Friulian language series: Esodo 22, lis leçs

The twenty-second chapter of the book of Exodus continues to treat of the laws. From the heading: damps particolârs (particular damages). The masculine damp is also encountered in Friulian as the standardised dam.

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Read Esodo 22

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Versets 1-5

Vocabulary: il lari (thief), intivât (come upon), sbusâ (to make a hole in), il mûr (wall), cjapâ (to take), il colp (thwack), lassâ sec (to leave dead), nissun (not a one), vê di (to have to), rispuindi (to respond), il sanc (blood), ma se però (but if), il soreli (sun), biel jevât (fully arisen), svindicâ (to avenge), tornâ (to return), vendi (to sell), rifondi (to compensate {for}), puartâ vie (to bear away), il nemâl (animal), robâ (to rob), il bo (ox), il mus (ass), il cjâf (head), la robe (matter), minût (little), cjatâ (to find), ancjemò (yet), vîf (living), la man (hand), il dopli (double), passonâ (to pasture), il cjamp (field), il vignâl (vineyard), altri (other), balinâ (to tread), butâ (to cast), lassâ (to let), la stime (valuation), la ricolte (harvest), bon (good), il fûc (fire), il baraçâr (bush), arsinî (to consume), la mede (haystack), il balçûl (sheaf), il forment (wheat), (to give), brusâ (to burn).

Verse 1: Se un lari (if a thief), intivât a sbusâ* un mûr (having been come upon making a hole in a wall), al cjape un colp che lu lasse sec (takes a thwack which leaves him dead), nissun nol à di rispuindi pal so sanc (not a one has to respond for his blood). — *The verb sbusâ is related to the feminine noun buse, meaning hole.

Verse 2: Ma se però il soreli al jere biel jevât (but if the sun was fully arisen), il so sanc al sarà svindicât (his blood shall be avenged). Al varà di tornâ dut e (he shall have to return all and), se nol à cun ce (if he has not wherewith), si lu vent par rifondi ce che al à puartât vie (he is sold to compensate for that which he has borne away).

Verse 3: Se il nemâl robât (if the robbed animal), bo, mus o cjâf di robe minude (ox, ass or head of little matter), si cjatilu ancjemò vîf tes sôs mans (is found yet living in his hands), al à di tornâ il dopli (he is to return the double).

Verse 4: Se un al fâs passonâ tun cjamp o tun vignâl (if a one makes to pasture in a field or in a vineyard) e al lasse passonâ tal cjamp di chei altris (and lets pasture in the field of those others), al à di tornâ ce che il cjamp balinât al butave (he is to return that which the tread-upon field would produce [cast]). Se al à lassât passonâ dut il cjamp (if he let pasture all the field), al à di tornâ su la stime (he is to return upon the valuation) de ricolte plui buine dal cjamp o dal vignâl (of the best harvest of the field or of the vineyard).

Verse 5: Se il fûc, cjapant, al cjate baraçârs (if fire, in taking, finds bushes) e al arsinìs medis, balçûi di forment o cjamps (and consumes haystacks, sheaves of wheat or fields), chel che al à dât fûc al à di rifondi ce che al à brusât (that one who gave fire is to compensate for that which he has burnt).

Versets 6-14

Vocabulary: (to give), la consegne (safekeeping), altri (other), i bêçs (money), la robe (matter), strafuî (to steal), il lari (thief), brincâ (to apprehend), paiâ (to pay), il dopli (double), vignî fûr (to come forth), il paron (master), la cjase (house), vê di (to have to), lâ dongje (to go alongside), testemoneâ (to testify), tocjâ (to touch), ogni (every), un viaç (one time), cavilâ (to cavil), il bo (ox), il mus (ass), il cjâf (head), il nemâl (animal), minût (little), pierdût (lost), (to say), propit (squarely), chest (this), la cuistion (matter), lâ a finî (to go to finish), denant di (before), jessi colpe (to be guilty), il manç (ox), la bestie (beast), crepâ (to die), rompisi (to break), alc (something), puartâ vie (to bear away), cence (without), nissun (not a one, not any), viodi (to see), il zurament (oath), decidi (to decide), tra (between), dôs (f., two), la part (part), il vuardean (guardian), slungjâ (to extend), la man (hand), tignî (to keep), restâ (to remain), il dirit (right), tornâ (to return), nuie (not a thing), robâ (to rob), rifondi (to compensate), fâ fûr (to do away with), la besteate (savage beast), mostrâ (to show), slambrâ (to rend apart), domandâ (to ask {for}), ad imprest (on loan), dâ a nauli (to give for hire).

