Friulian language series: Esodo 20, i dîs comandaments

The twentieth chapter of the book of Exodus tells of: i dîs comandaments (the Ten Commandments); il codiç dal pat (rules of the pact); la leç sul altâr (law of the altar; law regarding the altar [law on the altar]).

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Read Esodo 20

To read the Friulian text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Bibie par un popul and consult Esodo 20. An archived version of the text is found here.

Versets 1-6

Vocabulary: (to say), la peraule (word), saltâ fûr (to come forth), la tiere (land, earth), la cjase (house), sotan (held in bondage), vê di (must, to have to), un diu (god), denant di (before), la inmagjin (image; also imagjin), sculpî (to sculpt, to carve), nuie (nothing), semeâ (to resemble; also someâ), il cîl (heaven), lassù (up there), adalt (above), ca jù (down here), abàs (below), la aghe (water), butâsi (to cast oneself), il sacrifici (sacrifice), la sorte (sort, kind), gjelôs (jealous; also zelôs), paidî (to suffer for), la tristerie (wickedness), il pari (father), il fi (son), il nevôt (grandson), il bisnevôt (great-grandson), la asse (hatred), lassâ (to let), cori (to run), a miârs (by thousands), volê ben (to love), (to go), indenant (forwards).

Verses 1-2: Alore Diu al disè dutis chestis peraulis (God then said all these words): jo o soi il Signôr, il to Diu (I am the Lord your God), che ti à fat saltâ fûr de tiere dal Egjit (who made you come forth from the land of Egypt), de cjase là che tu jeris sotan (from the house where you were held in bondage).

Verse 3: No tu âs di vê altris dius denant di me: you must not have other gods before me.

Verse 4: No tu âs di fâ nissune inmagjin sculpide (you must not make any sculptured image), nuie che al semei a di Chel che al è tai cîi, lassù adalt (anything that may resemble he who is in the heavens, up there above), e su la tiere, ca jù abàs (or on the earth, down here below), o tes aghis, sot tiere (or in the waters under earth). Consider: al semee; al somee (it resembles); nuie che al semei; nuie che al somei (nothing that may resemble).

Verses 5-6: No tu âs di butâti denant di chescj dius (you must not cast yourself before these gods) e no tu âs di fâur sacrificis di sorte (and you must not make any manner of sacrifices to them), parcè che jo il Signôr, il to Diu (for I am the Lord your God), o soi un Diu gjelôs (I am a jealous God), che al fâs paidî la tristerie dai paris ai fîs, ai nevôts e ai bisnevôts (who makes children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren suffer for the wickedness of their parents [who makes suffer for the wickedness of the parents (fathers) unto the children (sons), unto the grandchildren (grandsons) and unto the great-grandchildren (great-grandsons)]) par chei che mi àn in asse (for those who have me in hatred), ma che al lasse cori a miârs di lôr (but who is forgiving with the thousands of them [but who lets run by thousands of them]) par chei che mi vuelin ben (for those who love me) e che a van indenant cu la mê leç (and who observe [go forwards with] my law).

Versets 7-11

Vocabulary: nomenâ (to name), il non (name), dibant (for nought), sparagnâ (to spare), doprâ (to use), il non (name), visâsi di (to remember), la zornade (day), la sabide (sabbath), santificâ (to sanctify), sîs (six), il dì, la dì (day), lavorâ (to work), no... ni... ni (neither... nor... nor), (to do, to make), lis voris (tasks), la vore (work), setim (seventh), il fi (son), la fie (daughter), il famei (male servant, manservant), la sierve (female servant, maidservant), il nemâl (animal), il forest (foreigner), la cjase (house), il cîl (heaven), la tiere (earth), il mâr (sea), dentri (inside, within), polsâ (to rest), benedî (to bless), la sornade (day; variant of zornade), bandî (to set apart).

Verse 7: No sta nomenâ il non dal Signôr, to Diu, dibant (name not the name of the Lord your God for nought), parcè che il Signôr no je sparagne a di chel che al dopre il so non dibant (for the Lord spares it unto him not that one who uses his name for nought). No sta followed by an infinitive is used in Friulian to give a negated command at the level of second-person singular; numerous examples of this follow in the verses ahead. Review: no sta (second-person singular) = do not; no stait a (second-person plural) = do not; no stin a (first-person plural) = let us not. Examples: no sta copâlu (do not kill him; second-person singular); no stait a copâlu (do not kill him; second-person plural); no stin a copâlu (let us not kill him; first-person plural).

Verse 8: Visiti de zornade de sabide par santificâle: remember the sabbath day as to sanctify it.

Verses 9-10: Sîs dîs tu lavorarâs e tu fasarâs lis tôs voris (six days shall you work and do your tasks), ma la setime dì e je une sabide pal Signôr, il to Diu (but the seventh day is a sabbath for the Lord your God). No tu fasarâs nissune vore ni tu, ni to fi, ni tô fie, ni il to famei, ni la tô sierve, ni i tiei nemâi, ni il forest che al è cjase tô: you shall not do any work — not you, or your son, or your daughter, or your manservant, or your maidservant, or your animals, or the foreigner who is in your house.

Verse 11: Parcè che in sîs dîs il Signôr al à fat il cîl, la tiere, il mâr (for in six days the Lord made heaven, earth {and} sea) e dut ce che al è dentri (and all that is therein [inside; within]), ma la setime dì al à polsât (but he rested on the seventh day); par chel il Signôr al à benedide la sornade de sabide (wherefore the Lord blessed the sabbath day) e le à bandide (and sanctified it [and set it apart]). Bandî: to set apart; that which has been set apart in the service of the Lord is sanctified. Sornade: variant of zornade.

