Friulian language series: Esodo 20, i dîs comandaments

The twentieth chapter of the book of Exodus treats of the ten commandments: i dîs comandaments. Also from the subject headings of this chapter: il codiç dal pat (the code of the pact); la leç sul altâr (the law regarding the altar).

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Read Esodo 20

To read the Friulian text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Bibie par un popul and consult Esodo 20. An archived version of the text is found here.

Versets 1-6

Vocabulary: alore (then), (to say), dut (all), la peraule (word), (to make), saltâ fûr (to come forth), la tiere (land, earth), la cjase (house), sotan (held in bondage), vê di (to have to), altri (other), un diu (god), denant di (before), nissun (not any), la inmagjin (image), sculpî (to sculpt), nuie (not a thing), semeâ (to resemble), il cîl (heaven), lassù (up there), adalt (above), ca jù (down here), abàs (below), la aghe (water), butâsi (to cast oneself), il sacrifici (sacrifice), di sorte (of any sort), gjelôs (jealous), paidî (to suffer for), la tristerie (wickedness), il pari (father), il fi (son), il nevôt (grandson), il bisnevôt (great-grandson), la asse (hatred), lassâ (to let), cori (to run), a miârs (by thousands), volê ben (to love), (to go), indenant (forwards), la leç (law).

Verses 1-2: Alore Diu al disè dutis chestis peraulis (then God said all these words): jo o soi il Signôr, il to Diu (I am the Lord thy God), che ti à fat saltâ fûr de tiere dal Egjit (who made thee come forth from the land of Egypt), de cjase là che tu jeris sotan (from the house where thou wast held in bondage).

Verse 3: No tu âs di vê altris dius denant di me: thou art not to have other gods before me.

Verse 4: No tu âs di fâ nissune inmagjin sculpide (thou art not to make any sculpted image), nuie che al semei a di Chel che al è tai cîi, lassù adalt (not a thing which may resemble That which is in the heavens up there above), e su la tiere, ca jù abàs (and on the earth down here below), o tes aghis, sot tiere (or in the waters under earth).

Verses 5-6: No tu âs di butâti denant di chescj dius (thou art not to cast thyself before these gods) e no tu âs di fâur sacrificis di sorte (and thou art not to make sacrifices unto them of any sort), parcè che jo il Signôr, il to Diu (for I am the Lord thy God), o soi un Diu gjelôs (I am a jealous God), che al fâs paidî la tristerie dai paris ai fîs, ai nevôts e ai bisnevôts (who maketh suffer for the wickedness of their fathers unto the sons, the grandsons and the great-grandsons) par chei che mi àn in asse (for those who have me in hatred), ma che al lasse cori a miârs di lôr (but who letteth run by thousands of them) par chei che mi vuelin ben (for those who love me) e che a van indenant cu la mê leç (and who go forwards with my law).

Versets 7-11

Vocabulary: nomenâ (to name), il non (name), dibant (for naught), sparagnâ (to spare), doprâ (to use), il non (name), visâsi di (to remember), la zornade (day), la sabide (sabbath), santificâ (to sanctify), sîs (six), il dì; la dì (day), lavorâ (to work), (to do, to make), lis voris (tasks), setim (seventh), nissun (not any), la vore (work), il fi (son), la fie (daughter), il famei (manservant), la sierve (maidservant), il nemâl (animal), il forest (foreigner), la cjase (house), il cîl (heaven), la tiere (earth), il mâr (sea), dentri (inside), polsâ (to rest), benedî (to bless), par chel (therefore), la sornade (day), bandî (to set apart).

Verse 7: *No sta* nomenâ il non dal Signôr, to Diu, dibant (name not the name of the Lord thy God for naught), parcè che il Signôr no je sparagne a di chel che al dopre il so non dibant (for the Lord spareth it not unto that one who useth his name for naught). — *No sta followed by an infinitive is employed in Friulian to give a negated command at the level of second-person singular; numerous instances of this follow in the verses ahead. Review: no sta (second-person singular); no stait a (second-person plural); no stin a (first-person plural). Examples: no sta copâlu (kill him not; second-person singular); no stait a copâlu (kill him not; second-person plural); no stin a copâlu (let us not kill him; first-person plural).

Verse 8: Visiti de zornade de sabide par santificâle: remember the day of the sabbath, to sanctify it.

Verses 9-10: Sîs dîs tu lavorarâs e tu fasarâs lis tôs voris (six days shalt thou work and shalt thou do thy tasks), ma la setime dì e je une sabide pal Signôr, il to Diu (but the seventh day is a sabbath for the Lord thy God). No tu fasarâs nissune vore (thou shalt not do any work) ni tu, ni to fi, ni tô fie, ni il to famei, ni la tô sierve, ni i tiei nemâi (thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, nor thy manservant, nor thy maidservant, nor thine animals), ni il forest che al è cjase tô (nor the foreigner who is in thy house).

