Exodus 21 in Friulian

Of the twenty-first chapter of the book of Exodus, the subject matter is: leçs di dirit familiâr: leçs pai sclâfs (rulings of family law: rulings for slaves); leçs di dirit criminâl: omicidi (rulings of criminal law: homicide); delits cuintri des personis (offences against persons); delits cuintri de propietât (offences against property).

The first-time visitor to this site ought to begin his study of the Friulian language here.

Read Esodo 21

To read the Friulian text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Bibie par un popul and consult Esodo 21. An archived version of the text is found here.

Versets 1-6

Vocabulary: la leç (law), vê di (to have to), (to give), comprâ (to acquire), il sclâf (slave), ebreu (Hebrew), stâ sot (to dwell under), sîs (six), un an (year), setim (seventh), podê (may), lâsint libar (to go free), cence (without), il carantan (carantan), vignî (to come), dibessôl (on one’s own), tornâ a lâsint (to leave again), maridât (married), la femine (wife), il paron (master), maridâ (to give in marriage), parturî (to bear), il fi (son), la fie (daughter), i fruts (children), restâ di (to remain unto), (to say), volê ben (to love), i canais (little ones), nissun (not any), la brame (desire), lassâ (to let), menâ dongje (to lead alongside), lâ dongje (to go alongside), il batecul (rapper), un antîl ({door}post), la puarte (door), forâ (to pierce), la orele (ear), il pontarûl (awl), restâ (to remain), par simpri (for ever), sotan (held in bondage).

Verse 1: Ve lis leçs (these are the laws) che tu âs di dâur (which thou art to give them).

Verse 2: Cuant che tu comprarâs un sclâf ebreu (when thou wilt acquire a Hebrew slave), al à di stâ sot di te par sîs agns (he is to dwell under thee for six years) e il setim al pò lâsint libar (and {in} the seventh he may go free), cence dâti un carantan (without giving thee a *bit of money*). — *literally, carantan; anachronistic currency, employed in negative statements in Friulian to mean not a bit of money

Verse 3: Se al è vignût dibessôl (if he came on his own), al tornarà a lâsint dibessôl (he shall leave again on his own); se al jere maridât (if he were married), la sô femine si ’nt larà cun lui (his wife shall leave with him).

Verse 4: Se il so paron lu maride (if his master give him in marriage) e che la sô femine i parturissi fîs o fiis (and his wife bear him sons or daughters), la femine e i fruts a restaran dal paron (the wife and the children shall remain unto the master) e lui si ’nt larà dibessôl (and he shall leave on his own).

Verses 5-6: Se però il sclâf al dîs (but if the slave say): jo i vuei ben al* gno paron (I love my master), a* la mê femine (my wife) e ai* miei canais (and my little ones) e no ài nissune brame di jessi lassât libar (and have not any desire to be let free), il so paron lu menarà dongje di Diu (his master shall lead him alongside God), lu fasarà lâ dongje dal batecul o dal antîl de puarte (shall make him go alongside the rapper or the post of the door); +i forarà la orele cuntun pontarûl+ (he shall pierce his ear with an awl) e il sclâf al restarà par simpri sotan cun lui (and the slave shall remain for ever held in bondage with him). — *Note the use of the preposition a with volê ben (to love). In Friulian, one loves unto a one: volêi ben a di un. +Consider this Friulian manner of expression: i forarà (unto him shall he pierce) la orele (the ear) cuntun pontarûl (with an awl), which is to say, he shall pierce his ear with an awl.

Versets 7-11

Vocabulary: vendi (to sell), la fie (daughter), la sclave (maidslave), lâsint (to leave), il sclâf (manslave), (to go), no lâi a (to suit not), il paron (master), distinâ (to destine), sfrancjâ (to redeem), podê (to be able), dâ vie (to give away), la int (people), forest (foreign), lant cun (owing to), la falsetât (falsity), cuintri di (against), il fi (son), tratâ (to treat), seont (according unto), la usance (custom), cjoli (to take), altri (other), la femine (wife), tirâ su (to draw upon), la spese (provisions), la munture (raiment), il dirit (right), il matrimoni (marriage), mancjâ (to lack), viers di (unto), trê (three), la robe (matter), cence (without), paiâ (to pay), nuie (not a thing), (to give), il carantan (carantan).

Verse 7: Se un al vent sô fie come sclave (if a one sell his daughter as a maidslave), jê no si ’nt larà come che si ’nt van i sclâfs (she shall not leave as the menslaves leave).

