Friulian language series: Esodo 19, il pat dal Sinai

The nineteenth chapter of the book of Exodus tells of: il pat dal Sinai (the Sinai covenant); aleance e i dîs comandaments (the covenant and the Ten Commandments); a rivin tal Sinai ({the Israelites} arrive in Sinai); Diu al impromet il pat (God promises the covenant); preparazion dal pat (preparation of the covenant); Diu si fâs viodi tal Sinai (God appears [makes himself seen] in Sinai).

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Read Esodo 19

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Versets 1-8

Vocabulary: trê (three), il mês (month), dopo (after, later, afterwards), saltâ fûr (to come/go out), juste (just), la dì (day), un israelit (Israelite), rivâ (to arrive, to come), il desert (desert), partî (to depart), campâsi (to encamp), in face di (before, facing), la mont (mount, mountain), lâ sù (to go up), clamâ (to call), stâ (to stand), (to say), la cjase (house), savê (to know), il fi (son), viodi (to see), il voli (eye), un egjizian (Egyptian), puartâ fûr (to bring/take out), la ale (wing), une acuile (eagle), menâ (to bring, to lead, to conduct), viers di (towards), scoltâ (to listen, to heed), la vôs (voice), rispietâ (to observe, to keep, to respect), il pat (covenant, pact), tignî (to keep), la robe (thing, matter, possessions), framieç di (amongst), stant che (given that), il mont (world), tignî in cont di (to consider as), il ream (kingdom), il predi (priest), la gjernazie (offspring, line), sant (holy), clamâ dongje (to call together), un anzian (elder), contâ (to tell, to relate, to recount), ordenâ (to order, to command), un acuardi (agreement), rispuindi (to reply), riferî (to report, to refer), rispuindi (to respond), il popul (people).

Verse 1: Trê mês dopo che a jerin saltâts fûr dal Egjit (three months after they had come out of Egypt), juste ta chê dì (on that very day [just on that day]), i israelits a rivarin tal desert dal Sinai (the Israelites came to the desert of Sinai).

Verse 2: A partirin di Refidim (they left Rephidim) e a rivarin tal desert dal Sinai (and came to the desert of Sinai) e si camparin tal desert (and encamped in the desert); Israel si campà li, in face de mont (Israel encamped there, facing the mountain; there Israel encamped, in front of the mountain).

Verses 3-4: Alore Mosè al lè sù li di Diu: Moses then went up to God. Il Signôr lu clamà stant su la mont e i disè (the Lord called to him from where he stood on the mountain [the Lord called to him standing on the mountain] and said to him): chest tu disarâs a la cjase di Jacop (thus [this] shall you say to the house of Jacob), tu ur fasarâs savê ai fîs di Israel ({thus} shall you inform the sons of Israel [you shall make known to the sons of Israel]): o vês viodût cui vuestris vôi (you have seen with your {own} eyes) ce che jo ur ài fat ai egjizians (what I did to the Egyptians) e cemût che us ài puartâts fûr su alis di acuile (and how I brought you forth on eagle wings) e menâts viers di me (and brought {you} to me [towards me]). Following is some vocabulary related to la acuile (eagle) and la ale (wing): il bec (beak); la plume (feather); la sgrife (claw); il çus (owl); il falcuç (falcon); il variûl (vulture).

Verse 5: Cumò se o scoltais la mê vôs (if you now heed my voice) e o rispietais il gno pat (and keep my covenant), jo us tignarai come robe mê (I shall keep you as my possessions) framieç di ducj i popui (amongst all the peoples), stant che dut il mont al è gno (given that all the world is mine).

Verse 6: Jo us tignarai in cont di un ream di predis (I shall consider you a kingdom of priests), une gjernazie sante (a holy line). Chest tu ur disarâs ai fîs di Israel: thus (this) shall you say to the sons of Israel.

Verses 7-8: Rivât jù (having come down), Mosè al clamà dongje (Moses called together) i anzians dal popul (the elders of the people) e ur contà dut ce che il Signôr i veve ordenât (and recounted to them all that the Lord had commanded him [unto him]), e il popul, ducj d’acuardi (and the people, all in agreement), i rispuindè (responded to him): o fasarìn dut ce che il Signôr al à dit (we shall do all that the Lord has said). Mosè i riferì al Signôr (Moses reported to the Lord) ce che al veve rispuindût il popul (what the people had said in response [what the people had responded]).

Versets 9-15

Vocabulary: (to say), vignî (to come), il nûl (cloud), penç (thick, dense), in mût che (so that), il popul (people), podê (may, can, to be able), scoltâ (to listen), fevelâ (to speak), la fede (faith), par simpri (forever), riferî (to report, to refer), rispuindi (to respond), lâ jù (to go down), la int (people), smondeâ (to cleanse, to purify), vûe (today), doman (tomorrow), lavâ (to wash), la munture (garments, clothes; also monture), tignîsi pront (to be prepared), passandoman (the day after tomorrow; also passantdoman), la mont (mount, mountain), viodi (to see), meti (to put, to place), il cunfin (confine, bound; also confin), torator (round about), puars mai vualtris (woe to you), sfiliâ (to brush up against), magari (perhaps, maybe), dome (only, but), tocjâ (to touch), copâ (to kill), clapadâ (to stone, to lapidate), fâ fûr (to kill), la frece (arrow), un om (man), un nemâl (animal), finî (to end, to finish), vivi (to live), il cuar (horn), il roc (ram), sunâ (to sound), a lunc (at length), la volte (time), tornâ jù (to go back down), lontan (far, distant, away), la femine (wife).