Verse 11: Parcè che in sîs dîs il Signôr al à fat il cîl, la tiere, il mâr (for in six days did the Lord make the heaven, the earth, the sea) e dut ce che al è dentri (and all that which is inside), ma la setime dì al à polsât (but the seventh day he rested); par chel il Signôr al à benedide la sornade* de sabide (therefore the Lord blessed the day of the sabbath) e le à bandide (and set it apart). — *variant of zornade

Versets 12-21

Vocabulary: onorâ (to honour), il pari (father), la mari (mother), volê (to will), slungjâsi (to extend oneself), il dì (day), la tiere (land), (to give), copâ (to kill), l’adulteri (adultery), robâ (to rob), testemoneâ (to testify), il fals (falsehood), cuintri di (against), il prossim (neighbour), bramâ (to covet), la cjase (house), la femine (wife), il famei (manservant), la sierve (maidservant), il bo (ox), il mus (ass), nuie (not a thing), dut (all), il popul (people), viodi (to see), il ton (thunderclap), il lamp (flash), il sun (sound), la trombe (trumpet), la mont (mountain), fumâ (to smoke), cjapâ (to take), il spavent (fright), stâ (to dwell), lontan (far), (to say), fevelâ (to speak), scoltâ (to hearken), senò (otherwise), murî (to die), la pôre (fear), meti (to put), la prove (proof), vignî (to come), restâ (to remain), il timôr (fear), (to go), fûr di strade (off the way), lâ dongje (to go alongside), il nûl (cloud), scûr (dark).

Verse 12: Onore to pari e tô mari (honour thy father and thy mother), se tu vûs che si slungjin i tiei dîs su la tiere (if thou will that thy days extend themselves on the land) che ti dà il Signôr, to Diu (which the Lord thy God is giving thee).

Verse 13: No sta copâ: kill not.

Verse 14: No sta fâ adulteri: commit* not adultery.  — *In point of fact, the Friulian employs the verb fâ, wherefore no sta fâ adulteri translates literally as do not adultery (or even, perhaps, make not adultery). Friulian does indeed have a verb for to commit, which is cometi, but it often employs the simpler in question of sin, adultery, and the like. For instance, to commit a sin may be expressed as either cometi un pecjât or fâ un pecjât.

Verse 15: No sta robâ: rob not.

Verse 16: No sta testemoneâ il fals cuintri dal to prossim*: testify not falsehood against thy neighbour. — *Un prossim is a neighbour in the sense of fellow man; the Friulian for neighbour to refer to the one who dwells next door is un vicin.

Verse 17: No sta bramâ la cjase dal to prossim: covet not the house of thy neighbour. No sta bramâ la femine dal to prossim (covet not the wife of thy neighbour), ni il so famei, ni la sô sierve, ni il so bo, ni il so mus (nor his manservant, nor his maidservant, nor his ox, nor his ass), nuie di ce che al è dal to prossim (not a thing of that which is thy neighbour’s). 

Verse 18: Dut il popul (all the people), viodint chescj tons, chescj lamps, chest sun di trombe e dute la mont ch’e fumave (in seeing these thunderclaps, these flashes, this sound of trumpet and all the mountain which was smoking), al cjapà spavent e al stave lontan (took fright and would dwell far).

Verse 19: I diserin a Mosè (they said unto Moses): fevelinus tu e nô ti scoltarìn (speak thou unto us and we shall hearken unto thee); ma che no nus feveli Diu (but let not God speak unto us), parcè che senò o murìn (for otherwise we {shall} die).

Verse 20: Dissal Mosè al popul (Moses said unto the people): no stait a vê pôre (have not fear). Al è par metinus a lis provis (it is to put us unto the proof*) che Diu al è vignût (that God is come), par che us resti simpri il so timôr (that his fear may ever remain unto you) e par che no ledis fûr di strade (and that ye may not go off the way). — *literally, proofs

Verse 21: Il popul al restà lontan (the people remained far) e Mosè al lè dongje dal nûl scûr (and Moses went alongside the dark cloud) là che al jere Diu (thither where God was).

Versets 22-26

Vocabulary: (to say), cussì (so), il fi (son), viodi (to see), dibessôl (on one’s own), fevelâ (to speak), dal alt di (from the top of), il cîl (heaven), vê di (to have to), (to make), dongje di (alongside), un diu (god), d’arint (of silver), e nancje (nor), d’aur (of gold), un altâr (altar), la tiere (earth), ufrî (to offer), parsore (atop), un olocaust (holocaust), il sacrifici (sacrifice), la comunion (communion), il besteam (cattle), minût (little), grant (great), par dut là che (wheresoever), ricuardâ (to recall), il non (name), vignî (to come), benedî (to bless), il clap (stone), la piere (stone), picâ (to cut), lavorâ (to work), il scarpel (chisel), mancjâ (to lack), il rispiet (respect), montâ (to mount), midiant di (by way of), il scjalin (step), disvistût (disclothed).

Verse 22: Il Signôr i disè a Mosè (the Lord said unto Moses): tu ur disarâs cussì ai fîs di Israel (thou shalt say so unto the sons of Israel): o vês viodût dibessôi (ye have seen on your own) cemût che us ài fevelât dal alt dal cîl (how I have spoken unto you from the top of the heaven).

Verse 23: No vês di fâ dongje di me dius d’arint (ye are not to make alongside me gods of silver) e nancje no vês di fâ dius d’aur (nor are ye to make gods of gold).

Verse 24: Tu âs di fâmi un altâr di tiere (thou art to make for me an altar of earth) par ufrîmi parsore i tiei olocauscj (to offer me atop thy holocausts) e i tiei sacrificis di comunion (and thy sacrifices of communion), il to besteam minût e grant (thy cattle little and great). Par dut là che o fasarai ricuardâ il gno non (wheresoever I shall make recall my name), o vignarai di te e ti benedissarai (I shall come unto thee and shall bless thee).

Verse 25: Se tu mi fasis un altâr di clap (if thou make for me an altar of stone), no sta fâlu cun pieris picadis (make it not with cut stones), parcè che lavorantlu cul scarpel (for in working it with the chisel) tu i mancjis di rispiet (thou lackest respect unto it).

Verse 26: E no sta montâ sul gno altâr (and mount not upon my altar) midiant di scjalins (by way of steps), par no che ti viodin disvistût (that they may not see thee disclothed).