Friulian language series: Esodo 19, il pat dal Sinai

The subjects whereof the nineteenth chapter of the book of Exodus treats are: il pat dal Sinai (the pact of Sinai); aleance e i dîs comandaments (alliance and the ten commandments); a rivin tal Sinai (they arrive in Sinai); Diu al impromet il pat (God promiseth the pact); preparazion dal pat (preparation of the pact); Diu si fâs viodi tal Sinai (God maketh himself seen in Sinai).

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Read Esodo 19

To read the Friulian text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Bibie par un popul and consult Esodo 19. An archived version of the text is found here.

Versets 1-8

Vocabulary: trê (three), il mês (month), dopo che (after), saltâ fûr (to come forth), juste (just), la dì (day), un israelit (Israelite), rivâ (to arrive), il desert (desert), partî (to depart), campâsi (to encamp), in face di (in face of), la mont (mountain), lâ sù (to go up), clamâ (to call), stâ (to dwell), (to say), la cjase (house), savê (to know), il fi (son), viodi (to see), il voli (eye), un egjizian (Egyptian), puartâ fûr (to bear forth), la ale (wing), une acuile (eagle), menâ (to lead), viers di (unto), cumò (now), scoltâ (to hearken), la vôs (voice), rispietâ (to respect), il pat (pact), tignî (to keep), la robe (matter), framieç di (amongst), stant che (given that), dut (all), il mont (world), il cont (account), il ream (kingdom), il predi (priest), la gjernazie (line), sant (holy), (down), clamâ dongje (to call alongside), un anzian (elder), il popul (people), contâ (to recount), ordenâ (to order), d’acuardi (in agreement), rispuindi (to respond), riferî (to refer), rispuindi (to respond).

Verse 1: Trê mês dopo che a jerin saltâts fûr dal Egjit (three months after they had come forth from Egypt), juste ta chê dì (just in that day), i israelits a rivarin tal desert dal Sinai (the Israelites arrived in the desert of Sinai).

Verse 2: A partirin di Refidim (they departed from Rephidim) e a rivarin tal desert dal Sinai (and arrived in the desert of Sinai) e si camparin tal desert (and encamped in the desert); Israel si campà li, in face de mont (Israel encamped there, in face of the mountain).

Verses 3-4: Alore Mosè al lè sù li di Diu: then Moses went up thither unto God. Il Signôr lu clamà stant su la mont e i disè (the Lord called him in dwelling upon the mountain and said unto him): chest tu disarâs a la cjase di Jacop (this shalt thou say unto the house of Jacob), tu ur fasarâs savê ai fîs di Israel (shalt thou make known unto the sons of Israel): o vês viodût cui vuestris vôi (ye have seen with your eyes) ce che jo ur ài fat ai egjizians (that which I did unto the Egyptians) e cemût che us ài puartâts fûr su alis di acuile (and how I bore you forth on eagle wings) e menâts viers di me (and led {you} unto me).

Verse 5: Cumò se o scoltais la mê vôs (now if ye hearken unto my voice) e o rispietais il gno pat (and respect* my pact), jo us tignarai come robe mê (I shall keep you as matter mine) framieç di ducj i popui (amongst all the peoples), stant che dut il mont al è gno (given that all the world is mine). — *as in keep

Verse 6: Jo us tignarai in cont di un ream di predis (I shall keep you in account of a kingdom of priests), une gjernazie sante (a holy line). Chest tu ur disarâs ai fîs di Israel: this shalt thou say unto the sons of Israel.

Verses 7-8: Rivât jù (in being arrived down), Mosè al clamà dongje i anzians dal popul (Moses called alongside the elders of the people) e ur contà dut ce che il Signôr i veve ordenât (and recounted unto them all that which the Lord had ordered him), e il popul, ducj d’acuardi (and the people, all in agreement), i rispuindè (responded unto him): o fasarìn dut ce che il Signôr al à dit (we shall do all that which the Lord hath said). Mosè i riferì al Signôr (Moses referred unto the Lord) ce che al veve rispuindût il popul (that which the people had responded).

Versets 9-15

Vocabulary: (to say), vignî (to come), il nûl (cloud), penç (thick), in mût che ({in order} that), il popul (people), podê (to be able), scoltâ (to hearken), fevelâ (to speak), la fede (faith), par simpri (for ever), riferî (to refer), rispuindi (to respond), lâ jù (to go down), la int (people), smondeâ (to cleanse), vûe (today), doman (tomorrow), lavâ (to wash), la munture (raiment), tignîsi (to keep oneself), pront (ready), passandoman (day after tomorrow), (down), la mont (mountain), dut (all), viodi (to see), meti (to put), il cunfin (boundary), torator (round about), puars mai vualtris (woe unto you), sfiliâ (to brush up against), magari (even if), dome (but), tocjâ (to touch), copâ (to kill), nissun (not a one), clapadâ (to stone), fâ fûr (to do away with), la frece (arrow), un om (man), un nemâl (animal), finî (to finish), vivi (to live), il cuar (horn), il roc (ram), sunâ (to sound), a lunc (at length), une volte (one time), tornâ jù (to go back down), stâ (to dwell), lontan (far), la femine (woman).

