Friulian language series: Esodo 21, lis leçs

Of the twenty-first chapter of the book of Exodus, the subject matter is: leçs di dirit familiâr: leçs pai sclâfs (rulings of family law: rulings for slaves); leçs di dirit criminâl: omicidi (rulings of criminal law: homicide); delits cuintri des personis (offences against people); delits cuintri de propietât (offences against property).

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Read Esodo 21

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Versets 1-6

Vocabulary: la leç (law), vê di (to have to), (to give), comprâ (to acquire), il sclâf (slave), ebreu (Hebrew), stâ sot (to dwell under), sîs (six), un an (year), setim (seventh), podê (may), lâsint libar (to go free), cence (without), il carantan (carantan), vignî (to come), dibessôl (on one’s own), tornâ a lâsint (to leave again), maridât (married), la femine (wife), il paron (master), maridâ (to give in marriage), parturî (to bear), il fi (son), la fie (daughter), i fruts (children), restâ di (to remain unto), (to say), volê ben (to love), i canais (little ones), nissun (not any), la brame (desire), lassâ (to let), menâ dongje (to lead alongside), lâ dongje (to go alongside), il batecul (rapper), un antîl ({door}post), la puarte (door), forâ (to pierce), la orele (ear), il pontarûl (awl), restâ (to remain), par simpri (for ever), sotan (held in bondage).

Verse 1: Ve lis leçs (these are the laws) che tu âs di dâur (which you are to give to them).

Verse 2: Cuant che tu comprarâs un sclâf ebreu (when you acquire [will acquire] a Hebrew slave), al à di stâ sot di te par sîs agns (he is to dwell under you for six years) e il setim al pò lâsint libar (and {in} the seventh he may go free), cence dâti un carantan (without giving to you a bit of money [a carantan*]). — *anachronistic currency, employed in negative statements in Friulian to mean not a bit of money

Verse 3: Se al è vignût dibessôl (if he came on his own), al tornarà a lâsint dibessôl (he shall leave again on his own); se al jere maridât (if he was married), la sô femine si ’nt larà cun lui (his wife shall leave with him).

Verse 4: Se il so paron lu maride (if his master gives him in marriage) e che la sô femine i parturissi fîs o fiis (and his wife should bear to him sons or daughters), la femine e i fruts a restaran dal paron (the wife and the children shall remain unto the master) e lui si ’nt larà dibessôl (and he shall leave on his own).

Verses 5-6: Se però il sclâf al dîs (but if the slave says): jo i vuei ben al* gno paron (I love my master), a* la mê femine (my wife) e ai* miei canais (and my little ones) e no ài nissune brame di jessi lassât libar (and have not any desire to be let free), il so paron lu menarà dongje di Diu (his master shall lead him alongside God), lu fasarà lâ dongje dal batecul o dal antîl de puarte (shall make him go alongside the rapper or the post of the door); +i forarà la orele cuntun pontarûl+ (he shall pierce his ear with an awl) e il sclâf al restarà par simpri sotan cun lui (and the slave shall remain for ever held in bondage with him). — *Note the use of the preposition a with volê ben (to love). In Friulian, one loves unto a one: volêi ben a di un. +Observe this Friulian manner of expression: i forarà (unto him shall he pierce) la orele (the ear) cuntun pontarûl (with an awl), which is to say, he shall pierce his ear with an awl.

Versets 7-11

Vocabulary: vendi (to sell), la fie (daughter), la sclave (maidslave), lâsint (to leave), il sclâf (manslave), (to go), no lâi a (to suit not), il paron (master), distinâ (to destine), sfrancjâ (to redeem), podê (to be able), dâ vie (to give away), la int (people), forest (foreign), lant cun (owing to), la falsetât (falsity), cuintri di (against), il fi (son), tratâ (to treat), seont (according to), la usance (custom), cjoli (to take), altri (other), la femine (wife), tirâ su (to draw upon), la spese (provisions), la munture (raiment), il dirit (right), il matrimoni (marriage), mancjâ (to lack), viers di (unto), trê (three), la robe (matter), cence (without), paiâ (to pay), nuie (not a thing), (to give), il carantan (carantan).

Verse 7: Se un al vent sô fie come sclave (if a one sells his daughter as a maidslave), jê no si ’nt larà come che si ’nt van i sclâfs (she shall not leave as the menslaves leave).

