Polish language series: Rdz 33, spotkanie z Ezawem

In Rdz 33, or the thirty-third chapter of the book of Genesis, you will study the Polish text as it relates to: spotkanie z Ezawem (meeting with Esau), Jakub przybywa do Kanaanu (Jacob arrives in Canaan), Jakub w Sychem (Jacob in Shechem).

If you are arriving on this site for the first time, begin your study of the Polish language here (Rdz 1). In your study of Polish, you will use the Biblia Tysiąclecia as your source text. You can read the text of this Bible entirely online.

Before you begin your study of Rdz 33, you must access the verses on biblia.deon.pl below:

Consult text only

Consult text and audio

Should the above links ever become unavailable, you will find an archived version of the text here.

Wersety 1-3

  • nadciągać (impf.), to come, to approach
  • uszykować (pf.), to prepare, to ready
  • przód (m.), front
  • nieco, a little, somewhat

Review: spojrzeć (pf., to look), zobaczyć (pf., to see), czterysta (four hundred), człowiek (m., man; pl., ludzie), podzielić (pf., to divide), dziecko (n., child), między (between), niewolnica (f., maidservant), tył (m., back), raz (m., time), oddać pokłon (pf., to make obeisance), brat (m., brother), zanim (before), zbliżyć się (pf., to draw near, to come unto).

Verse 2: uszykował niewolnice z ich dziećmi na przedzie (he readied the maidservants with their children at the front), Leę z jej dziećmi nieco w tyle (Leah with her children a little [farther] back), a za nimi Rachelę i Józefa (and behind them Rachel and Joseph). Jacob set those dearest to him the farthest back so as to offer them the most protection. He himself moves to the front, as you read in verse 3.

Verse 3: sam zaś (whereas he himself), idąc przed wszystkimi (going before [them] all), siedem razy oddał pokłon swemu bratu (paid obeisance seven times unto his brother), zanim się do niego zbliżył (before drawing near to him); Jacob thus demonstrated his subservience to his brother.

Wersety 4-9

  • pospieszyć (pf.), to hasten
  • objąć (pf.), to embrace, to hug
  • obdarzyć (pf.), to endow, to bestow
  • przystąpić (pf.), to approach
  • dużo, much, many, a lot

Review: spotkanie (n., meeting), szyja (f., neck), ucałować (pf., to kiss), rozpłakać się (pf., to burst into tears), spostrzec (pf., to notice, to see), kobieta (f., woman), zapytać (pf., to ask), łaskawie (kindly), wreszcie (finally), spotkać (pf., to meet, to come across), oby (would to God, may), darzyć (impf., to grant, to bestow), życzliwość (f., kindness), zostać (pf., to remain).

Rather than attack Jacob, Esau comes unto him in peace; he hugs and kisses Jacob, and the brothers cry. In verse 5, Esau asks about the identity of the women and children accompanying his brother: a ci kim są dla ciebie? (literally, and these [ones] who are they for you?). Jacob responds: to dzieci, którymi Bóg łaskawie obdarzył twego sługę (they are the children with whom God has kindly endowed your servant).

In verse 6, you read that the maidservants approached with their children and paid obeisance. They are followed, in verse 7, by Leah and her children, and then Joseph and Rachel. In verse 8, Esau asks his brother: dla kogo są te wszystkie stada (for whom are all these herds), które spotkałem? (which I have come across?). Kogo is the genitive form of kto. Jacob responds: obyś mnie darzył życzliwością (may you bestow me with kindness), panie mój (my lord).

In verse 9, after telling Jacob that he has already an abundance, Esau tells his brother to keep what is his: niechaj przy tobie zostanie (let remain with you) to, co jest twoje (that which is yours).

Wersety 10-12

  • ależ nie, nothing of the sort
  • nadziemski, heavenly, celestial
  • nalegać (impf.), to insist
  • ruszać (impf.), to set off
  • razem, together

Review: darzyć (impf., to grant, to bestow), życzliwość (f., kindness), przyjąć (pf., to receive, to accept), dar (m., gift), bo przecież (for after all, because), ujrzeć (pf., to see), oblicze (n., face), istota (f., creature), okazać (pf., to show), wielki (great, large), przeznaczyć (pf., to intend, to assign), obdarzyć (pf., to endow, to bestow), sowicie (generously, amply), aż wreszcie (until finally), droga (f., way, road), chodzić (impf., to go, to walk).

With the aid of the vocabulary listed above, you should be able to work your way through these verses with minimal help. In them, Jacob insists with his brother that he accept his gift. Verse 11: i tak nalegał na niego (and thus he insisted upon it). Verse 12: ruszajmy w drogę (let us be on our way); razem z tobą (along with you).

