Friulian language series: Esodo 20, i dîs comandaments

The twentieth chapter of the book of Exodus tells of: i dîs comandaments (the Ten Commandments); il codiç dal pat (rules of the covenant); la leç sul altâr (law of the altar; law regarding the altar [law on the altar]).

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Read Esodo 20

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Versets 1-6

Vocabulary: (to say), la peraule (word), saltâ fûr (to come forth), fâ saltâ fûr (to bring forth), la tiere (land, earth), la cjase (house), sotan (enslaved, subjugated), il sotan (slave), vê di (must, to have to), un diu (god), denant di (before), la inmagjin (image; also imagjin), sculpî (to sculpt, to carve), nuie (nothing), semeâ (to resemble; also someâ), il cîl (heaven, sky), lassù (up there), adalt (above, at the top), ca jù (down here), abàs (below, at the bottom), la aghe (water), butâsi (to throw oneself), il sacrifici (sacrifice), la sorte (fortune, fate), gjelôs (jealous; also zelôs), paidî (to pay/suffer for), la tristerie (wickedness, wretchedness), il pari (father), il fi (son), il nevôt (grandson), il bisnevôt (great-grandson), vê in asse (to hate), lassâ (to let, to allow), cori (to run), a miârs (by thousands), volê ben (to love), (to go), indenant (forwards, ahead).

Verses 1-2: Alore Diu al disè dutis chestis peraulis (God then said all these words): jo o soi il Signôr, il to Diu (I am the Lord your God), che ti à fat saltâ fûr de tiere dal Egjit (who brought you forth from the land of Egypt [who made you come forth from the land of Egypt]), de cjase là che tu jeris sotan (from the house where you were enslaved).

Verse 3: No tu âs di vê altris dius denant di me: you must not have other gods before me.

Verse 4: No tu âs di fâ nissune inmagjin sculpide (you must not make any sculptured image), nuie che al semei a di Chel che al è tai cîi, lassù adalt (anything that may resemble the One who is in the heavens above [anything (nothing) that may resemble the One who is in the heavens, up there above]), e su la tiere, ca jù abàs (or on the earth below [and on the earth, down here below]), o tes aghis, sot tiere (or in the waters under the earth). Sot tiere: under the earth, underground. Consider: al semee; al somee (it resembles); nuie che al semei; nuie che al somei (nothing that may resemble).

Verses 5-6: No tu âs di butâti denant di chescj dius (you must not take to the ground {in deference} [you must not throw yourself] before these gods]) e no tu âs di fâur sacrificis di sorte (and you must not make sacrifices of fortune to them), parcè che jo il Signôr, il to Diu (for I am the Lord your God), o soi un Diu gjelôs (I am a jealous God), che al fâs paidî la tristerie dai paris ai fîs, ai nevôts e ai bisnevôts (who makes children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren pay for the wickedness of their fathers [who makes pay for the wickedness of the fathers {down} to the children, to the grandchildren and to the great-grandchildren]) par chei che mi àn in asse (with regard to those who hate me [for those who hate me]), ma che al lasse cori a miârs di lôr (but who extends his mercy to the thousands [but who lets run by the thousands of them]) par chei che mi vuelin ben (with regard to those who love me [for those who love me]) e che a van indenant cu la mê leç (and who observe my law [and who go forwards with my law]). Lassâ cori: literally, to let run, to allow to run; the sense of this is to let go; that is, to be merciful with, to be forgiving with.

Versets 7-11

Vocabulary: nomenâ (to mention, to name, to call upon), il non (name), dibant (in vain), sparagnâ (to spare), doprâ (to use), il non (name), visâsi di (to remember), la zornade (day), la sabide (sabbath), santificâ (to sanctify, to make holy), sîs (six), il dì, la dì (day), lavorâ (to work), no... ni... ni (neither... nor... nor), (to do, to make), la vore (work, task), setim (seventh), il fi (son), la fie (daughter), il famei (male servant, manservant), la sierve (female servant, maidservant), il nemâl (animal, beast), il forest (foreigner, stranger), la cjase (house), il cîl (heaven, sky), la tiere (earth), il mâr (sea), dentri (inside, within), polsâ (to rest), par chel (for that reason, therefore), benedî (to bless), la sornade (day; variant of zornade), bandî (to set apart).

