Polish language series: Rdz 34, gwałt Diny

In the thirty-fourth chapter of the book of Genesis, or Rdz 34, you will study the Polish text as it relates to the violation of Dina: gwałt Diny.

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Read Rdz 34

To read the Polish text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Biblia Tysiąclecia and consult Rdz 34. An archived version of the text can be found here.

Wersety 1-4

  • popatrzeć (pf.), to have a look
  • porwać (pf.), to abduct, to take possession of
  • gwałt (m.), rape, violation
  • dzieweczka (f.), maiden, lass

Review: pewien (a, certain, one), córka (f., daughter), urodzić (pf., to bear), wyjść (pf., to go out), kobieta (f., woman), kraj (m., land, country), zobaczyć (pf., to see), syn (m., son), książę (m., prince), położyć się (pf., to lie down), zadać (pf., to give, to inflict), serce (n., heart), pokochać (pf., to fall in love with), czule (affectionately), przemawiać (impf., to speak, to appeal), prosić (impf., to ask, to entreat), ojciec (m., father), wziąć (pf., to take, to get), żona (f., wife).

Verse 1: Pewnego razu: one time, once; that is, on a certain occasion. This verse tells you that Dina went out to have a look at the women of the land.

Verse 2: A gdy ją zobaczył Sychem, syn Chamora Chiwwity, księcia tego kraju: and when Shechem, the son of Hamor the Hivite, prince of this land, saw her. The Polish for prince, which is the masculine książę, is in genitive position here as księcia; by this, you know that it refers to Chamor, and not Sychem, because Hamor’s name is also in genitive position as Chamora. In the remainder of the verse, you read that Shechem took Dina, lay with her and violated her.

Verse 3: I całym sercem pokochał Dinę: and with all his heart he fell in love with Dina. You also read that he would speak affectionately with her.

In verse 4, you read that Shechem says to his father Hamor: weź tę dzieweczkę dla mnie za żonę (get this maiden for me as wife).

Wersety 5-7

  • zhańbić (pf.), to bring shame upon
  • wybrać się (pf.), to plan to go
  • porozmawiać (pf.), to talk, to chat, to converse
  • czyn (m.), deed
  • zbrodnia (f.), crime
  • zgwałcić (pf.), to rape, to violate
  • niegodziwość (f.), wickedness, vileness

Review: dowiedzieć się (pf., to find out, to learn), trzoda (f., flock, herd), pastwisko (n., pasture), powiedzieć (pf., to say, to tell), czekać (pf., to wait), wrócić (pf., to return), tymczasem (meanwhile), pole (n., field), ogarnąć (pf., to seize, to grip), smutek (m., sorrow, sadness), zarazem (also, at the same time), rozgniewać się (pf., to get angry), popełnić (pf., to commit, to perpetrate).

Jacob and his sons find out about the violation of Dina.

Perfective future of wrócić:

wrócę (1.ps)
wrócisz (2.ps)
wróci (3.ps)
wrócimy (1.pp)
wrócicie (2.pp)
wrócą (3.pp)

1.ps = first-person singular
1.pp = first-person plural, etc.

Verse 7: Izraelita: m., Israelite; pl., Izraelici. Uchodzić za zbrodnię: impf., to pass for a crime, to be considered a crime. Że popełniono czyn, który u Izraelitów uchodził za zbrodnię: that one had committed a deed which amongst the Israelites passed for (was considered) a crime.

Wersety 8-12

  • przylgnąć (pf.), to adhere, to take a liking to
  • spowinowacić się (pf.), to become related (by marriage)
  • osiedlać się (pf.), to settle
  • swobodnie, freely
  • nabywać (impf.), to acquire, to buy
  • zażądać (pf.), to demand
  • choćby, even if
  • podarunek (m.), gift

Review: dziewczyna (f., lass, girl, young woman), dać (pf., to give), mieszkać (impf., to live, to dwell), poruszać się (impf., to move about), własność (f., possession, property), darzyć (impf., to grant, to bestow), życzliwość (f., kindness, favour), cokolwiek (whatever, everything that), wyznaczyć (pf., to fix, to assign, to set), największy (largest), zapłata (f., payment), gotów (willing, prepared), tyle (as much), ile (how much), byle tylko (providing that, so long as).