Verse 8: Se jê no i va al so paron (*if she suit not her master*) che s’e+ veve distinade par sè (who had destined her for himself), le fasarà sfrancjâ (¬he shall have her redeemed¬); nol podarà dâle vie a int foreste (he shall not be able to give her away unto foreign people) lant cu la falsetât cuintri di jê (°in owing unto° the falsity against her). — *Literally, if she go not unto her master, where, in context, go not unto is to be understood as meaning go not {in accordance with his liking} unto, which I have here rendered as suit not. +S’e is the contraction of si + le (unto himself + her); standardised Friulian spelling would instead contract this as se. ¬Literally, he shall make redeem her. °Literally, in going with; lant (in going) is the present participle of the verb (to go).

Verse 9: Se le distine par so fi (if he destine her for his son), le trataran seont lis usancis pes* fiis (they shall treat her according unto the customs for daughters). — *pes: contraction of par + lis

Verse 10: Se lui al cjol par sè un’altre femine (if he take for himself another wife), nol podarà tirâi su la spese (he shall not be able to draw upon her* provisions), su la munture (upon her* raiment) e sun ducj i dirits di matrimoni (and upon all her* rights of marriage). — *It is from the employment of i (unto her) attached to the end of tirâ (to draw) that these three instances of the English her come.

Verse 11: Se lui al mancje viers di jê in chestis trê robis (if he be lacking unto her in these three matters), jê e podarà lâsint cence paiâ nuie (she shall be able to leave without paying a thing), cence dâi un carantan (without giving him a *bit of money*). — *literally, carantan; see verse 2

Versets 12-17

Vocabulary: petâ (to strike forth), un altri (another), murî (to die), vê di (to have to), ancje (also), però (but), cori (to run), daûr (behind), meti (to put), la puartade (reach), la man (hand), distinâ (to destine), il lûc (place), podê (may), (to go), parâsi (to take cover), un om (man), rivâ a (to be able to), copâ (to kill), a tradiment (by stealth), tirâ vie (to draw away), magari (even if), un altâr (altar), (to give), il pari (father), la mari (mother), puartâ vie (to bear away), vendi (to sell), ancjemò (yet), la malegracie (ill manner).

Verse 12: Chel che i pete a di un altri (that one who striketh forth unto another) e lu fâs murî (and maketh him die), al à di murî ancje lui (is to die, also he).

Verse 13: Se però no i à corût daûrij* (+but if he ran not behind him+) ma Diu jal à metût a puartade di man (but God put him unto him in reach of hand), jo o distinarai un lûc (I shall destine a place) che al puedi lâ a parâsi (whither he may go take cover). — *This is a variant of the standardised daûrji. +as in but if he pursued him not {with malicious intent}

Verse 14: Ma se un om al rive a copânt un altri a tradiment (but if a man be able to kill another one by stealth), tu âs di tirâlu vie magari dal gno altâr (thou art to draw him away even if from mine altar) e fâlu copâ (*and have him killed*). — *literally, and make kill him

Verse 15: Chel che i dà a so pari e a sô mari (that one who beateth* his father and his mother), al à di murî (is to die). — *literally, giveth unto; to ‘give unto a one’ (dâi a di un) is to beat him

Verse 16: Chel che al puarte vie un om (that one who beareth away a man), che lu vedi vendût (whether he have sold him) o che lu vedi ancjemò lui tes mans (or he himself have him yet in his hands), al à di murî (is to die).

Verse 17: Chel che i fâs malegraciis a so pari e a sô mari (that one who maketh ill manners unto his father and unto his mother), al à di murî (is to die).

Versets 18-25

Vocabulary: un pôcs di (some), un om (man, husband), cavilâ (to cavil), pacâ (to knock), il clap (stone), il pugn (fist), copâ (to kill), stâ (to dwell), il jet (bed), tornâ a jevâ sù (to arise again), podê (to be able), lâ ator (to go about), magari (even if), judâsi (to help oneself), la mace (staff), (to give), nissun (not any), il berdei (trouble), vê di (to have to), rifondi (to compensate {for}), il timp (time), fêr (still), viodi di (to see unto), fin che (until), stâ ben (to be well), petâ (to strike forth), il famei (manservant), la sierve (maidservant), il manel (hand-rod), murî (to die), rispuindi (to respond), la opare (deed), tirâ (to draw), indenant (forwards), ancjemò (yet), la dì (day), dôs (f., two), la robe (matter), barufâ (to row), pocâ (to bear upon), la femine (woman), il stât (state), in stâts (with child), abortî (to miscarry), altri (other), la conseguence (complication), la colpe (fault), il damp (damage), stimâ (to valuate), paiâ (to pay), distinâ (to destine), meti (to put), cumbinâ (to bring unto issue), la vite (life), il voli (eye), il dint (tooth), il pît (foot), la scotade (burn), la feride (wound), la macje (bruise).