Verse 6: Se un i dà in consegne a di un altri bêçs o robe (if a one gives in safekeeping unto another money or matter) e jai* strafuissin (and they are stolen from him [and they+ steal them unto him]), il lari, se lu brinchin (the thief, if he is apprehended [the thief, if they+ apprehend him]), al à di paiâ il dopli (is to pay the double). — *Jai is the contraction of i + ju (unto him + them). Review below the contractions produced when the indirect object pronouns in orange come into contact with the direct object pronouns in blue. +The Friulian employs the third-person plural; the literal rendering of they is to be understood as {unspecified} men and identifies not any particular individuals heretofore mentioned, wherefore the use of the passive in English is preferable.

lu le ju lis
mi mal me mai mes
ti tal te tai tes
i jal je jai jes
si sal se sai ses
nus nus al nus e nus ai nus es
us us al us e us ai us es
ur ur al ur e ur ai ur es

Verse 7: Se il lari nol ven fûr (if the thief comes forth not), il paron di cjase al à di lâ dongje di Diu (the master of the house is to go alongside God) e testemoneâ che lui nol à tocjade la robe di chel altri (and testify that he has not touched the matter of that other).

Verse 8: Ogni viaç che si cavile (every time men cavil) par un bo, un mus o un cjâf di nemâl minût (for an ox, an ass or a head of little animal) o un’altre robe pierdude (or another lost matter) e che un al disi (and the one should say): al è propit chest (it is squarely this), la cuistion e larà a finî denant di Diu (the matter shall go to finish before God). Chel che Diu al varà dit che al è colpe lui (that one whereabout God will have said that he is guilty), al varà di tornâi il dopli a di chel altri (shall have to return the double to that other).

Verses 9-10: Se un i dà in consegne a di un altri (if a one gives in safekeeping unto another) un mus, un manç, un cjâf di robe minude o ancje un altri nemâl (an ass, an ox, a head of little matter or even another animal) e la bestie e crepe (and the beast dies), si romp alc (breaks something unto itself) o le puartin vie (or is borne away [or they* bear it away]) cence che nissun nol viodi (without a one’s seeing), un zurament sul Signôr (an oath on the Lord) al decidarà tra lis dôs parts (shall decide between the two parts), se il vuardean al à slungjade la man su la robe di chel altri o no (if the guardian has extended his hand upon the matter of that other or not). Il paron al tignarà ce che al reste (the master shall keep that which remains) e il vuardean nol à nissun dirit di tornâ nuie (and the guardian has not any right to return a thing). — *See the note at verse 6+.

Verse 11: Ma se il nemâl robât al jere dongje di lui (but if the robbed animal was alongside him), al à di rifondi al so paron (he is to compensate unto its master).

Verse 12: Se il nemâl lu à fat fûr une besteate (if a savage beast did away with the animal), al à di mostrâ il nemâl slambrât (he is to show the rent apart animal) e nol à nuie ce rifondi (and has not a thing wherefor to compensate).

Verse 13: Se un i domande ad imprest un nemâl a di un altri (if a one asks on loan for an animal from another) e chel si romp alc (and that one breaks something unto itself) o al crepe cuant che nol è il paron (or dies when the master is not about), al à di rifondi (he is to compensate).

Verse 14: Se però il paron al jere dongje de bestie (but if the master was alongside the beast), nol à nuie ce rifondi (he* has not a thing wherefor to compensate). Se il paron al è un che al dà a nauli (if the master is a one who gives for hire), al à dirit di vê il so (he* has the right to have {that which is} his). — *The borrower; see verse 13.

Versets 15-23

Vocabulary: tradî (to betray), la fantate (maiden), ancjemò (yet), imprometût (promised), un om (man), (to go), paiâ (to pay), il presit (price), cjoli (to take), il pari (father), volê (to will), (to give), butâ fûr (to cast forth), la some (sum), compagn di (like), distinâ (to destine), lassâ (to leave), la vite (life), nissun (not any), la maghe (witch), la bestie (beast), murî (to die), ufrî (to offer), il sacrifici (sacrifice), il diu (god), forest (foreign), bandî (to ban), la malegracie (ill manner), tibiâ (to downtrod), la tiere (land), maltratâ (to mistreat), la vedue (widow), il vuarfin (orphan), berlâ (to cry forth), viers di (unto), scoltâ (to hearken), il berli (outcry), vignî sù (to come up), la fumate (smoke haze), la spade (sword), cussì (so), la femine (wife), il fi (son).

Verse 15: Se un al tradìs une fantate (if a one betrays a maiden) che no je ancjemò imprometude a di un om (who is not yet promised to a man) e al va cun jê (and he goes* with her), al à di paiâ il presit (he is to pay the price) e al à di cjolile (and is to take her {for wife}). — *carnally

Verse 16: Se so pari nol vûl dâje* (if her father would not give her to him), al à di butâ fûr une some (he is to produce [cast forth] a sum) compagne di ce che al è stât distinât pes fantatis (like that which has been destined for maidens). — *Dâje is the contraction of + i + le (to give + unto him + her).

Verse 17: No tu âs di lassâ in vite nissune maghe: you are not to leave in life any witch.