Verse 7: No sta nomenâ il non dal Signôr, to Diu, dibant (do not mention the name of the Lord your God in vain), parcè che il Signôr no je sparagne a di chel che al dopre il so non dibant (for the Lord does not spare [does not spare it unto him] he who takes [uses] his name in vain). No sta followed by an infinitive is used in Friulian to give a negated command at the level of second-person singular; numerous examples of this follow in the verses ahead. Review: no sta (second-person singular) = do not; no stait a (second-person plural) = do not; no stin a (first-person plural) = let us not. Examples: no sta copâlu (do not kill him; second-person singular); no stait a copâlu (do not kill him; second-person plural); no stin a copâlu (let us not kill him; first-person plural).

Verse 8: Visiti de zornade de sabide par santificâle: remember the sabbath day in order to sanctify it.

Verses 9-10: Sîs dîs tu lavorarâs e tu fasarâs lis tôs voris (six days shall you work and carry out [do] your tasks), ma la setime dì e je une sabide pal Signôr, il to Diu (but the seventh day is a sabbath for the Lord your God). No tu fasarâs nissune vore ni tu, ni to fi, ni tô fie, ni il to famei, ni la tô sierve, ni i tiei nemâi, ni il forest che al è cjase tô: you shall not do any work — not you, or your son, or your daughter, or your manservant, or your maidservant, or your animals, or the foreigner who is in your house.

Verse 11: Parcè che in sîs dîs il Signôr al à fat il cîl, la tiere, il mâr (for in six days the Lord made heaven, earth {and} sea) e dut ce che al è dentri (and all that is therein [inside; within]), ma la setime dì al à polsât (but he rested on the seventh day); par chel il Signôr al à benedide la sornade de sabide (the Lord therefore blessed the sabbath day) e le à bandide (and consecrated it [and set it apart]). Bandî: to set apart; that which has been set apart in the service of the Lord has been consecrated, sanctified. Sornade: variant of zornade.

Versets 12-21

Vocabulary: onorâ (to honour), il pari (father), la mari (mother), volê (to want), slungjâsi (to extend oneself), il dì (day), la tiere (land, earth), (to give), copâ (to kill), fâ adulteri (to commit adultery), robâ (to steal, to rob), testemoneâ (to testify), il fals (falsehood), cuintri di (against), il prossim (fellow man, neighbour), no... ni... ni (neither... nor... nor), bramâ (to covet), la cjase (house), la femine (wife), il famei (male servant, manservant), la sierve (female servant, maidservant), il bo (ox; plural bûs), il mus (ass, donkey), nuie (nothing), il popul (people), viodi (to see), il ton (thunder clap), il lamp (lightning bolt), il sun (sound), la trombe (trumpet), la mont (mount, mountain), fumâ (to smoke), cjapâ (to take), il spavent (fright, fear), stâ lontan (to stay/stand back), fevelâ (to speak), scoltâ (to listen, to heed), senò (otherwise), murî (to die), la pôre (fear, fright), meti (to put, to place), la prove (trial, test), vignî (to come), restâ (to remain, to stay), il timôr (fear, fright), (to go), fûr (out), la strade (way, road), lâi dongje di (to approach, to draw near to), il nûl (cloud), scûr (dark).

Verse 12: Onore to pari e tô mari (honour your father and your mother), se tu vûs che si slungjin i tiei dîs su la tiere (if you want your days to extend themselves on the land) che ti dà il Signôr, to Diu (which the Lord your God is giving you).

Verses 13-17: No sta copâ: do not kill. No sta fâ adulteri: do not commit adultery. No sta robâ: do not steal. No sta testemoneâ il fals cuintri dal to prossim: do not bear false witness (do not testify a falsehood) against your neighbour. No sta bramâ la cjase dal to prossim: do not covet your neighbour's house. No sta bramâ la femine dal to prossim (do not covet your neighbour's wife), ni il so famei, ni la sô sierve, ni il so bo, ni il so mus (or his manservant, or his maidservant, or his ox, or his ass), nuie di ce che al è dal to prossim ({or} anything that belongs to your neighbour [nothing of that which is of your neighbour]). Un prossim: this means neighbour in the sense of fellow man; the Friulian for neighbour in the sense of he who lives next door is un vicin.