Compare: dać za żonę (to give as wife; verse 8); dać za żony (to give as wives; verse 9). You read in verse 8: dajcież mu ją więc za żonę (give her to him as wife); then, in verse 9: spowinowaćcie się z nami (become related [by marriage] with us); córki wasze dacie nam za żony (you will give your daughters to us as wives), a córki nasze weźmiecie sobie (and you will take unto yourselves our daughters).

córkę waszą dacie nam za żonę
you will give your daughter to us as wife

córki wasze dacie nam za żony
you will give your daughters to us as wives

Of dać, learn or review the perfective future and imperative:

Perfective future

dam (1.ps)
dasz (2.ps)
da (3.ps)
damy (1.pp)
dacie (2.pp)
dadzą (3.pp)

Imperative

daj (2.ps)
niech da (3.ps)
dajmy (1.pp)
dajcie (2.pp)
niech dadzą (3.pp)

1.ps = first-person singular
1.pp = first-person plural, etc.

In verse 8, you find the second-person plural imperative dajcie as dajcież.

Verse 10: Będziecie mieszkali z nami (you will dwell with us) i kraj ten będzie dla was (and this land will be for you). Of the imperfective być, learn or review the future:

będę (1.ps)
będziesz (2.ps)
będzie (3.ps)
będziemy (1.pp)
będziecie (2.pp)
będą (3.pp)

1.ps = first-person singular
1.pp = first-person plural, etc.

Still in verse 10, Hamor continues his proposition: możecie w nim się osiedlać (you can settle with us), poruszać się swobodnie (move about freely) oraz nabywać sobie tę ziemię na własność (as well as take [acquire] unto yourselves this land for a possession). Of the imperfective móc, learn or review the present:

mogę (1.ps)
możesz (2.ps)
może (3.ps)
możemy (1.pp)
możecie (2.pp)
mogą (3.pp)

1.ps = first-person singular
1.pp = first-person plural, etc.

Verse 11: Do ojca i braci Diny: unto the father and brothers of Dina. From Jacob and his sons, Sychem asks for benevolence. He also says to them: dam, czegokolwiek zażądacie ode mnie (I shall give of whatever you will demand of me).

Verse 12: Wyznaczcie mi choćby największą zapłatę i podarunek (even if you set the largest payment and gift), a gotów jestem dać tyle, ile mi powiecie (I am prepared to give you what you will say to me); that is, even if you demand of me an exceedingly large payment and gift, I am prepared to give you whatever you ask of me. Dać tyle, ile mi powiecie can be understood more literally, perhaps, as to give as much as how much you will say to me. According to custom, the payment (zapłata) was made to the parents; the gift (podarunek) was given to the bride and bridegroom.

(masculine)
wielki — większy — największy
largelargerlargest

(feminine)
wielka — większa — największa
largelargerlargest

(neuter)
wielkie — większe — największe
largelargerlargest

Byle tylko means providing that, so long as; byleście tylko, then, means providing that you, so long as you (second-person plural). In the remainder of verse 12, Sychem explains that his request is on the condition that Dina be given as wife.

Wersety 13-17

  • podstępnie, deceitfully
  • by, should; byśmy, we should
  • warunek (m.), condition

Review: zhańbić (pf., to bring shame upon), wydać (pf., to give away), człowiek (m., man), nieobrzezany (uncircumcised), hańba (f., shame, disgrace), zgodzić się (pf., to agree, to consent), prośba (f., request), stać się (pf., to become), każdy z (each one of), mężczyzna (m., man), zostać obrzezany (pf., to get circumcised), brać (impf., to take), zamieszkać (pf., to settle), razem z (along with), lud (m., people), usłuchać (pf., to heed, to obey), poddać się (pf., to submit oneself), obrzezanie (n., circumcision), dziewczyna (f., lass, girl, young woman), odejść (pf., to leave, to depart).