Verse 9: Il Signôr i disè a Mosè (the Lord said unto Moses): jo o vignarai di te intun nûl penç (I shall come unto thee in a thick cloud), *in mût che* il popul al puedi scoltâ (that the people may be able to hearken) cuant che o fevelarai cun te (when I shall speak with thee) e che al vedi fede in te par simpri (and that they may have faith in thee for ever). Alore Mosè i riferì al Signôr (then Moses referred unto the Lord) ce che al veve rispuindût il popul (that which the people had responded). — *With in mût che, the subjunctive is employed. Consider the following instances: il popul al pues scoltâ; in mût che il popul al puedi scoltâ (the people are able to hearken; that the people may be able to hearken); il popul al à fede; in mût che il popul al vedi fede (the people have faith; that the people may have faith).

Verses 10-11: Il Signôr i disè a Mosè (the Lord said unto Moses): va jù là ch’e je la int (go down thither where the people are) e smondeiju* vuê e doman (and cleanse them today and tomorrow); che a lavin ancje la lôr munture (let them wash also their raiment) e che si tegnin pronts par passandoman+ (and let them keep themselves ready for the day after tomorrow), parcè che passandoman (for the day after tomorrow) il Signôr al vignarà jù su la mont dal Sinai (the Lord will come down upon the mountain of Sinai), e dut il popul lu viodarà (and all the people will see him). — *Observe the following: smondeâ (to cleanse); smondee (cleanse; second-person singular imperative); smondeiju (cleanse them; second-person singular imperative + ju). With verbs whose infinitive ends in â, the final e of the second-person singular imperative changes to i when ju is added: indreçâ; indrece; indreciju (to guide; guide; guide them); brincâ; brinche; brinchiju (to apprehend; apprehend; apprehend them). Similar: fevelâ; fevele; feveliur (to speak; speak; speak unto them); domandâ; domande; domandiur (to ask; ask; ask them). +A phonetic but non-standard spelling of passantdoman.

Verse 12: Po tu metarâs un cunfin torator de mont (then thou shalt put a boundary round about the mountain) e tu ur disarâs (and shalt say unto them): *puars mai vualtris* (woe unto you) se o lais su la mont (if ye go upon the mountain) e se o sfiliais magari dome il cunfin (and if ye brush up against even if but the boundary). Chel che al tocjarà la mont (that one who will touch the mountain) al sarà copât (shall be killed). — *Puars mai vualtris is second-person plural in form; its second-person singular equivalent is puar mai te.

Verse 13: Nissun nol podarà tocjâlu (not a one shall be able to touch him*): al sarà clapadât o fat fûr cu lis frecis (he shall be stoned or done away with by arrows). Om o nemâl (man or animal), al varà finît di vivi (he shall have finished living). Cuant che il cuar di roc al sunarà a lunc (when the ram’s horn will sound at length), in chê volte a laran su pe mont (in that time shall they go upon the mountain). — *the transgressor

Verse 14: Mosè al tornà jù de mont (Moses went back down from the mountain) e al lè de int (and went unto the people): ju fasè smondeâ (he had them cleansed) e si lavarin ancje la munture (and they washed also their raiment).

Verse 15: Po i disè al popul (then he said unto the people): tignîtsi pronts par passandoman (keep yourselves ready for the day after tomorrow); stait lontans de femine (dwell far from woman).

Versets 16-20

Vocabulary: tal passandoman (two days later), il crichedì (daybreak), capitâ (to come to pass), la mont (mountain), il ton (thunder{clap}), il lamp (flash), il folc (lightning bolt), la fumate (smoke haze), penç (thick), il sun (sound), la trombe (trumpet), fuart (mighty), il campament (encampment), dut (all), il popul (people), cjapâ (to take), la pôre (fear), saltâ fûr (to come forth), la int (people), lâ incuintri (to go unto), fermâsi (to halt oneself), dapît di (at the foot of), la fumarisse (smokiness), dismontâ jù (to go down), il fûc (fire), lâ sù (to go up), la fornâs (furnace), scjassâ (to shake), sgrisulâsi (to take fright), il sunsûr (noise), deventâ (to become), simpri (even), plui (more), fevelâ (to speak), rispuindi (to respond), vignî jù (to come down), propit (squarely), la spice (peak), clamâ (to call), stâ (to dwell).

