Friulian language series: Esodo 21, lis leçs

The twenty-first chapter of the book of Exodus tells of: leçs di dirit familiâr: leçs pai sclâfs (rulings of family law: rulings for slaves), leçs di dirit criminâl: omicidi (rulings of penal [criminal] law: homicide), delits cuintri des personis (crimes against people), delits cuintri de propietât (crimes against property). Vocabulary: la leç (ruling, law), il dirit (jurisprudence, law), familiâr (family), il sclâf (slave), criminâl (criminal), un omicidi (homicide), il delit (crime, offence), la persone (person), la propietât (property; also proprietât).

If you are arriving on this site for the first time, begin your study of the Friulian language here.

Read Esodo 21

To read the Friulian text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Bibie par un popul and consult Esodo 21. An archived version of the text can be found here.

Versets 1-6

Vocabulary: la leç (law), (to give), comprâ (to buy, to acquire), il sclâf (slave), ebreu (Hebrew), vê di (must, to have to), stâ sot (to be servile), sîs (six), un an (year), setim (seventh), podê (may, can, to be able), lâsint (to leave, to go away), cence (without), libar (free, liberated), cence (without), il carantan (see note at verse 2), vignî (to come), dibessôl (alone, on one’s own), tornâ a lâsint (to leave again, to go away again), maridât (married), la femine (wife), il paron (master), maridâ (to marry {off}), parturî (to bear), il fi (son), la fie (daughter), i fruts (children), restâ di (to remain unto), (to say), volê ben (to love), il canai (child), nissun (none, not any), la brame (desire), lassâ (to let), menâ dongje di (to bring {near} to), lâ dongje di (to draw near, to approach), il batecul (rapper, door-knocker), un antîl ({door} post), la puarte (door), forâ (to pierce), la orele (ear), il pontarûl (awl), restâ (to remain), sotan (enslaved, subjugated), par simpri (for ever).

Verse 1: Ve lis leçs che tu âs di dâur: these are the laws that you are to give them.

Verse 2: Cuant che tu comprarâs un sclâf ebreu (when you acquire [will acquire] a Hebrew slave), al à di stâ sot di te par sîs agns (he is to serve you [remain under you] for six years) e il setim al pò lâsint libar (and {in} the seventh he may go free), cence dâti un carantan (without paying you a thing [without giving you a ‘carantan’]). Carantan: name of a coin used historically (carantano in Italian); used now in negative expressions with the figurative sense of nothing, not a thing, worthless. Example: no vâl un carantan (it is worthless; it is not worth a thing).

Verse 3: Se al è vignût dibessôl (if he came on his own), al tornarà a lâsint dibessôl (he shall leave on his own [he shall leave again on his own]); se al jere maridât (if he was married), la sô femine si ’nt larà cun lui (his wife shall leave with him).

Verse 4: Se il so paron lu maride (if his master gives him a wife [if his master marries him {off}]) e che la sô femine i parturissi fîs o fiis (and his wife bears him sons or daughters), la femine e i fruts a restaran dal paron (the wife and children shall belong to [remain unto] the master) e lui si ’nt larà dibessôl (and he shall leave on his own).

Verses 5-6: Se però il sclâf al dîs (but if the slave says): jo i vuei ben al gno paron (I love my master), a la mê femine (my wife) e ai miei canais (and my children) e no ài nissune brame di jessi lassât libar (and have no desire to be set free), il so paron lu menarà dongje di Diu (his master shall bring him to God), lu fasarà lâ dongje dal batecul o dal antîl de puarte ({and} shall make him go to the rapper or post of the door); i forarà la orele cuntun pontarûl (he shall pierce his ear with an awl [he shall pierce the ear unto him with an awl]) e il sclâf al restarà par simpri sotan cun lui (and the slave shall for ever remain servile to him [with him]). Volêi ben a: note the use of the preposition a.