Verse 8: *Se jê no i va al so paron* (if she suits not her master) +che s’e veve distinade par sè+ (who had destined her for himself), le fasarà sfrancjâ (he shall have her redeemed); nol podarà dâle vie a int foreste (he shall not be able to give her away to foreign people) ¬lant cu la falsetât cuintri di jê¬ (owing to the falsity against her). — *Literally, if she goes not unto her master, where, in context, goes not unto is to be understood as meaning goes not {in accordance with his liking} unto, which I have here rendered as suits not. +S’e is the contraction of si + le (unto himself + her); standardised Friulian spelling would instead contract this as se. ¬Literally, in going with the falsity against her, where in going with is to be understood as meaning owing to. Lant (in going) is the present participle of the verb (to go).

Verse 9: Se le distine par so fi (if he destines her for his son), le trataran seont lis usancis pes* fiis (she shall be treated [they shall treat her] according to the customs for daughters). — *Pes is the contraction of par + lis.

Verse 10: Se lui al cjol par sè un’altre femine (if he takes for himself another wife), nol podarà tirâi su la spese (he shall not be able to draw upon her* provisions), su la munture (upon her* raiment) e sun ducj i dirits di matrimoni (and upon all her* rights of marriage). — *It is from the employment of i (unto her) attached to the end of tirâ (to draw) that these three instances of the English her come. Taken literally, for instance, nol podarà tirâi su la munture translates as he shall not be able to draw unto her upon the raiment, which takes its natural rendering in English as he shall not be able to draw upon her raiment.

Verse 11: Se lui al mancje viers di jê in chestis trê robis (if he is lacking unto her in these three matters), jê e podarà lâsint cence paiâ nuie (she shall be able to leave without paying a thing), cence dâi un carantan (without giving to him a bit of money [a carantan*]). — *see verse 2

Versets 12-17

Vocabulary: petâ (to strike forth), un altri (another), murî (to die), vê di (to have to), ancje (also), però (but), cori (to run), daûr (behind), meti (to put), la puartade (reach), la man (hand), distinâ (to destine), il lûc (place), podê (may), (to go), parâsi (to take cover), un om (man), rivâ a (to be able to), copâ (to kill), a tradiment (by stealth), tirâ vie (to draw away), magari (even if), un altâr (altar), (to give), il pari (father), la mari (mother), puartâ vie (to bear away), vendi (to sell), ancjemò (yet), la malegracie (ill manner).

Verse 12: Chel che i pete a di un altri (that one who strikes forth unto another) e lu fâs murî (and makes him die), al à di murî ancje lui (is to die, also he).

Verse 13: Se però no i à corût daûrij* (+but if he ran not behind him+) ma Diu jal à metût a puartade di man (but God put him unto him in reach of hand), jo o distinarai un lûc (I will destine a place) che al puedi lâ a parâsi (where he may go to take cover). — *variant of the standardised daûrji +as in but if he pursued him not {with malicious intent}

Verse 14: Ma se un om al rive a copânt un altri a tradiment (but if a man is able to kill another one by stealth), tu âs di tirâlu vie magari dal gno altâr (you are to draw him away even if from my altar) e fâlu copâ (and have him killed).

Verse 15: Chel che i dà* a so pari e a sô mari (that one who beats [gives unto] his father and his mother), al à di murî (is to die). — *To ‘give unto a one’ (dâi a di un) is to beat him.

Verse 16: Chel che al puarte vie un om (that one who bears away a man), che lu vedi vendût (whether he has sold him) o che lu vedi ancjemò lui tes mans (or he himself has him yet in his hands), al à di murî (is to die).

Verse 17: Chel che i fâs malegraciis a so pari e a sô mari (that one who makes ill manners unto his father and unto his mother), al à di murî (is to die).

Versets 18-25

Vocabulary: un pôcs di (some), un om (man, husband), cavilâ (to cavil), pacâ (to knock), il clap (stone), il pugn (fist), copâ (to kill), stâ (to dwell), il jet (bed), tornâ a jevâ sù (to arise again), podê (to be able), lâ ator (to go about), magari (even if), judâsi (to help oneself), la mace (staff), (to give), nissun (not any), il berdei (trouble), vê di (to have to), rifondi (to compensate {for}), il timp (time), fêr (still), viodi di (to see to), fin che (until), stâ ben (to be well), petâ (to strike forth), il famei (manservant), la sierve (maidservant), il manel (rod), murî (to die), rispuindi (to respond), la opare (deed), tirâ (to draw), indenant (forwards), ancjemò (yet), la dì (day), dôs (f., two), la robe (matter), barufâ (to row), pocâ (to bear upon), la femine (woman), il stât (state), abortî (to miscarry), altri (other), la conseguence (complication), la colpe (fault), il damp (damage), stimâ (to valuate), paiâ (to pay), distinâ (to destine), meti (to put), cumbinâ (to bring to issue), la vite (life), il voli (eye), il dint (tooth), il pît (foot), la scotade (burn), la feride (wound), la macje (bruise).