Verse 16: *Tal passandoman*, sul crichedì (two days later upon the daybreak), a capitarin su la mont (did come to pass on the mountain) tons, lamps, folcs e une fumate penge (thunderclaps, flashes, lightning bolts and a thick smoke haze), e un sun di trombe tant fuart che mai (and a sound of trumpet ever so mighty). Tal campament (in the encampment) dut il popul al cjapà pôre (all the people took fear). — *Consider the following, where the first instance from verse 11 employs future time, and the second from verse 16 employs the past: passandoman il Signôr al vignarà jù (the day after tomorrow the Lord will come down); tal passandoman, sul crichedì, a capitarin… (two days later upon the daybreak did come to pass…).

Verse 17: Mosè al fasè saltâ fûr la int dal campament (Moses made the people come forth from the encampment) par lâi incuintri a Diu (to go unto God) e si fermarin dapît de mont (and they halted themselves at the foot of the mountain).

Verse 18: La mont dal Sinai e jere dute une fumarisse (the mountain of Sinai was all a smokiness) parcè che il Signôr al jere dismontât jù tal fûc (for the Lord had gone down in fire); la fumate e leve sù come intune fornâs (the smoke haze would go up like in a furnace) e dute la mont e scjassave di sgrisulâsi (and all the mountain would shake frighteningly).

Verse 19: Il sunsûr de trombe (the noise of the trumpet) al deventave simpri plui fuart (would become ever mightier); Mosè al fevelave (Moses would speak) e Diu i rispuindeve tal ton (and God would respond unto him in thunder).

Verse 20: Il Signôr al vignì jù su la mont dal Sinai (the Lord came down upon the mountain of Sinai), propit su la spice de mont (squarely upon the peak of the mountain). Il Signôr al clamà Mosè (the Lord called Moses) stant su la spice de mont (in dwelling upon the peak of the mountain) e Mosè al lè sù (and Moses went up).

Versets 21-25

Vocabulary: (to say), lâ jù (to go down), il popul (people), stâ (to dwell), atent (attentive), passâ (to pass), di là di (beyond), il cunfin (boundary), vignî (to come), viodi (to see), senò (otherwise), int (thereof), murî (to die), il disordin (mess), il predi (priest), lâ dongje (to go alongside), vê di (to have to), smondeâsi (to cleanse oneself), discjadenâsi (to unchain oneself), cuintri di (against), podê (can), la mont (mountain), propit (squarely), visâ (to inform), meti (to put), torator di (round about), li (there), bandît (set apart), continuâ (to continue), dài (come), tornâ sù (to come back up), vignî sù (to come up), chi (hither), la int (people), tornâ jù (to go back down), fevelâ (to speak).

Verse 21: Dissal il Signôr a Mosè (the Lord said unto Moses): va jù e dîsii al popul (go down and say unto the people) che al stedi atent (that they dwell attentive) di no passâ di là dai cunfins (not to pass beyond the boundaries) par vignî a viodal* Signôr (to come see the Lord), parcè che senò int muraran un disordin (for otherwise a mess thereof will die). — *viodal: contraction of viodi + il

Verse 22: Ancje i predis che a van dongje dal Signôr (also the priests who go alongside the Lord) a àn di smondeâsi (are to cleanse themselves) par che il Signôr no si discjadeni cuintri di lôr (that the Lord may not unchain* himself against them). — *The Friulian for chain is the feminine noun cjadene; it is from this noun that the verb discjadenâ is formed. Translated literally, discjadenâ means to unchain; in this verse, the reflexive discjadenâsi (to unchain oneself) is employed figuratively to indicate one’s breaking forth into anger, as in to unleash oneself. I have provided a literal rendering in the English, to maintain the full force of the Friulian. A different instance of discjadenâsi is found in Esodo 32:25.

Verse 23: Mosè i disè al Signôr (Moses said unto the Lord): il popul nol pò vignî su la mont dal Sinai (the people cannot come upon the mountain of Sinai) parcè che propit tu tu nus âs visâts (for squarely thou hast informed us): met un cunfin torator de mont (put a boundary round about the mountain) e dîsiur che li al è bandît* (and say unto them that there it is set apart). — *bandît: set apart, in service of the Lord

Verse 24: Il Signôr al continuà (the Lord continued): dài, va jù e tornait sù tu e Aron (come, go down and come back up, thou and Aaron). Ma i predis e la int no àn di passâ il cunfin (but the priests and the people are not to pass the boundary) par vignî sù chi dal Signôr (to come up hither unto the Lord), che senò lui si discjadene cuintri di lôr (for otherwise *he will unchain* himself against them). — *Here the Friulian employs the presint indicatîf (he unchaineth), but with a future sense.

Verse 25: Mosè alore al tornà jù là che al jere il popul (Moses then went back down thither where the people were) e ur fevelà (and spoke unto them).