Versets 7-11

Vocabulary: vendi (to sell), la fie (daughter), la sclave (female slave), lâsint (to leave, to go away), il sclâf (male slave), no lâi a (to not suit), il paron (master), distinâsi par sè (to designate for oneself; also destinâsi par sè), sfrancjâ (to redeem, to free), dâ vie (to give away), la int (people), forest (foreign), lant cun (on account of, in accordance with), la falsetât (deceit, falsity), cuintri di (against), distinâ (to designate; also destinâ), il fi (son), tratâ (to treat), seont (according to; also secont), la usance (custom, practice, habit), cjoli par sè (to take for oneself), altri (other), la femine (wife), podê (may, can, to be able), tirâ su (to draw upon), la spese (provisions), la munture (garments, clothes; also monture), il dirit (right), il matrimoni (marriage), mancjâ (to be lacking), trê (three), la robe (thing, matter), paiâ (to pay), nuie (nothing), (to give), il carantan (see note at verse 2).

Verse 7: Se un al vent sô fie come sclave (if one sells his daughter as a slave), jê no si ’nt larà come che si ’nt van i sclâfs (she shall not leave as do the male slaves [as the male slaves leave]).

Verse 8: Se jê no i va al so paron (if she does not suit her master) che s’e veve distinade par sè (who had designated her for himself), le fasarà sfrancjâ (he shall let her be redeemed [he shall make redeem her]); nol podarà dâle vie a int foreste (he shall not [shall not be able to] give her to outsiders [foreign people]) lant cu la falsetât cuintri di jê (on account of the deceit {committed} against her). S’e is a contraction of si + le; standardised Friulian spelling would render this as se, as in che se veve destinade par sè (note also the standardised variant destinâ; the form preferred in the text is distinâ).

Verse 9: Se le distine par so fi (if he designates her for his son), le trataran seont lis usancis pes fiis (she shall be treated [they shall treat her] according to the practices with one’s daughters [for the daughters]). Pes: contraction of par + lis.

Verse 10: Se lui al cjol par sè un’altre femine (if he takes for himself another wife), nol podarà tirâi su la spese (he shall not withdraw her provisions [he shall not be able to draw upon her provisions]), su la munture (her clothing [upon her clothing]) e sun ducj i dirits di matrimoni (or any of her conjugal rights [and upon all her rights of marriage]).

Verse 11: Se lui al mancje viers di jê in chestis trê robis (if he is deficient in these three matters with her [if he is lacking towards her in these three matters]), jê e podarà lâsint cence paiâ nuie, cence dâi un carantan (she shall go without paying a thing [she shall go without paying anything, without giving him a ‘carantan’]). Carantan: see the note at the second verse.

Versets 12-17

Vocabulary: petâ (to strike), un altri (another), murî (to die), fâ murî (to kill, to cause to die), vê di (must, to have to), però (but), cori daûr (to pursue), meti (to put, to place), la puartade (reach), la man (hand), distinâ (to designate; also destinâ), il lûc (place, site), podê (may, can, to be able), (to go), parâsi (to take refuge, to take cover), un om (man), rivâ a fâ (to manage to do, to be able to do), copâ (to kill), a tradiment (by surprise, with stealth), tirâ vie di (to pull away from), magari (if need be), un altâr (altar), (to strike), il pari (father), la mari (mother), puartâ vie (to carry away, to take away), vendi (to sell), ancjemò (yet, still), la malegracie (ill manner, impoliteness, rudeness, discourtesy).

Verse 12: Chel che i pete a di un altri (he who strikes another) e lu fâs murî (and causes him to die), al à di murî ancje lui (he too must die).

Verse 13: Se però no i à corût daûrij (but if he did not pursue him {with malicious intent}) ma Diu jal à metût a puartade di man (but God delivered him into his hands [but God put him in the reach of hand unto him]), jo o distinarai un lûc (I will designate a place) che al puedi lâ a parâsi (where he may go to take refuge). Cori daûr: literally, to run after, to run behind; depending on the context, can be taken as to pursue in either a literal sense (as in: to give chase to) or a figurative sense (as in: to lie in wait for, to act by design); in the context of this verse, it is the figurative sense that is employed. Daûrij: literally, behind him, after him; standardised as daûrji.