Versets 12-21

Vocabulary: onorâ (to honour), il pari (father), la mari (mother), volê (to will), slungjâsi (to extend oneself), il dì (day), la tiere (land, earth), (to give), copâ (to kill), fâ adulteri (to commit adultery), robâ (to steal, to rob), testemoneâ (to testify), il fals (falsehood), cuintri di (against), il prossim (fellow man, neighbour), no... ni... ni (neither... nor... nor), bramâ (to covet), la cjase (house), la femine (wife), il famei (male servant, manservant), la sierve (female servant, maidservant), il bo (ox; plural bûs), il mus (ass, donkey), nuie (nothing), il popul (people), viodi (to see), il ton (thunderclap), il lamp (lightning bolt), il sun (sound), la trombe (trumpet), la mont (mount, mountain), fumâ (to smoke), cjapâ (to take), il spavent (fright), stâ lontan (to dwell far), fevelâ (to speak), scoltâ (to heed), senò (otherwise), murî (to die), la pôre (fear), meti (to put), la prove (proof), vignî (to come), restâ (to remain, to stay), il timôr (fear), (to go), fûr di strade (off the way), lâ dongje (to go alongside), il nûl (cloud), scûr (dark).

Verse 12: Onore to pari e tô mari (honour your father and your mother), se tu vûs che si slungjin i tiei dîs su la tiere (if you will that your days extend on the land) che ti dà il Signôr, to Diu (which the Lord your God is giving to you).

Verses 13-17: No sta copâ: do not kill. No sta fâ adulteri: do not commit adultery. No sta robâ: do not steal. No sta testemoneâ il fals cuintri dal to prossim: do not bear false witness (do not testify a falsehood) against your neighbour. No sta bramâ la cjase dal to prossim: do not covet your neighbour's house. No sta bramâ la femine dal to prossim (do not covet your neighbour's wife), ni il so famei, ni la sô sierve, ni il so bo, ni il so mus (or his manservant, or his maidservant, or his ox, or his ass), nuie di ce che al è dal to prossim ({or} anything that belongs to your neighbour [nothing of that which is of your neighbour]). Un prossim: this means neighbour in the sense of fellow man; the Friulian for neighbour in the sense of he who lives next door is un vicin.

Verse 18: Dut il popul (all the people), viodint chescj tons, chescj lamps, chest sun di trombe e dute la mont ch’e fumave (in seeing these thunderclaps, these lightning bolts, this blast [sound] of the trumpet and the mountain which was smoking), al cjapà spavent e al stave lontan (took fright and would dwell far).

Verse 19: To Moses the people say: fevelinus tu e nô ti scoltarìn (you speak to us and we will heed you); ma che no nus feveli Diu (but let not God speak to us), parcè che senò o murìn (for otherwise we will die [we die]).

Verse 20: Moses says to the people: no stait a vê pôre (have not fear). Al è par metinus a lis provis (it is to put us to the proof[s]) che Diu al è vignût (that God has come), par che us resti simpri il so timôr (that the fear of him may ever remain with you [that his fear may ever remain unto you]) e par che no ledis fûr di strade (and that you may not go off the way).

Verse 21: Il popul al restà lontan (the people remained far) e Mosè al lè dongje dal nûl scûr (and Moses went alongside the dark cloud) là che al jere Diu (where God was).

Versets 22-26

Vocabulary: (to say), cussì (thus, so), il fi (son), viodi (to see), dibessôl (on one's own), fevelâ (to speak), dal alt (from the top, from above), il cîl (heaven), vê di (must, to have to), dongje di (alongside), un diu (god), d'arint (of silver), nancje (neither), d'aur (of gold), un altâr (altar), la tiere (earth), ufrî (to offer), parsore (atop), un olocaust (holocaust), il sacrifici (sacrifice), la comunion (communion), il besteam minût (little cattle), il besteam grant (great cattle), par dut là che (wherever), ricuardâ (to remember), il non (name), vignî (to come), benedî (to bless), il clap (stone), la piere (stone), picâ (to cut), lavorâ (to work), il scarpel (chisel), mancjâ (to lack), il rispiet (respect), montâ (to go up, to ascend), midiant di (by way of), il scjalin (step), disvistût (unclothed, naked).

Verse 22: The Lord says to Moses: tu ur disarâs cussì ai fîs di Israel (thus shall you say to the sons of Israel): o vês viodût dibessôi (you have seen on your own) cemût che us ài fevelât dal alt dal cîl (how I spoke to you from the highness of the heaven).

Verse 23: No vês di fâ dongje di me dius d’arint (you must not make alongside me gods of silver) e nancje no vês di fâ dius d’aur (nor must you make gods of gold).

Verse 24: Tu âs di fâmi un altâr di tiere (you must make for me an altar of earth) par ufrîmi parsore i tiei olocauscj (to offer me atop your holocausts) e i tiei sacrificis di comunion (and your sacrifices of communion), il to besteam minût e grant (your cattle little and great). Par dut là che o fasarai ricuardâ il gno non (wherever I make [will make] remember my name), o vignarai di te e ti benedissarai (I will come to you and bless you).

Verse 25: Se tu mi fasis un altâr di clap (if you make for me an altar of stone), no sta fâlu cun pieris picadis (do not make it with cut stones), parcè che lavorantlu cul scarpel (for by hewing it with a chisel [for working it with the chisel]) tu i mancjis di rispiet (you disrespect it [you are lacking in respect unto it]).

Verse 26: E no sta montâ sul gno altâr midiant di scjalins (and do not ascend my altar by way of steps), par no che ti viodin disvistût (lest you be seen discovered [that they may not see you discovered (unclothed; naked)]). Disvistût: unclothed, naked; to be understood here as discovered (uncovered) in one's lower body parts.