). *The four forms of cuâl are: cuâl (masculine singular); cuâi (masculine plural); cuale (feminine singular); cualis (feminine plural); examples: cuâl libri, cuâi libris, cuale cjase, cualis cjasis.

Verse 14: Se però il paron al jere dongje de bestie (but if its owner was with [alongside; near] the beast), nol à nuie ce rifondi (he need not make restitution [has nothing {for} which to compensate]). Se il paron al è un che al dà a nauli (if the owner is one who lets out {for hire}), al à dirit di vê il so (he is entitled to what is his [he has {the} right to have {what is} his]). Supplementary examples of nauli: cjapâ a nauli une machine (to hire/rent a car); paiâ il nauli di une machine (to pay the hire/rental for a car).

Versets 15-23

Vocabulary: tradî (to betray, to lead astray), la fantate (girl, maiden), imprometût (promised), un om (man), (to go), paiâ (to pay), il presit (price, cost), cjoli (to take), il pari (father), volê (to want), (to take), butâ fûr (to provide), la some (sum), compagn di (equal to), distinât (designated, determined; also destinât), lassâ in vite (to let live), la maghe (witch), la bestie (beast, animal), ufrî (to offer), il sacrifici (sacrifice), il diu (god), forest (foreign), bandî (to set apart, to proscribe), la malegracie (ill manner, impoliteness, rudeness, discourtesy), tibiâ (to oppress), la tiere (land), maltratâ (to mistreat), la vedue (widow), il vuarfin (orphan), berlâ (to cry out, to yell out), viers di (towards), scoltâ (to listen, to heed), il berli (outcry), vignî sù (to arise, to come up), la fumate (smoke {cloud}), murî (to die), la spade (sword), la femine (wife), il fi (son).

Verse 15: Se un al tradìs une fantate (if a man seduces [betrays] a maiden) che no je ancjemò imprometude a di un om (who is not yet betrothed [promised] to a man) e al va cun jê (and he lies with her [and he goes with her]), al à di paiâ il presit (he must pay the {marriage-}price) e al à di cjolile (and must take her {to wife}). The verb tradî means to betray; for example, no sta tradî un amì pai bêçs means do not betray a friend for money, and tradî l’om means to betray (cheat on) one’s husband. In the text of this verse, tradî means to betray in the sense of to lead astray, to seduce.

Verse 16: Se so pari nol vûl dâje (if her father refuses [does not want] to give her to him), al à di butâ fûr une some (he must produce a sum) compagne di ce che al è stât distinât (equal to what has been determined) pes fantatis (for maidens). Dâje = + i + le (to give + unto him + her).

Verse 17: No tu âs di lassâ in vite nissune maghe: you must not let live (leave in life) any witch.

Verse 18: Chel che al va cuntune bestie al à di murî: he who lies with (goes with) a beast must die.

Verse 19: Chel che ur ufrìs sacrificis a dius forescj, si à di bandîlu: he who offers sacrifices to foreign gods must be proscribed (one is to proscribe him).

Verse 20: No sta fâi malegraciis al forest (do not deal harshly with a foreigner [do not commit (do not do) discourtesies to{wards} the foreigner]) e no sta tibiâlu (and do not oppress him), parcè che ancje vualtris o vês stât forescj te tiere dal Egjit (for you too were foreigners in the land of Egypt).

Verse 21: No stait a maltratâ une vedue o un vuarfin: do not mistreat a widow or an orphan.

Verses 22-23: Se tu i fasis malegraciis (if you deal harshly with them [if you commit (if you do) discourtesies to{wards} him]) e lui al berle viers di me (and they cry [he cries] out to me), jo o scoltarai il so berli (I shall heed their outcry [his outcry]); mi vignarà sù la fumate (my wrath shall blaze forth [the wrath (smoke) shall come up on me]) e us fasarai murî cu la spade (and I shall kill you by the sword [make you die with the sword]): cussì lis vuestris feminis a restaran veduis (your wives shall thus remain widows) e i vuestris fîs vuarfins (and your children {shall thus remain} orphans). The literal meaning of the feminine fumate is smoke or smoke cloud; it is used figuratively here in the sense of anger, wrath.