Verses 18-19: Se un pôcs di oms a cavilin fra di lôr (if some men cavil between themselves) e che un al pachi un altri (and the one knock another) cuntun clap o cul pugn (with a stone or with the fist), no di copâlu ma di fâlu stâ tal jet (not to kill him but to make him dwell in bed), se chel al torne a jevâ sù (if that one arise again) e che al puedi lâ ator (and be able to go about) magari judantsi cu la mace (even if helping himself with the staff), chel che i à dât (that one who hath beaten* him) nol varà nissun berdei (shall not have any trouble) ma al varà di rifondilu (but shall have to compensate him) pal timp che al à stât fêr (for the time which he was still+) e viodi di lui fin che al starà ben (and see unto him until he will be well). — *literally, given unto; see verse 15 +as in idle

Verse 20: Se un i pete al so famei o a la sô sierve (if a one strike forth unto his manservant or unto his maidservant) cuntun manel (with a hand-rod*) e chel al mûr (and that one die), al varà di rispuindi de sô opare (he shall have to respond for his deed). — *as in a rod meant to be used with the hand; I have avoided employing the simpler rod, for this rendering is reserved for the feminine noun vuiscje in future translations

Verse 21: Ma se chel al tire indenant ancjemò une dì o dôs (but if that one draw forwards yet a day or two), nol varà di rispuindi (he shall not have to respond) parcè che e je robe sô (for it is matter his).

Verse 22: Se un pôcs di oms, barufant (if some men in rowing), a pochin une femine in stâts (bear upon a woman *with child*) e chê e abortìs (and that one miscarry) cence altris conseguencis (without other complications), chel che al à colpe (that one who hath fault) al varà di rifondi il damp (shall have to compensate for the damage) stimât dal om de femine (valuated by the husband of the woman) e al varà di paiâ (and shall have to pay) ce che a varan distinât (that which will have destined) i oms metûts par cumbinâ (the men put to bring unto issue). — *literally, in states

Verses 23-25: Ma se e à conseguencis (but if she have complications), tu âs di paiâ (thou art to pay) vite par vite (life for life), voli par voli (eye for eye), dint par dint (tooth for tooth), pît par pît (foot for foot), scotade par scotade (burn for burn), feride par feride (wound for wound), macje par macje (bruise for bruise). — In Friulian, this law is termed leç dal tant par tant, which translates literally as law of the such for such; this is the law of tip for tap, the lex talionis.

Versets 26-32

Vocabulary: un om (man), ofindi (to injure), il voli (eye), il famei (manservant), la sierve (maidservant), svuarbâ (to blind), molâ (to relinquish), rifondi (to compensate), fâ saltâ (to knock), il dint (tooth), il sclâf (manslave), il bo (ox), scuarnâ (to gore), la femine (woman), copâ (to kill), clapadâ (to stone), mangjâ (to eat), la cjar (flesh), il paron (master), altri (other), il fastidi (bother), za (already), la pendence (tendency), visâ (to inform), dopomai (long ago), tignî di voli (to keep one’s eye on), par cumbinazion (by chance), claponâ (to stone), murî (to die), decidi (to decide), podê (may), sfrancjâ (to redeem), paiâ (to pay), la vite (life), dut (all), distinâ (to destine), il fi (son), la fie (daughter), stâ (to dwell), simpri (ever), la cundizion (condition), il presit (price), trente (thirty), il sicli (shekel).

Verse 26: Se un om al ofint* il voli dal so famei o il voli de sô sierve (if a man injure the eye of his manservant or the eye of his maidservant) e lu svuarbe (and blind him), al à di molâlu par rifondilu dal voli (he is to relinquish him to compensate him for the eye). — *The text of Gjenesi 32:33 employs this verb under the variant ufindi.

Verse 27: E se i fâs saltâ un dint al so sclâf o un dint a la sô sierve (and if he knock a tooth unto his manslave or a tooth unto his maidservant), al à di molâlu par rifondilu dal dint (he is to relinquish him to compensate him for the tooth).