Verse 14: Ma se un om al rive a copânt un altri a tradiment (but should a man kill another by stealth), tu âs di tirâlu vie magari dal gno altâr (you are to separate him [pull him away] if need be from my altar) e fâlu copâ (and have him killed).

Verse 15: Chel che i dà a so pari e a sô mari, al à di murî: he who strikes his father or his mother (he who gives to his father and to his mother) must die.

Verse 16: Chel che al puarte vie un om (he who kidnaps a man [he who carries a man away]), che lu vedi vendût (whether he has sold him) o che lu vedi ancjemò lui tes mans (or he himself has him yet in his hands), al à di murî (must die). Al vedi is the masculine, third-person singular of the present subjunctive of the verb vê.

Verse 17: Chel che i fâs malegraciis a so pari e a sô mari, al à di murî: he who insults his father or his mother (he who commits [he who does] discourtesies to{wards} his father and to{wards} his mother) must die.

Versets 18-25

Vocabulary: un pôc di (some), un om (man), cavilâ (to quarrel), pacâ (to strike), il clap (stone), il pugn (fist), il jet (bed), copâ (to kill), stâ tal jet (to stay in bed), tornâ a fâ (to do again), jevâ sù (to arise, to get up), podê (may, can, to be able), lâ ator (to move about), magari (if need be), judâ (to help), judâsi cun (to take aid of), la mace (staff), il berdei (trouble, matter), rifondi (to reimburse, to compensate), il timp (time), stâ fêr (still, inactive, idle; also fer), viodi di (to see unto, to keep an eye on), stâ ben (to be well), il famei (male servant, manservant), la sierve (female servant, maidservant), il manel (rod), murî (to die), rispuindi di (to answer for, to be held accountable for), la opare (deed, action), tirâ (to pull), indenant (ahead, forwards), la dì (day), doi, dôs (two), la robe (thing, matter, possession), barufâ (to fight, to argue), pocâ (to strike), in stâts (pregnant), abortî (to miscarry), la conseguence (consequence, complication), la colpe (fault), il damp (damage, harm; also dam), stimâ (to valuate), paiâ (to pay), meti (to put, to place), distinâ (to determine; also destinâ), cumbinâ (to decide, to settle), la vite (life), il voli (eye), il dint (tooth), il pît (foot), la scotade (burn), la feride (wound), la macje (bruise).

Verses 18-19: Se un pôcs di oms a cavilin fra di lôr (should men quarrel amongst themselves [if some men quarrel amongst themselves]) e che un al pachi un altri (and one strikes another) cuntun clap o cul pugn (with a stone or his fist), no di copâlu ma di fâlu stâ tal jet (without killing him but causing him to take to his bed [not to kill him but to make him stay in bed]), se chel al torne a jevâ sù (if he gets back up) e che al puedi lâ ator (and is able to move about) magari judantsi cu la mace (if need be with the aid of his staff [if need be helping himself with the staff]), chel che i à dât (he who struck him [he who gave to him]) nol varà nissun berdei (shall not be punished [shall have no trouble]) ma al varà di rifondilu (but he must [shall have to] compensate him) pal timp che al à stât fêr (for the time that he was idle) e viodi di lui fin che al starà ben (and care for him [and see to him] until he is well [until he will be well]).

Verse 20: Se un i pete al so famei o a la sô sierve (if one strikes his servant, male or female) cuntun manel (with a rod) e chel al mûr (and he [that one] dies), al varà di rispuindi de sô opare (he shall be held accountable [shall answer for] his deed).

