Polish language series: Rdz 36, potomkowie Ezawa

In Rdz 36, or the thirty-sixth chapter of the book of Genesis, you will read about the Edomites (Edomici), who descend from Esau: potomkowie Ezawa (descendants of Esau). As you might expect in a chapter regarding lineage, you will come across the names of many people; this chapter is lighter on the amount of Polish to study, but it also contains a good deal of usages to be reviewed.

If you are arriving on this site for the first time, begin your study of the Polish language here (Rdz 1). In your study of Polish, you will use the Biblia Tysiąclecia as your source text. You can read the text of this Bible entirely online.

Before you begin your study of Rdz 36, you must access the verses on biblia.deon.pl below:

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Should the above links ever become unavailable, you will find an archived version of the text here.

Wersety 1-5

  • wnuczka (f.), granddaughter

Review: potomek (m., descendant), czyli (that is to say), wziąć (pf., to take), żona (f., wife), spośród (from amongst), mieszkanka (m., female inhabitant), córka (f., daughter), imię (n., name), siostra (f., sister), urodzić (pf., to bear; urodzić się, to be born), syn (m., son), kraj (m., land, country).

Verse 1: oto potomkowie Ezawa (these are the descendants of Esau), czyli Edomu (that is to say of Edom).

Verse 2: Ezaw wziął sobie żony spośród mieszkanek Kanaanu (Esau took wives unto himself from amongst the women [female inhabitants] of Canaan). A Hittite is Chetyta; a Hivite is Chiwwita. You read: wziął sobie […] Adę, córkę Elona Chetyty (he took unto himself Adah, daughter of Elon the Hittite); wziął sobie […] Oholibamę, córkę Chiwwity imieniem Ana (he took unto himself Aholibamah, daughter of the Hivite by the name of Anah).

Verse 3: Izmaelitka (Ishmaelite woman).

Verse 5: są to synowie Ezawa (these are the sons of Esau), którzy mu się urodzili w kraju Kanaan (who were born unto him in the land of Canaan).

Wersety 6-8

  • czeladź (f.), servants
  • wystarczyć (impf.), to suffice, to be large enough

Review: zabrać (pf., to take), dom (m., house), trzoda (f., flock, herd), zwierzę (n., animal), mienie (n., possessions), nabyć (pf., to acquire, to buy), udać się (pf., to go, to proceed), ziemia (f., land), daleko (far), brat (m., brother), zbyt (too), liczny (numerous), stado (n., herd), razem (together), przebywać (impf., to sojourn, to abide), wzgląd (m., account, consideration), osiedlić się (pf., to settle), wyżyna (f., highland).

Verse 6: daleko od swego brata Jakuba (far from his brother Jacob). The reason for Esau’s separation from his brother is given in the next verse.

Verse 7: gdyż zbyt liczne mieli stada (for they had [were having] herds too numerous), aby mogli być razem (in order to be able to be together); that is, the size of their herds necessitated their separation. The land was insufficient: kraj […] nie mógł im wystarczyć (the land could not suffice unto them) ze względu na ich mienie (on account of their possessions).

Verse 8: Esau settled in the Seir highland; Ezaw to Edom (Esau is Edom).

Wersety 9-30

  • step (m.), steppe

Review: praojciec (m., forefather), wyżyna (f., highland), imię (n., name), drugorzędny (secondary; drugorzędna żona, concubine [secondary wife]), urodzić (pf., to bear), wnuczka (f., granddaughter), pierworodny (firstborn), naczelnik (m., leader, chief), szczep (m., tribe), zarazem (also, at the same time), mieszkaniec (m., inhabitant), pierwotny (original), znaleźć (pf., to find), gorący (hot), źródło (n., spring, source), paść (impf., to feed, to pasture), osioł (m., donkey), dziecko (n., child).

Verse 9: oto potomkowie Ezawa (these are the descendants of Esau), praojca Edomitów (forefather of the Edomites).

Verse 10: oto imiona synów Ezawa (these are the names of the sons of Esau).

Verse 15: oto potomkowie Ezawa (these are the descendants of Esau), czyli synowie Elifaza (that is to say the sons of Eliphaz), pierworodnego syna Ezawa (the firstborn son of Esau), naczelnicy szczepów (chiefs of tribes). The nominative plural naczelnicy szczepów connects with synowie; that is, the sons of Eliphaz were chiefs of tribes.

Verse 20: Choryta (Horite; pl., Choryci).

Verse 24: ten to Ana znalazł gorące źródła na stepie (this is the Anah who found hot springs in the steppe), gdy pasł osły Sibeona, swego ojca (when he was feeding the donkeys of Zibeon, his father).

Verse 30: naczelnicy szczepów choryckich (chiefs of Horite tribes).

Wersety 31-43

Review: król (m., king), panować (impf., to rule), zanim (before), nazwa (f., name), miasto (n., city, town), umrzeć (pf., to die), ziemia (f., land), zadać (pf., to give, to inflict), klęska (f., defeat), równina (f., plain), śmierć (f., death), rzeka (f., river), imię (n., name), żona (f., wife), córka (f., daughter), naczelnik (m., leader, chief), szczep (m., tribe), według (according to), miejscowość (f., place), nazwać (pf., to call), obszar (m., area), posiadać (impf., to own, to possess).

Verse 31: oto królowie, którzy panowali w kraju Edom (these are the kings that ruled [were ruling, used to rule] in the land of Edom), zanim Izraelici mieli króla (before the Israelites had [were having, used to have] any king).

Verse 32: w Edomie był królem Bela (in Edom [there] was as king Bela), syn Beora (son of Beor).

Verse 33: po nim (after him). Of the perfective umrzeć, review the masculine and feminine of the past tense:

(masculine)
umarłem (1.ps)
umarłeś (2.ps)
umarł (3.ps)
umarliśmy (1.pp)
umarliście (2.pp)
umarli (3.pp)

(feminine)
umarłam (1.ps)
umarłaś (2.ps)
umarła (3.ps)
umarłyśmy (1.pp)
umarłyście (2.pp)
umarły (3.pp)

1.ps = first-person singular
1.pp = first-person plural, etc.

Verse 34: z ziemi Temanitów (from the land of the Temanites).

Verse 35: który zadał klęskę Madianitom na równinie Moabu (who defeated [inflicted defeat unto] the Midianites in the plain of Moab).

Verse 36: po śmierci Hadada (after the death of Hadad).

Verse 37: nad rzeką (by the river).

Verse 40: oto imiona naczelników szczepów Ezawa (these are the names of the chiefs of the tribes of Esau) według ich szczepów i miejscowości (according to their tribes and places), nazwanych ich imionami (called by their names).

Verse 43: według obszarów przez nich posiadanych (according to the areas owned by them); Ezaw — praojciec Edomitów (Esau [is] the forefather of the Edomites).