Verse 18: Chel che al va cuntune bestie al à di murî: that one who goes* with a beast is to die. — *carnally

Verse 19: Chel che ur ufrìs sacrificis a dius forescj, si à di bandîlu: that one who offers sacrifices to foreign gods is to be banned.

Verse 20: No sta fâi malegraciis al forest (make not ill manners unto the foreigner) e no sta tibiâlu (and downtrod him not), parcè che ancje vualtris o vês stât forescj te tiere dal Egjit (for you too were foreigners in the land of Egypt).

Verse 21: No stait a maltratâ une vedue o un vuarfin: mistreat not a widow or an orphan.

Verses 22-23: Se tu i fasis malegraciis (if you make ill manners unto him) e lui al berle viers di me (and he cries forth unto me), jo o scoltarai il so berli (I will hearken unto his outcry); mi vignarà sù la fumate* (wrath [smoke haze] will come up unto me) e us fasarai murî cu la spade (and I will make you die with the sword): cussì lis vuestris feminis a restaran veduis (so shall your wives remain widows) e i vuestris fîs+ vuarfins (and your children orphans). — *The feminine noun fumate (smoke haze) is here employed figuratively to indicate wrath. +The plural fîs (sons) may be employed in Friulian to indicate children of but male gender, or children of both male and female gender. (Children of but female gender are ever indicated by the feminine plural fiis.) I have rendered the instance of fîs in this verse as children; it could also be rendered literally as sons, but with the understanding that this would be a neutral usage indicating children of both genders.

Versets 24-30

Vocabulary: imprestâ (to lend), i bêçs (money), la gjernazie (line), il puar (poor man), jessi a stâ (to dwell), compagn di (like), impignorâ (to impignorate), pratindi (to exact), nissun (not any), l’interès (interest), cjoli (to take), il pegn (pledge), la manteline (mantle), altri (other), tornâ (to return), il soreli (sun), lâ a mont (to set), dome (but), taponâsi (to conceal oneself), invulucâsi (to wrap oneself up), pognisi (to repose oneself), berlâ (to cry forth), viers di (unto), scoltâ (to hearken), il cûr (heart), blestemâ (to blaspheme), bramâ (to execrate), cuintri di (against), il sorestant (chief), il popul (people), tirâsi indaûr (to draw oneself back), (to give), la bondance (abundance), vanzâ (to be remanent), il primarûl (firstborn), il fi (son), fâ compagn (to do likewise), il besteam (cattle), grant (great), minût (little), siet (seven), il dì (day), restâ (to remain), la mari (mother), otâf (eighth), la zornade (day), la int (people), sant (holy), mangjâ (to eat), la cjar (flesh), il nemâl (animal), slambrâ (to rend apart), la bestie (beast), salvadi (wild), la campagne (open country), butâ (to cast), il cjan (dog).

Verse 24: Se tu i imprestis bêçs a di un de tô gjernazie (if you lend money to a one of your line), al puar che al è a stâ cun te (to the poor man who dwells with you), no sta fâ cun lui (do not with him) compagn di chel che al impignore (like that one who impignorates); no sta pratindi nissun interès (exact not any interest).

Verse 25: Se tu cjolis in pegn la manteline di un altri (if you take in pledge the mantle of another), tu âs di tornâje* (you are to return it to him) cuant che il soreli al va a mont (when the sun sets). *Like the je of dâje from verse 16, the je of tornâje is the contraction of i + le (unto him + it).

Verse 26: Al à dome chê par taponâsi (he has but that to conceal himself), e je la manteline che si invuluce (it is the mantle wherein he wraps himself): cun ce àial di pognisi? (with what is he to repose himself?). Se al berle viers di me (if he cries forth unto me), jo lu scoltarai (I will hearken unto him), parcè che jo o ài cûr (for I have heart).

Verse 27: No sta blestemâ Diu (blaspheme not God) e no sta bramâ cuintri di un sorestant dal to popul (and execrate not against a chief of your people).

Verse 28: No sta tirâti indaûr (draw not yourself back) tal dâ de tô bondance (in the giving of your abundance) e di ce che ti vanze (and of that which is remanent unto you). Il primarûl dai tiei fîs tu âs di dâmal* a mi: the firstborn of your sons are you to give to me. — *Dâmal is the contraction of + mi + lu (to give + unto me + him).

Verse 29: Tu âs di fâ compagn cul besteam grant e minût (you are to do likewise with the cattle great and little): par siet dîs al restarà cun sô mari (for seven days it shall remain with its mother) e l’otave zornade tu mal darâs (and {on} the eighth day shall you give it to me).

Verse 30: O sarês par me une int sante: you shall be for me a holy people. No mangjarês la cjar (you shall not eat the flesh) di un nemâl slambrât des bestiis salvadiis (of an animal rent apart by wild beasts) te campagne (in the open country); *ur e* butarês ai cjans (you shall cast it to the dogs). — *Ur e is the contraction of ur + le (unto them + it); see the table at verse 6.