Verse 21: Ma se chel al tire indenant ancjemò une dì o dôs (but if he survives [but if that one continues ahead (pulls ahead)] yet a day or two), nol varà di rispuindi (he shall not be held accountable [he shall not have to answer]) parcè che e je robe sô (for {the other} is his possession]). Friulian has two forms for two — one masculine: doi, and the other feminine: dôs; because is treated here as a feminine noun ( can also be masculine), dôs is used.

Verse 22: Se un pôcs di oms, barufant (should men, {whilst} fighting [if some men, fighting]), a pochin une femine in stâts (strike a pregnant woman) e chê e abortìs (and she [that one] miscarries) cence altris conseguencis (without other complications), chel che al à colpe (he who is at fault [he who has fault]) al varà di rifondi il damp (shall compensate for the harm [shall have to compensate the harm]) stimât dal om de femine (valuated by the woman’s husband) e al varà di paiâ (and shall pay [and shall have to pay]) ce che a varan distinât (that which will have determined) i oms metûts par cumbinâ (the men who have been assigned [the men placed] to settle {the matter}).

Verses 23-25: Ma se e à conseguencis (but if she has complications), tu âs di paiâ (you are to pay) vite par vite (life for life), voli par voli (eye for eye), dint par dint (tooth for tooth), pît par pît (foot for foot), scotade par scotade (burn for burn), feride par feride (wound for wound), macje par macje (bruise for bruise). In Friulian, this law might be referred to as la leç dal «tant par tant» (tit-for-tat law).

Versets 26-32

Vocabulary: un om (man), ofindi (to injure), il voli (eye), il famei (male servant, manservant), la sierve (female servant, maidservant), svuarbâ (to blind), molâ (to release, to let go free), rifondi (to reimburse, to compensate), fâ saltâ (to knock out), il dint (tooth), il sclâf (male slave), il bo (ox), scuarnâ (to gore), la femine (woman), copâ (to kill), clapadâ (to stone, to lapidate), mangjâ (to eat), la cjar (flesh), il paron (master, owner), il fastidi (trouble), za (already), la pendence (inclination, tendency), visâ (to warn, to inform), dopomai (long ago), tignî di voli (to keep an eye on), par cumbinazion (by chance; also par combinazion), claponâ (to stone, to lapidate), murî (to die), decidi (to decide), sfrancjâ (to redeem, to free), la vite (life), paiâ (to pay), distinâ (to designate, to determine; also destinâ), il leç (son), la fie (daughter), la cundizion (condition), il presit (price, cost), trente (thirty), il sicli (shekel; also siclo).

Verse 26: Se un om al ofint il voli dal so famei o il voli de sô sierve (if a man injures the eye of his servant, male or female [if a man injures the eye of his manservant or the eye of his maidservant]) e lu svuarbe (and blinds him), al à di molâlu par rifondilu dal voli (he must let him go free to compensate him for his eye).

Verse 27: E se i fâs saltâ un dint al so sclâf o un dint a la sô sierve (and if he knocks out the tooth of his slave, male or female [and if he knocks out a tooth unto his {male} slave or a tooth unto his maidservant]), al à di molâlu par rifondilu dal dint (he must let him go free to compensate him for his tooth).

Verse 28: Se un bo al scuarne un om o une femine e ju cope (if an ox gores a man or a woman to death [if an ox gores a man or a woman and kills them]), tu âs di clapadâ il bo (you must stone the ox) e no si à di mangjâ la sô cjar (and its flesh must not be eaten), ma il paron dal bo nol varà altris fastidis (but the owner of the ox shall have no other trouble). Nol varà altris fastidis: that is to say, he was to suffer only the loss of his ox and no other punishment.

Verse 29: Se però il bo al veve za la pendence di scuarnâ (but if the ox was already in the habit [was already having the tendency] of goring) e il paron, visât dopomai (and the owner, having long been warned), no lu veve tignût di voli (had not keep an eye on it), se par cumbinazion al ves di copâ un om o une femine (should it happen to kill a man or a woman [if by chance it were to kill a man or a woman]), il bo si à di claponâlu (the ox is to be stoned [the ox, one is to stone it]) e il so paron al à di murî (and its owner must die).