Verse 28: Se un bo al scuarne un om o une femine e ju cope (if an ox gore a man or a woman and kill them), tu âs di clapadâ il bo (thou art to stone the ox) e no si à di mangjâ la sô cjar (and its flesh is not to be eaten), ma il paron dal bo nol varà altris fastidis (but the master of the ox shall have no other bothers).

Verse 29: Se però il bo al veve za la pendence di scuarnâ (but if the ox already had the tendency of goring) e il paron, visât dopomai (and the master, in having long ago been informed), no lu veve tignût di voli (had not kept his eye thereon), se par cumbinazion al ves di copâ un om o une femine (if by chance it were to kill a man or a woman), il bo si à di claponâlu (the ox is to be stoned) e il so paron al à di murî (and its master is to die).

Verse 30: Se a decìdin che al pò sfrancjâsi (if they decide that he may redeem himself), al à di paiâ (he is to pay), par sfrancjâ la sô vite (to redeem his life), dut ce che al è stât distinât che al pai (all that which hath been destined that he pay).

Verse 31: Se al scuarne un fi* o une fie (if it gore a son or a daughter), al à di stâ simpri a chestis cundizions (he is ever to dwell by these conditions). — *The text originally had masculine leç here, but this has since been changed to fi in the printed version of this Bible from 2018; I have incorporated the change.

Verse 32: Se il bo al scuarne un famei o une sierve (if the ox gore a manservant or a maidservant), il paron al à di paiâi il presit, trente siclis,* al paron (the master is to pay the price, thirty shekels, unto the master), e il bo si à di claponâlu (and the ox is to be stoned). — *Un sicli: shekel, with its plural siclis; in Gjenesi 23:15, the shekel is instead referred to as un siclo, with its plural siclos.

Versets 33-37

Vocabulary: lassâ (to leave), il poç (well), distaponât (disconcealed), sgjavâ (to dig), taponâ (to conceal), il bo (ox), il mus (ass), plombâ (to plummet down), dentri (inside), il paron (master), vê di (to have to), rifondi (to compensate {by}), paiâ (to pay), il damp (damage), i bêçs (money), podê (may), tignîsi (to keep for oneself), la bestie (beast), crepât (dead), dâ jù (to give down), un altri (another), copâ (to kill), vendi (to sell), vîf (living), smiezâ (to halve), il presit (price), il nemâl (animal), savê (to know), la pecje (blemish), scuarnâ (to gore), tignî di voli (to keep one’s eye on), butâ fûr (to cast forth), impen di (in place of), robâ (to rob), un agnel (lamb), po (then), fâ fûr (to do away with), cinc (five), il cjâf (head), grant (great), cuatri (four), piçul (little).

Verses 33-34: Se un al lasse il poç distaponât (if a one leave a well disconcealed) o se un al sgjave un poç (or if a one dig a well) e no lu tapone (and conceal it not) e un bo o un mus a plombin dentri (and an ox or an ass plummet down therein), il paron dal poç al à di rifondi (the master of the well is to compensate), al à di paiâi al paron il damp in bêçs (he is to pay unto the master the damage in money) e al pò tignîsi la bestie crepade (and may keep for himself the dead beast).

Verse 35: Se il bo di un (if the ox of a one) i dà jù al bo di un altri (smite* the ox of another) e lu cope (and kill it), i parons a àn di vendi il bo vîf (the masters are to sell the living ox) e smiezâsi fra di lôr il presit (and halve between themselves the price) e si smiezaran ancje il nemâl crepât (and they shall also halve unto themselves the dead animal). — *literally, give down unto

Verse 36: Ma se si saveve (but if it were known) che il bo al veve la pecje di scuarnâ (that the ox had the blemish of goring) e il so paron no lu à tignût di voli (and its master kept not his eye thereon), al à di butâ fûr un bo vîf (he is to cast forth a living ox) impen dal bo crepât (in place of the dead ox) e al pò tignîsi la bestie crepade (and may keep for himself the dead beast).

Verse 37: Se un al robe un bo o un agnel (if a one rob an ox or a lamb) e po lu fâs fûr e lu vent (and then do away with it and sell it), al à di rifondi cinc cjâfs di nemâl grant pal bo (he is to compensate by five head of great animal for the ox) e cuatri cjâfs di nemâl piçul pal agnel (and four head of little animal for the lamb).