Friulian language series: Esodo 18, istituzion dai judiçs

In Esodo 18, or the eighteenth chapter of the book of Exodus, you will study the Friulian language as it relates to the following: incuintri di Jetro cun Mosè (Jethro’s meeting with Moses) and istituzion dai judiçs (appointment of the judges).

If you are arriving on this site for the first time, begin your study of the Friulian language here.

Read Esodo 18

To read the Friulian text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Bibie par un popul and consult Esodo 18. An archived version of the text can be found here.

Versets 1-6

Vocabulary: il predi (priest), il missêr (father-in-law), vignî a savê (to find out, to come to know), cumbinâ (to carry out), fâ saltâ fûr (to bring forth), cjoli (to take), la femine (wife), daspò che (after), mandâ indaûr (to send back), il fi (son), vê non (to be named), il forest (foreigner, stranger), la tiere (land), il pari (father), il jutori (helper), deliberâ (to deliver, to liberate), la spade (sword), il faraon (pharaoh), vignî a cjatâ (to come for), il desert (desert), campât (encamped), la mont (mount, mountain), ve che (behold), rivâ (to arrive), compagnât di (accompanied by), il frut (child, boy).

Verse 1: Dut ce che Diu al veve cumbinât par Mosè e par Israel so popul: all that which God had carried out for Moses and Israel his people.

Verse 2: Daspò che le veve mandade indaûr: after he had sent her back; Moses had sent Zipporah back to her own relations.

Verse 3: Jo o soi un forest in tiere foreste: I am a foreigner in a foreign land.

Verses 3-4: Un al veve non Gherson […] e chel altri al veve non Eliezer: one was named Gershom and the other was named Eliezer.

Verse 6: Ve che al rive Jetro to missêr: here comes Jethro, your father-in-law.

Versets 7-12

Vocabulary: lâi incuintri a (to go meet), butâsi par tiere (to take to the ground [in deference]), cjapâ a bracecuel (to embrace, to throw one’s arms around), domandâ (to ask), jentrâ (to enter), la tende (tent), contâ (to tell, to relate), un egizian (Egyptian), par vie di (because of, for the sake of), la conseguence (tribulation), pe strade (on the way), passisi (to feed on, to sate oneself), sintî (to hear), il ben (good), des mans di (from the hands of), des sgrifis di (from the clutches of; la sgrife, claw), benedet (blessed), la sotanance (oppression, subjugation), fuart (strong, mighty), pal fat che (by way of the fact that), compuartâsi (to behave), la rogance (arrogance), un olocaust (burnt offering), il sacrifici (sacrifice), mangjâ (to eat), in presince di (in the presence of, before).

Verse 7: Mosè i lè incuintri a so missêr: Moses went out to meet his father-in-law. Dopo di jessisi domandâts cemût che a stavin: after having asked one another how each was (literally, how they were); that is, after having asked after one another; after having asked about the other’s welfare. Domandâsi is to be understood as to ask one another; the auxiliary jessi is used in the past tense with this reflexive verb: dopo di jessisi domandâts (after having asked one another). You will note that the reflexive si has shifted to the end of the auxiliary jessi. More examples:

dopo di jessisi lavât
after having washed himself

dopo di jessisi distacâts di lôr
after having separated themselves from them

Verse 8: Mosè i contà a so missêr […] cetantis conseguencis che a vevin vudis pe strade: Moses told his father-in-law how many tribulations that they had had on the way; that is, Moses told Jethro about all the trials that they had experienced.

Verse 9: Jetro si passeve (Jethro sated himself; that is, Jethro was overjoyed) a sintî dut il ben che il Signôr i veve fat a Israel (to hear about all the good that the Lord had done to Israel).

Verse 10: Benedet seial il Signôr: blessed be the Lord; read these notes regarding the optative subjunctive (look under the first grouping of verses).

Verse 11: Cumò o sai che il Signôr al è plui fuart di ducj chei altris dius: now I know that the Lord is mightier than all the other gods. Note the use of di to express than in plui fuart di. Pal fat che si son compuartâts cun rogance cuintri di lôr: by way of the fact that they behaved with arrogance towards them.

Versets 13-18

Vocabulary: tal indoman (the next day), sentâsi (to sit down), fâ justizie (to judge), stâ in pîts (to be standing), daprûf di (near, next to), la buinore (morning), fintremai (until), sore sere (in the evening), scombati (to go to pains, to strain oneself), rivâ a fâ (to manage to do), disgredeâ (to resolve), dibessôl (on one’s own), la cuistion (matter, problem), a la cuâl che (whereas), stâ dongje di (to stand alongside), vignî di (to come unto), savê (to know), pensâ (to think), fâ sentence (to judge), fâ cognossi (to make known), il decret (decree, ordinance), la leç (law), no podê lâ (to not be good), sigûr (sure, certain), scanâsi (to wear oneself out), la cjame (burden, load), grivi (onerous, heavy, burdensome), fint in font (all the way; also fin in font).