Versets 24-30

Vocabulary: imprestâ (to lend), i bêçs (money), la gjernazie (offspring), il puar (poor man), jessi a stâ (to dwell), impignorâ (to pawn, to pledge, to impignorate; also impegnorâ), pratindi (to demand, to exact; also pretindi), l’interès (interest), il pegn (pawn, pledge), cjoli in pegn (to take in pawn, to receive in pledge), la manteline (mantle), tornâ (to return, to restore), il soreli (sun), lâ a mont (to set; of sun), taponâsi (to cover oneself), invulucâsi (to wrap oneself up; also involuçâsi), pognisi (to lie down to sleep), berlâ (to cry out, to yell out), scoltâ (to listen, to heed), il cûr (heart), blestemâ (to blaspheme), bramâ cuintri (to utter a curse on, to imprecate), il sorestant (chief), il popul (people), tirâsi indaûr (to refrain, to hold oneself back), (to give), la bondance (abundance, plenty), vanzâ (to remain in surplus, to be left over), il primarûl (firstborn), il fi (son), il besteam grant (large livestock, oxen, herds), il besteam minût (small livestock, sheep, flocks), siet (seven), il dì (day), la mari (mother), otâf (eighth), la zornade (day), la int (people), sant (holy, sacred), mangjâ (to eat), la cjar (flesh), il nemâl (animal), slambrâ (to mangle, to tear apart), la bestie (beast), salvadi (wild), la campagne (open, country), butâ (to throw, to cast), il cjan (dog).

Verse 24: Se tu i imprestis bêçs a di un de tô gjernazie (if you lend money to one of your offspring), al puar che al è a stâ cun te (to the poor man who dwells with you), no sta fâ cun lui (do not deal with him [do not do with him]) compagn di chel che al impignore (as with the one who pledges [impignorates]); no sta pratindi nissun interès (do not exact any interest). Supplementary examples of impignorâ (or impegnorâ): impignorâ un orloi (to pawn a watch); impegnorâ une cjase (to mortgage a house).

Verse 25: Se tu cjolis in pegn la manteline di un altri (if you take in pledge the mantle of another), tu âs di tornâje (you must return it to him) cuant che il soreli al va a mont (when the sun sets). Consider: cjoli in pegn (to take in pawn, to receive in pledge); dâ in pegn (to give in pawn, to leave in pledge). You have encountered the masculine pegn before, but you met with it expressed as pen; this was in Gjenesi 38:17, when Tamar, playing the harlot, asked Judah for a pledge until she received the goatling from him: tu âs di dâmi un pen. Tornâje: like the je of dâje from verse 16, the je of tornâje is a contraction of i + le (unto him + it).

Verse 26: Al à dome chê par taponâsi (he has but that with which to cover himself), e je la manteline che si invuluce (it is the mantle in which he wraps himself): cun ce àial di pognisi? (with what {else} is he to lie down to sleep?). Se al berle viers di me (if he cries out to me), jo lu scoltarai (I shall heed him), parcè che jo o ài cûr (for I am merciful [for I have heart]).

Verse 27: No sta blestemâ Diu (do not blaspheme God) e no sta bramâ cuintri di un sorestant dal to popul (and do not imprecate against a chief from amongst your people [of your people]).

Verse 28: No sta tirâti indaûr (do not hold back [do not pull yourself back]) tal dâ de tô bondance (in the giving of your abundance) e di ce che ti vanze (and of what you have in surplus [and of that which remains unto you in surplus]). Il primarûl dai tiei fîs (the firstborn of your sons) tu âs di dâmal a mi (you are to give him to me). Dâmal = dâ + mi + lu (to give + unto me + him).

Verse 29: Tu âs di fâ compagn cul besteam grant e minût (likewise must you do with the herds and flocks [with the large and small livestock]): par siet dîs (for seven days) al* restarà cun sô mari (it shall remain with its mother) e l’otave zornade tu mal darâs (and on the eighth day you shall give it to me). *The male firstborn.

Verse 30: O sarês par me une int sante: you shall be for me a holy people. No mangjarês la cjar (you shall not eat the flesh) di un nemâl slambrât des bestiis salvadiis (of an animal torn apart by wild beasts) te campagne (in the open); ur e butarês ai cjans (you shall cast it to the dogs). Ur e = ur + le (unto them + it); see the chart at the notes for verse 6 to review.