Verses 18-19: Se un pôcs di oms a cavilin fra di lôr (if some men cavil between themselves) e che un al pachi un altri (and the one should knock another) cuntun clap o cul pugn (with a stone or with the fist), no di copâlu ma di fâlu stâ tal jet (not to kill him but to make him dwell in bed), se chel al torne a jevâ sù (if that one arises again) e che al puedi lâ ator (and should be able to go about) magari judantsi cu la mace (even if helping himself with the staff), chel che i à dât* (that one who has beaten [given unto] him) nol varà nissun berdei (shall not have any trouble) ma al varà di rifondilu (but he shall have to compensate him) pal timp che al à stât fêr (for the time which he was still+) e viodi di lui fin che al starà ben (and see to him until he is [will be] well). — *see verse 15 +as in idle

Verse 20: Se un i pete al so famei o a la sô sierve (if a one strikes forth unto his manservant or unto his maidservant) cuntun manel (with a rod) e chel al mûr (and that one dies), al varà di rispuindi de sô opare (he shall have to respond for his deed).

Verse 21: Ma se chel al tire indenant ancjemò une dì o dôs (but if that one draws forwards yet a day or two), nol varà di rispuindi (he shall not have to respond) parcè che e je robe sô (for it is matter his).

Verse 22: Se un pôcs di oms, barufant (if some men in rowing), a pochin une femine in stâts (bear upon a woman with child [in states]) e chê e abortìs (and that one miscarries) cence altris conseguencis (without other complications), chel che al à colpe (that one who has fault) al varà di rifondi il damp (shall have to compensate for the damage) stimât dal om de femine (valuated by the husband of the woman) e al varà di paiâ (and shall have to pay) ce che a varan distinât (that which will have destined) i oms metûts par cumbinâ (the men put to bring to issue).

Verses 23-25: Ma se e à conseguencis (but if she has complications), tu âs di paiâ (you are to pay) vite par vite (life for life), voli par voli (eye for eye), dint par dint (tooth for tooth), pît par pît (foot for foot), scotade par scotade (burn for burn), feride par feride (wound for wound), macje par macje (bruise for bruise). — In Friulian, this law may be referred to as la leç dal «tant par tant», which is to say, the ‘tit-for-tat’ law, or literally, the law of the ‘such for such’.

Versets 26-32

Vocabulary: un om (man), ofindi (to injure), il voli (eye), il famei (manservant), la sierve (maidservant), svuarbâ (to blind), molâ (to relinquish), rifondi (to compensate), fâ saltâ (to knock), il dint (tooth), il sclâf (manslave), il bo (ox), scuarnâ (to gore), la femine (woman), copâ (to kill), clapadâ (to stone), mangjâ (to eat), la cjar (flesh), il paron (master), altri (other), il fastidi (bother), za (already), la pendence (tendency), visâ (to inform), dopomai (long ago), tignî di voli (to keep one’s eye on), par cumbinazion (by chance), claponâ (to stone), murî (to die), decidi (to decide), podê (may), sfrancjâ (to redeem), paiâ (to pay), la vite (life), dut (all), distinâ (to destine), il fi (son), la fie (daughter), stâ (to dwell), simpri (ever), la cundizion (condition), il presit (price), trente (thirty), il sicli (shekel).

Verse 26: Se un om al ofint* il voli dal so famei o il voli de sô sierve (if a man injures the eye of his manservant or the eye of his maidservant) e lu svuarbe (and blinds him), al à di molâlu par rifondilu dal voli (he is to relinquish him to compensate him for the eye). — *The text of Gjenesi 32:33 employs this verb under the variant ufindi.

Verse 27: E se i fâs saltâ un dint al so sclâf o un dint a la sô sierve (and if he knocks a tooth unto his manslave or a tooth unto his maidservant), al à di molâlu par rifondilu dal dint (he is to relinquish him to compensate him for the tooth).