Verse 9: The Lord says to Moses: jo o vignarai di te intun nûl penç (I shall come to you in a thick cloud), in mût che il popul al puedi scoltâ (so that the people may hear [listen]) cuant che o fevelarai cun te (when I speak with you [when I shall speak with you]) e che al vedi fede in te par simpri (and that they may have faith in you forever). Alore Mosè i riferì al Signôr (Moses then reported to the Lord) ce che al veve rispuindût il popul (what the people had said in response [what the people had responded]). Following in mût che, the subjunctive is used: il popul al pues scoltâ; in mût che il popul al puedi scoltâ (the people are able to listen; so that the people may be able to listen); il popul al à fede in te; in mût che il popul al vedi fede in te (the people have faith in you; so that the people may have faith in you).

Verses 10-11: The Lord now says to Moses: va jù là ch’e je la int (go down {to} where the people are) e smondeiju vuê e doman (and purify them today and tomorrow); che a lavin ancje la lôr munture (let them wash their garments also) e che si tegnin pronts par passandoman (and let them be prepared [let them keep themselves ready] for the day after tomorrow), parcè che passandoman (for the day after tomorrow) il Signôr al vignarà jù su la mont dal Sinai (the Lord shall come down upon mount Sinai), e dut il popul lu viodarà (and all the people will see him). Observe the following: smondeâ (to cleanse, to purify); smondee (purify; second-person singular imperative); smondeiju (purify them; second-person singular imperative + ju). With verbs whose infinitive ends in â, the final e of the second-person singular imperative changes to i when ju is added: indreçâ; indrece; indreciju (to guide; guide; guide them); brincâ; brinche; brinchiju (to seize; seize; seize them). Similar: fevelâ; fevele; feveliur (to speak; speak; speak to them); domandâ; domande; domandiur (to ask; ask; ask them).

Verse 12: Po tu metarâs un cunfin torator de mont (you shall then put a bound round about the mountain) e tu ur disarâs (and shall say to them): puars mai vualtris (woe to you) se o lais su la mont (if you go up the mountain [on the mountain]) e se o sfiliais magari dome il cunfin (or if you even so much as brush up against the bound). Chel che al tocjarà la mont al sarà copât: he who touches (will touch) the mountain shall be killed. Puars mai vualtris: this is the second-person plural form; its second-person singular equivalent is puar mai te.

Verse 13: Nissun nol podarà tocjâlu (no one shall touch him [no one shall be able to touch him]): al sarà clapadât o fat fûr cu lis frecis (he shall be stoned or killed by arrows [with arrows]). Om o nemâl (man or beast), al varà finît di vivi (he shall meet his end [he shall have finished living]). Cuant che il cuar di roc al sunarà a lunc (when the ram’s horn sounds at length [will sound at length]), in chê volte a laran su pe mont (that is when they shall go up the mountain). Review the following vocabulary: il clap (stone); la clapade (stone-throw, throwing of a stone); copâ a clapadis (to stone to death [to kill by stone-throws]); clapadâ (to stone, to lapidate).

Verse 14: Mosè al tornà jù de mont (Moses came back down from the mountain) e al lè de int (and went to the people): ju fasè smondeâ (he had them cleansed) e si lavarin ancje la munture (and they also washed their garments [and unto themselves they also washed the garments]).

Verse 15: Po i disè al popul (then he said to the people): tignîtsi pronts par passandoman (be prepared [keep yourselves ready] for the day after tomorrow); stait lontans de femine (stay away from your wives).

Versets 16-20

Vocabulary: tal passandoman (two days later; also tal passantdoman), sul crichedì (at daybreak), capitâ (to happen, to occur), il ton (thunder clap), il lamp (flash, lightning bolt), il folc (lightning bolt), la fumate (smoke cloud), penç (dense, thick), il sun (sound), la trombe (trumpet), fuart (strong, loud), il campament (camp), il popul (people), cjapâ (to take), la pôre (fear, fright), cjapâ pôre (to take fright), fâ saltâ fûr (to bring forth), la int (people), incuintri (towards), fermâsi (to come to a halt, to stop oneself), dapît (at the foot; also da pît), la mont (mount, mountain), la fumarisse (smoke haze), dismontâ jù (to go down), il fûc (fire), lâ sù (to go up, to rise), la fornâs (furnace), scjassâ (to shake, to tremble), sgrisulâsi (to take fright), il sunsûr (noise, sound, blare), deventâ (to become), fevelâ (to speak), rispuindi (to respond), vignî jù (to come down), propit (right, squarely), stâ (to stand), la spice (peak, top).