You may wish to compare the present tense of the imperfective ruszać with the imperative:

Present

ruszam (1.ps)
ruszasz (2.ps)
rusza (3.ps)
ruszamy (1.pp)
ruszacie (2.pp)
ruszają (3.pp)

Imperative

ruszaj (2.ps)
niech rusza (3.ps)
ruszajmy (1.pp)
ruszajcie (2.pp)
niech ruszają (3.pp)

1.ps = first-person singular
1.pp = first-person plural, etc.

Wersety 13-17

  • wątły, frail
  • młode (n.), young (of animal)
  • choćby jeden, a single
  • nadążyć (pf.), to keep up
  • szałas (m.), shelter, shed

Review: wiedzieć (impf., to know), dziecko (n., child), owca (f., sheep), krowa (f., cow), karmić (impf., to suckle, to nurse), pędzić (impf., to drive), trodza (f., flock, herd), paść (pf., to fall), powoli (slowly), przyjść (pf., to arrive, to come), zapytać (pf., to ask), zostawić (pf., to leave), kilka (several, a few), skoro (given that), udać się (pf., to go, to proceed), powrotny (return), wyruszyć (impf., to leave, to set out), zbudować (pf., to build), dom (m., house), stado (n., herd), postawić (pf., to place, to put), nazwać (pf., to call, to name), miejscowość (f., place, spot).

In verse 13, Jacob says to Esau: wiesz, panie mój (you know, my lord), że mam dzieci wątłe (that I have frail children), a owce i krowy karmią młode (and the sheep and cows are suckling their young). The children are described as wątłe because they are still young to endure the hardships of travel. If he drives the animals even one day, they will die: jeśli je będę pędził (if I shall drive them) choćby dzień jeden ([even] a single day), padnie mi cała trzoda (the entire flock will fall [die] on me).

Present tense of the imperfective karmić:

karmię (1.ps)
karmisz (2.ps)
karmi (3.ps)
karmimy (1.pp)
karmicie (2.pp)
karmią (3.pp)

1.ps = first-person singular
1.pp = first-person plural, etc.

Jacob, in verse 14, tells Esau to go before him and that he will proceed slowly: ja zaś będę szedł powoli (whereas I shall go slowly). He will do so, he says, according to the endurance of the animals: tak jak będzie mogła nadążyć moja trzoda (such as my herd will be able to keep up), którą pędzę (which I drive).

Of the imperfective móc, review the following masculine and feminine forms of the past tense:

(masculine)
mogłem (1.ps)
mogłeś (2.ps)
mógł (3.ps)
mogliśmy (1.pp)
mogliście (2.pp)
mogli (3.pp)

(feminine)
mogłam (1.ps)
mogłaś (2.ps)
mogła (3.ps)
mogłyśmy (1.pp)
mogłyście (2.pp)
mogły (3.pp)

1.ps = first-person singular
1.pp = first-person plural, etc.

In verse 15, Esau makes an offer to his brother: może ci zostawić kilku moich ludzi (how about I leave you a few of my men), którzy są ze mną? (who are with me?). Jacob, however, declines the offer, saying that his brother has already showed him kindness. He also says: na cóż mi oni? (what are they to me?; what do I need them for?).

Verse 16: Ezaw udał się tego dnia w drogę powrotną do Seiru (Esau went that day on the return way to Seir; that is, he made his way back to Seir).

Verse 17: gdzie zbudował sobie dom (where he built himself a house). You read that Jacob also made a shelter for his herds.

Wersety 18-20

  • obrać (pf.), to choose, to elect
  • kawał (m.), piece, parcel

Review: powrót (m., return), dotrzeć (pf., to reach), szczęśliwie (fortunately), pobliże (n., vicinity), miasto (n., town, city), nabyć (pf., to acquire, to buy), sto (hundred), pole (n., field), rozbić (pf., to pitch), namiot (m., tent), ustawić (pf., to place, to put up), ołtarz (m., altar), nazwać (pf., to call, to name), imię (n., name).

Verse 18: obrawszy sobie miejsce w pobliżu tego miasta (having chosen for himself a place in the vicinity of this city).

Verse 19: nabył od synów Chamora, ojca Sychema (he bought from the sons of Hamor, the father of Shechem), za sto kesitów (for one hundred kesitahs) kawał pola (a parcel of field). Kesitahs were pieces of metal used as money. It is there that he pitched his tents: na którym rozbił swe namioty (in which he pitched his tents).

In verse 20, you read that Jacob set up an altar and named the place God, the God of Israel: nazwał go imieniem Boga, Boga Izraela (literally, he called it by the name of God, the God of Israel).