Verse 28: Se un bo al scuarne un om o une femine e ju cope (if an ox gores a man or a woman and kills them), tu âs di clapadâ il bo (you are to stone the ox) e no si à di mangjâ la sô cjar (and its flesh is not to be eaten), ma il paron dal bo nol varà altris fastidis (but the master of the ox shall have no other bothers).

Verse 29: Se però il bo al veve za la pendence di scuarnâ (but if the ox already had the tendency of goring) e il paron, visât dopomai (and the master having long ago been informed), no lu veve tignût di voli (had not keep his eye thereon), se par cumbinazion al ves di copâ un om o une femine (if by chance it were to kill a man or a woman), il bo si à di claponâlu (the ox is to be stoned) e il so paron al à di murî (and its master is to die).

Verse 30: Se a decìdin che al pò sfrancjâsi (if it is decided [if they decide] that he may redeem himself), al à di paiâ (he is to pay), par sfrancjâ la sô vite (to redeem his life), dut ce che al è stât distinât che al pai (all that which has been destined that he pay).

Verse 31: Se al scuarne *un fi* o une fie (if it gores a son or a daughter), al à di stâ simpri a chestis cundizions (he is to ever dwell by these conditions). — *The text originally had un leç here, but this has since been changed to un fi in the printed version of this Bible from 2018; I have incorporated the change.

Verse 32: Se il bo al scuarne un famei o une sierve (if the ox gores a manservant or a maidservant), il paron al à di paiâi il presit, trente siclis*, al paron (the master is to pay the price — thirty shekels — to the master), e il bo si à di claponâlu (and the ox is to be stoned). — *Un sicli: shekel, with its plural siclis; in Gjenesi 23:15, the shekel is instead referred to as un siclo, with its plural siclos.

Versets 33-37

Vocabulary: lassâ (to leave), il poç (well), distaponât (disconcealed), sgjavâ (to dig), taponâ (to conceal), il bo (ox), il mus (ass), plombâ (to plummet down), dentri (inside), il paron (master), vê di (to have to), rifondi (to compensate {by}), paiâ (to pay), il damp (damage), i bêçs (money), podê (may), tignîsi (to keep for oneself), la bestie (beast), crepât (dead), dâ jù (to give down), un altri (another), copâ (to kill), vendi (to sell), vîf (living), smiezâ (to halve), il presit (price), il nemâl (animal), savê (to know), la pecje (blemish), scuarnâ (to gore), tignî di voli (to keep one’s eye on), butâ fûr (to cast forth), impen di (in place of), robâ (to rob), un agnel (lamb), po (then), fâ fûr (to do away with), cinc (five), il cjâf (head), grant (great), cuatri (four), piçul (little).

Verses 33-34: Se un al lasse il poç distaponât (if a one leaves a well disconcealed) o se un al sgjave un poç (or if a one digs a well) e no lu tapone (and conceals it not) e un bo o un mus a plombin dentri (and an ox or an ass plummets down inside), il paron dal poç al à di rifondi (the master of the well is to compensate), al à di paiâi al paron il damp in bêçs (he is to pay unto the master the damage in money) e al pò tignîsi la bestie crepade (and may keep for himself the dead beast).

Verse 35: Se il bo di un (if the ox of a one) i dà jù al bo di un altri (smites [gives down unto] the ox of another) e lu cope (and kills it), i parons a àn di vendi il bo vîf (the masters are to sell the living ox) e smiezâsi fra di lôr il presit (and halve between themselves the price) e si smiezaran ancje il nemâl crepât (and they shall also halve unto themselves the dead animal).

Verse 36: Ma se si saveve (but if it was known) che il bo al veve la pecje di scuarnâ (that the ox had the blemish of goring) e il so paron no lu à tignût di voli (and its master kept not his eye thereon), al à di butâ fûr un bo vîf (he is to produce [cast forth] a living ox) impen dal bo crepât (in place of the dead ox) e al pò tignîsi la bestie crepade (and may keep for himself the dead beast).

Verse 37: Se un al robe un bo o un agnel (if a one robs an ox or a lamb) e po lu fâs fûr e lu vent (and then does away with it and sells it), al à di rifondi cinc cjâfs di nemâl grant pal bo (he is to compensate by five head of great animal for the ox) e cuatri cjâfs di nemâl piçul pal agnel (and four head of little animal for the lamb).