Verse 18: Dut il popul (all the people), viodint chescj tons, chescj lamps, chest sun di trombe e dute la mont ch’e fumave (witnessing [seeing] these thunder claps, these lightning bolts, this blast [sound] of the trumpet and the mountain that was smoking), al cjapà spavent e al stave lontan (took fright and stood back [were standing afar]).

Verse 19: To Moses the people say: fevelinus tu e nô ti scoltarìn (you speak to us [speak to us, you yourself] and we shall heed you [and we shall listen to you]); ma che no nus feveli Diu (but let not God speak to us), parcè che senò o murìn (for otherwise we shall die [for otherwise we die]).

Verse 20: Moses says to the people: no stait a vê pôre (fear not [do not have fear]). Al è par metinus a lis provis (it is to put us to the test [to the tests]) che Diu al è vignût (that God has come), par che us resti simpri il so timôr (so that the fear of him may always remain with you [so that his fear always remains unto you]) e par che no ledis fûr di strade (and so that you do not go astray [and so that you do not go off (go out of) the way]). Lâ fûr di strade: literally, to go off (to go out of) the way; that is, with respect to morality, to go astray, to fall by the wayside, to go off the straight path, to sin. Consider: o lais; par che o ledis (you go; so that you go); no lais fûr di strade; par che no ledis fûr di strade (you do not go astray; so that you do not go astray).

Verse 21: Il popul al restà lontan (the people stayed back [stayed afar]) e Mosè al lè dongje dal nûl scûr (and Moses drew near to the dark cloud) là che al jere Diu (where God was).

Versets 22-26

Vocabulary: (to say), cussì (thus, so), il fi (son), viodi (to see), dibessôl (on one's own), fevelâ (to speak), dal alt (from the top, from above), il cîl (heaven, sky), vê di (must, to have to), dongje di (alongside, by), un diu (god), d'arint (of silver), nancje (neither), d'aur (of gold), un altâr (altar), la tiere (earth), ufrî (to offer), parsore (atop, upon), un olocaust (burnt offering), il sacrifici (sacrifice), la comunion (communion), il besteam minût (small livestock, sheep, flocks), il besteam grant (large livestock, oxen, herds), par dut là che (everywhere that, wherever), ricuardâ (to remember), il non (name), vignî (to come), benedî (to bless), il clap (stone), la piere (stone), picâ (to cut), lavorâ (to work), il scarpel (chisel), mancjâ (to be lacking), il rispiet (respect), montâ (to go up, to ascend), midiant di (by way of), il scjalin (step), disvistût (unclothed, naked).

Verse 22: The Lord says to Moses: tu ur disarâs cussì ai fîs di Israel (thus shall you say to the sons of Israel): o vês viodût dibessôi (you yourselves have seen) cemût che us ài fevelât dal alt dal cîl (how I spoke to you from the highness of the heaven).

Verse 23: No vês di fâ dongje di me dius d’arint (you must not make alongside me gods of silver) e nancje no vês di fâ dius d’aur (nor must you make gods of gold).

Verse 24: Tu âs di fâmi un altâr di tiere (you must make for me an altar of earth) par ufrîmi parsore i tiei olocauscj (in order to offer me thereupon your burnt offerings) e i tiei sacrificis di comunion (and your sacrifices of communion), il to besteam minût e grant (your sheep and your oxen [your small and large livestock]). Par dut là che o fasarai ricuardâ il gno non (wherever I cause my name to be remembered [everywhere that I shall make remember my name]), o vignarai di te e ti benedissarai (I shall come to you and bless you).

Verse 25: Se tu mi fasis un altâr di clap (if you make for me an altar of stone), no sta fâlu cun pieris picadis (do not make it with cut stones), parcè che lavorantlu cul scarpel (for by hewing it with a chisel [for working it with the chisel]) tu i mancjis di rispiet (you disrespect it [you are lacking in respect unto it]).

Verse 26: E no sta montâ sul gno altâr midiant di scjalins (and do not ascend my altar by way of steps), par no che ti viodin disvistût (lest you be seen discovered [in order that they not see you discovered (unclothed; naked)]). Disvistût: unclothed, naked; to be understood here as discovered (uncovered) in one's lower body parts.