Verse 13: Mówili tak dlatego, że zhańbił ich siostrę Dinę: they spoke (were speaking) thus because he had brought shame upon their sister Dina.

In verse 14, Jacob’s sons say to Sychem and Hamor that they cannot give their sister away to an uncircumcised man: nie możemy uczynić tego (we cannot do this), byśmy mieli wydać naszą siostrę za człowieka nieobrzezanego (whereby we would give [should have to give] our sister away to an uncircumcised man). They explain that such an act would be (byłoby, it would be) a disgrace for them.

Verse 15: Tylko pod tym warunkiem: only on (under) this condition; Jacob’s sons explain that all of Sychem and Hamor’s men must be circumcised before consenting to their request. Jeśli staniecie się takimi jak my means if you will become as us; they will consent to the request of Sychem and Hamor only on the condition that they (and all their men) become “as them” (that is, circumcised).

Verse 16: Córki wasze będziemy brali sobie za żony: we shall take unto ourselves your daughters as wives. In the remainder of the verse, Jacob’s sons tell Sychem and Hamor that, if the condition is met, they will then settle alongside them and become one people.

Verse 17: Poddać się obrzezaniu: to submit oneself to circumcision; to undergo circumcision. If the condition of circumcision is not met, the son’s will take their sister Dina and leave: weźmiemy (we shall take); odejdziemy (we shall leave).

Perfective future of wziąć:

wezmę (1.ps)
weźmiesz (2.ps)
weźmie (3.ps)
weźmiemy (1.pp)
weźmiecie (2.pp)
wezmą (3.pp)

Perfective future of odejść:

odejdę (1.ps)
odejdziesz (2.ps)
odejdzie (3.ps)
odejdziemy (1.pp)
odejdziecie (2.pp)
odejdą (3.pp)

1.ps = first-person singular
1.pp = first-person plural, etc.

Wersety 18-23

  • młodzieniec (m.), young man
  • wahać się (impf.), to hesitate
  • bezzwłocznie, at once, without delay
  • szanowany, respectable
  • przyjaźnie, amicably
  • usposobić (pf.), to dispose
  • przestronny, spacious
  • żądanie (n.), demand, request

Review: podobać się (impf., to be pleasing), słowo (n., word), miłować (impf., to love), najbardziej (the most), rodzina (f., family), wejść (pf., to come unto), brama (f., gate), miasto (n., city), przemówić (pf., to address), mieszkaniec (m., inhabitant), ludzie (pl., men, people), mieszkać (impf., to live, to dwell), kraj (m., land, country), poruszać się (impf., to move about), swobodnie (freely), brać (impf., to take), oddawać (impf., to grant, to yield), warunek (m., condition), godzić się (impf., to agree), wśród (amongst), stać się (pf., to become), lud (m., people), stado (m., flock, herd), dobytek (m., livestock, substance), bydło (n., cattle), należeć (impf., to belong), przystać (pf., to consent), pozostać (pf., to remain, to stay).

By way of a careful reading on your part, you should be able to work through these verses with little assistance; in them, Hamor and Shechem explain to their men the conditions that have been set. I shall limit myself to the following notes:

Verse 21: Ludzie ci są przyjaźnie do nas usposobieni: these men are amicably disposed towards us.

Verse 23: Czyż wtedy ich stada, ich dobytek i wszystko ich bydło nie będzie należało do nas?: will their herds, their substance and all their cattle not then belong to us? Byleśmy tylko: providing that we, so long as we; compare with byleście tylko (providing that you, so long as you) from verse 12.