Verse 16: Tal passandoman (two days later; on the third day), sul crichedì (at daybreak), a capitarin su la mont tons, lamps, folcs e une fumate penge (thunder [thunder claps], flashes, lightning [lightning bolts] and a thick cloud of smoke came about upon the mountain), e un sun di trombe tant fuart che mai (as well as the exceedingly loud blast [sound] of a trumpet). Tal campament dut il popul al cjapà pôre: all the people in the camp took fright. Consider the following: […] passandoman il Signôr al vignarà jù […] (the Lord shall come down the day after tomorrow; verse 11; future time); tal passandoman […] a capitarin […] (two days later, […] came about; verse 16; past time).

Verse 17: Mosè al fasè saltâ fûr la int dal campament (Moses brought the people out of the camp) par lâi incuintri a Diu (that they might go towards God) e si fermarin dapît de mont (and they came to a halt at the foot of the mountain).

Verse 18: La mont dal Sinai e jere dute une fumarisse (mount Sinai was all a haze of smoke) parcè che il Signôr al jere dismontât jù tal fûc (for the Lord had come down in fire); la fumate e leve sù come intune fornâs (the cloud of smoke rose [was rising] like that of a furnace [as though in a furnace]) e dute la mont e scjassave (and the entire mountain trembled [was trembling]) di sgrisulâsi (frightfully so).

Verse 19: Il sunsûr de trombe (the blare of the trumpet) al deventave simpri plui fuart (grew [was becoming] ever louder); Mosè al fevelave (Moses spoke [was speaking]) e Diu i rispuindeve tal ton (and God responded to him in thunder [was responding to him in the thunder]).

Verse 20: Il Signôr al vignì jù su la mont dal Sinai (the Lord came down upon mount Sinai), propit su la spice de mont (right on the top of the mountain). Il Signôr al clamà Mosè (the Lord called Moses) stant su la spice de mont (from where he stood on the top of the mountain [standing on the top of the mountain]) e Mosè al lè sù (and Moses went up).

Versets 21-25

Vocabulary: dissal (he said), lâ jù (to go down), il popul (people), atent (attentive), stâ atent di (to take care to), passâ (to pass), di là di (beyond), il cunfin (confine, bound; also confin), vignî (to come), viodi (to see), senò (otherwise), int (thereof), murî (to die), un disordin di (many, a great deal of), il predi (priest), lâ dongje (to go near, to approach), vê di (must, to have to), smondeâsi (to cleanse/purify oneself), discjadenâsi (to unleash [unchain] oneself), il popul (people), la mont (mount, mountain), propit tu (you yourself), visâ (to warn), meti (to put, to place), torator di (round about), bandît (set apart), continuâ (to continue), dài (off you go then, come on then), tornâ sù (to go/come back up), la int (people), fevelâ (to speak).

Verse 21: The Lord says to Moses: va jù (go down) e dîsii al popul (and tell the people) che al stedi atent (to take care [that they {are to} remain attentive]) di no passâ di là dai cunfins (not to cross [pass beyond] the bounds) par vignî a viodal Signôr (to come to see the Lord), parcè che senò (for otherwise) int muraran un disordin (a great many thereof shall die). Viodal Signôr: viodi + il Signôr. Consider the use of the subjunctive in the second sentence of the following pair: il popul al sta atent (the people are attentive); dîsii al popul che al stedi atent (tell the people to remain attentive).

Verse 22: Ancje i predis che a van dongje dal Signôr (the priests also, who go near the Lord) a àn di smondeâsi (are to purify themselves) par che il Signôr no si discjadeni cuintri di lôr (lest the Lord unleash himself against them [in order that the Lord not unchain himself against them]). The feminine cjadene means chain; discjadenâ means to unchain. Discjadenâsi (to unchain oneself), as used in the text of this verse, can be taken in its figurative sense of to unleash oneself (that is, to come down upon with a punishment).

Verse 23: Moses says to the Lord: il popul nol pò vignî su la mont dal Sinai (the people cannot go up mount Sinai [cannot go on mount Sinai]) parcè che propit tu tu nus âs visâts (for you yourself have warned us): met un cunfin torator de mont (put a bound round about the mountain) e dîsiur che li al è bandît (and tell them that it is consecrated there [and tell them that there it is set apart]). Bandît (set apart) from the verb bandî (to set apart) is to be taken here as meaning consecrated, sanctified, for that which has been set apart in the service of the Lord is made sacred.

Verse 24: Il Signôr al continuà (the Lord continued): dài (go then; now go), va jù e tornait sù tu e Aron (go down and come back up with Aaron [go down and come back up, you and Aaron]). Ma i predis e la int no àn di passâ il cunfin (but the priests and the people are not to cross [pass] the bound) par vignî sù chi dal Signôr (to come up here to the Lord), che senò lui si discjadene cuintri di lôr (for otherwise he shall unleash himself [he unchains himself] against them).

Verse 25: Mosè alore al tornà jù (Moses then went back down) là che al jere il popul ({to} where the people were) e ur fevelà (and spoke to them).