Verse 30: Se a decìdin che al pò sfrancjâsi (if it is decided [if they decide] that he may redeem himself), al à di paiâ (he must pay), par sfrancjâ la sô vite (as to redeem his life), dut ce che al è stât distinât che al pai (whatever has been [all that has been] determined that he pay).

Verse 31: Se al scuarne un leç o une fie (if it gores a son or a daughter), al à di stâ simpri a chestis cundizions (he must be likewise held to these conditions).

Verse 32: Se il bo al scuarne un famei o une sierve (if the ox gores a servant, male or female [if the ox gores a manservant or a maidservant]), il paron al à di paiâi il presit, trente siclis, al paron (the owner must pay the price — thirty shekels — to the owner), e il bo si à di claponâlu (and the ox is to be stoned [and the ox, one is to to stone it]). Un sicli: shekel, with its plural siclis; in Gjenesi 23:15, the shekel is instead referred to as siclo, with its plural siclos.

Versets 33-37

Vocabulary: lassâ (to leave), il poç (well), distaponât (uncovered), sgjavâ (to dig), taponâ (to cover), il bo (ox), il mus (ass, donkey), plombâ dentri (to fall in), il paron (master, owner), rifondi (to reimburse, to compensate), paiâ (to pay), il damp (damage, harm; also dam), i bêçs (money), podê (may, can, to be able), tignîsi (to keep for oneself), la bestie (beast), crepât (dead), dâ jù (to attack), un altri (another), copâ (to kill), vendi (to sell), vîf (live, living), smiezâsi (to divide amongst oneself), il presit (price, cost), il nemâl (animal), savê (to know), la pecje (vice), scuarnâ (to gore), tignî di voli (to keep an eye on), butâ fûr (to supply, to furnish), impen di (in place of), robâ (to steal), un agnel (lamb), e po (and then), fâ fûr (to kill), cinc (five), il cjâf (head), grant (great, big, large), cuatri (four), piçul (small, little).

Verses 33-34: Se un al lasse il poç distaponât (if one leaves a well uncovered) o se un al sgjave un poç (or if one digs a well) e no lu tapone (and does not cover it) e un bo o un mus a plombin dentri (and an ox or an ass falls in [{they} fall in]), il paron dal poç al à di rifondi (the owner of the well must make restitution), al à di paiâi al paron il damp (he must indemnify the owner {of the dead beast} [he must pay the owner {of the dead beast} for the harm]) in bêçs (in {ready} money) e al pò tignîsi la bestie crepade (and he may keep the dead beast for himself).

Verse 35: Se il bo di un (if the ox of one) i dà jù al bo di un altri (attacks the ox of another) e lu cope (and kills it), i parons a àn di vendi il bo vîf (the owners must sell the live ox) e smiezâsi fra di lôr il presit (and divide the price amongst themselves) e si smiezaran ancje il nemâl crepât (and they shall also divide amongst themselves the dead animal).

Verse 36: Ma se si saveve (but if it was known) che il bo al veve la pecje di scuarnâ (that the ox had [was having] the vice of goring) e il so paron no lu à tignût di voli (and its owner did not keep an eye on it), al à di butâ fûr un bo vîf (he must supply a live ox) impen dal bo crepât (in place of the dead ox) e al pò tignîsi la bestie crepade (and he may keep for himself the dead beast).

Verse 37: Se un al robe un bo o un agnel (if one steals an ox or a lamb) e po lu fâs fûr e lu vent (and then slaughters it and sells it), al à di rifondi cinc cjâfs di nemâl grant pal bo (he must repay five beasts of the herd [five heads of large animal] for the ox) e cuatri cjâfs di nemâl piçul pal agnel (and four beasts of the flock [four heads of small animal] for the lamb).