Wersety 24-29

  • porwać (pf.), to take possession of
  • wtargnąć (pf.), to break into
  • podejrzewać (impf.), to suspect
  • wymordować (pf.), to slay, to kill
  • pomordować (pf.), to slay, to kill
  • obrabować (pf.), to rob, to spoil
  • zrabować (pf.), to rob, to spoil

Review: usłuchać (pf., to listen), wszyscy (all, everybody), przechodzić (impf., to pass, to traverse), brama (f., gate), miasto (n., city, town), zatem (and so, therefore), mężczyzna (m., man), poddać się (pf., to submit oneself), obrzezanie (n., circumcision), trzeci (third), dzień (m., day), doznawać (impf., to experience, to meet with), ból (m., pain, ache, soreness), miecz (m., sword), zabić (pf., to kill), odejść (pf., to leave, to depart), pozostały (remaining), przyjść (pf., to arrive, to come), zhańbić (pf., to bring shame upon), zabrać (pf., to take), trzoda (f., flock, herd), bydło (n., cattle), osioł (m., ass, donkey), pole (n., field), mienie (n., possessions), dziecko (n., child), kobieta (f., woman), uprowadzić (pf., to take captive, to abduct), niewola (f., slavery, servitude), znaleźć (pf., to find), dom (m., house).

Verse 24: Wszyscy, którzy przechodzili przez bramę swego miasta: all who were passing through the gate of his city.

Verse 25: Doznawali wielkiego bólu: they met with great soreness; that is, pain associated with the circumcision, which rendered them unable to defend themselves (see the verses ahead). Porwać za miecz: to take up the sword. Porwawszy za miecze: having taken up their swords. Wtargnęli do miasta: they broke into the city. Które niczego nie podejrzewało: which was not suspecting anything; that is, the city was unsuspecting of an attack.

Verse 26: Zabili mieczem: they killed by sword.

Verse 27: Przyszli do pomordowanych: they came unto the slain. Za to, że zhańbiono ich siostrę: in exchange for one’s having brought shame upon their sister.

Verse 28: W mieście: in the city.

Verse 29: W niewolę: into slavery. Zrabowawszy wszystko, co znaleźli w domach: having plundered everything that they found in the houses.

Of the perfective znaleźć, review the masculine and feminine of the past tense:

(masculine)
znalazłem (1.ps)
znalazłeś (2.ps)
znalazł (3.ps)
znaleźliśmy (1.pp)
znaleźliście (2.pp)
znaleźli (3.pp)

(feminine)
znalazłam (1.ps)
znalazłaś (2.ps)
znalazła (3.ps)
znalazłyśmy (1.pp)
znalazłyście (2.pp)
znalazły (3.pp)

1.ps = first-person singular
1.pp = first-person plural, etc.

Wersety 30-31

  • nienawiść (f.), hatred
  • liczebnie, numerically
  • wystąpić (pf.), to step out
  • porażka (f.), defeat, failure
  • nierządnica (f.), harlot

Review: sprowadzić (pf., to bring), nieszczęście (n., misfortune), mieszkaniec (m., inhabitant), mały (small), plemię (n., tribe), razem (together), przeciwko (against), ponieść (pf., to suffer), zginąć (pf., to perish), rodzina (f., family), pozwolić (pf., to permit, to let; pozwolić na, to tolerate), obchodzić się (impf., to treat, to deal).

In verse 30, Jacob says to his brothers Simeon and Levi: sprowadziliście na mnie nieszczęście (you have brought misfortune unto me), bo przez was (for on account of you) będą mnie mieć w nienawiści mieszkańcy tego kraj (the inhabitants of this land will hate me). Kananejczycy are the Canaanites; Peryzzyci are the Perizzites. He explains that he numbers few people: jestem przecież małym liczebnie plemieniem (literally, I am after all a numerically small tribe). He also says that he will be defeated should they come out against him.

In verse 31, Simeon and Levi respond to Jacob’s concerns about the threat posed to him by asking: czyż [mieliśmy pozwolić na to, by] (were we really having to tolerate such that) się obchodzono (one was dealing) z naszą siostrą (with our sister) jak z nierządnicą? (as with a harlot?); that is, were we really expected to allow our sister to be treated as a harlot?