Verse 13: Mosè si sentà par fâi justizie al popul: Moses sat to judge the people.

Verse 14: Viodint trop che al scombateve pe int: upon seeing how much he strained himself for the people. Jethro asks Moses: cemût rivistu mo a disgredeâ dibessôl (how then do you manage to resolve on your own) dutis lis cuistions de int? (all the matters of the people?). He also asks: parcè stâstu sentât dome tu (why are only you seated), a la cuâl che il popul al à di stâ dongje di te (whereas the people must stand alongside you) di buinore fin sore sere? (from morning until evening?).

Verse 16: Jo o fâs sentence fra un e chel altri: I judge between the one and the other. Ur fâs cognossi i decrets di Diu e lis sôs leçs: I make known to them the decrees of God and his laws.

Verse 17: E je une robe che no pò lâ: this is not good; literally, this is a thing that cannot go; by this, Jethro meant to point out that the thing was too burdensome for Moses. He also says: sta sigûr che tu ti scanarâs (be certain that you will wear yourself out); la cjame e je masse grivie par te (the burden is too onerous for you); no tu rivarâs mai fint in font dibessôl (on your own you will never manage completely).

Versets 19-23

Vocabulary: scoltâ (to listen), conseâ (to advise), impen di (in place of), presentâ (to present), indreçâ (to guide, to direct), il troi (path), sielgisi (to choose for oneself; that is, to take; also sielzisi), cussient (informed, aware), plen di (full of), il timôr (fear), sigûr (trustworthy), no lassâsi comprâ (to not be out for gain; literally, to not let oneself be bought), meti sore di (to put over), il sorestant (chief), un miâr (about a thousand), un centenâr (about a hundred), une cincuantine (about fifty), une desene (about ten), ogni moment (at all times), impuartant (important), il berdei (trouble, matter), di nuie (small, trifle), rangjâsi (to sort out for oneself), sliserîsi la cjame (to lighten one’s load; also slizerîsi), puartâ (to carry), ordenâ (to order), tignî dûr (to endure), rivuardâ (to concern), tornâ in pâs (to return in peace).

Verse 19: Scolte ce che ti consei jo: listen to what I advise you. Presentii tu a Diu lis lôr cuistions: you present to God their matters.

Verse 20: Indreciju sui decrets e su lis leçs: guide them regarding the decrees and laws. Fâsiur cognossi il troi che a àn di lâ: make known to them the path that they must take (by which they must go). Ce che a àn di fâ: what they must do.

Verse 21: Un pôcs di oms cussients: some informed men. Plens di timôr di Diu: full of the fear of God. Sigûrs: trustworthy. The expression no lassâsi comprâ translates literally as to not let oneself be bought; it can be understood as meaning to not be out for personal gain: di chei che no si lassin comprâ (from amongst those who are not out for personal gain). Understand also from this verse: metiju sore di lôr (place them over them) come sorestants di miârs (as chiefs of thousands), sorestants di centenârs (chiefs of hundreds), sorestants di cincuantinis (chiefs of fifties) e sorestants di desenis (and chiefs of tens).

Verse 22: Pes cuistions impuartantis: for important matters. Pai berdeis di nuie: for trifle matters, for small problems. Cussì tu ti sliserissis la cjame: thus you lighten your burden. The Friulian for light (in weight) is lizêr; for example, une cjame lizere means a light load. The verb to lighten is expressed as slizerî. One way to say heavy, as you have already encountered, is grivi; another way is pesant. Une cjame grivie, for example, means a heavy load.

Verse 23: Par chel che le rivuarde: as far as it concerns them; literally, as far as it concerns it, where le (it) stands in for the singular la int.

Versets 24-27

Vocabulary: lâ daûr di (to follow), il consei (advice), un om di sintiment (informed man, aware man), judicâ (to judge), dì e gnot (day and night), un afâr (affair, matter), lâ di (to go unto), piçul (small), par cont lôr (on their own), saludâ (to take leave of), cjapâ la strade (to head off).

Verse 24: Mosè al lè daûr dal consei di so missêr: Moses followed the advice of his father-in-law.

Verse 25: Ju metè sorestants dal popul: he made them chiefs of the people.

Verse 26: Cuant che a jerin afârs impuartants: when there were important matters. Par chês altris robis plui piçulis: for other smaller matters. Si rangjavin par cont lôr: they sorted (the small matters) out themselves.