Friulian language series: Esodo 18, istituzion dai judiçs

The subjects of which the eighteenth chapter of the book of Exodus treats are: incuintri di Jetro cun Mosè (Jethro’s meeting with Moses); istituzion dai judiçs (appointment of judges).

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Read Esodo 18

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Versets 1-12

Vocabulary: il predi (priest), il missêr (father-in-law), vignî (to come), savê (to know), cumbinâ (to carry out, to get up to), il popul (people), fâ saltâ fûr (to bring forth), cjoli (to take), la femine (wife), daspò che (after), mandâ indaûr (to send back), il fi (son), il non (name), il forest (foreigner, stranger), la tiere (land), forest (foreign, strange), il pari (father), il jutori (helper), deliberâ (to deliver, to liberate), la spade (sword), il faraon (pharaoh), cjatâ (to meet), il desert (desert), campât (encamped), la mont (mount, mountain), rivâ (to arrive, to come), compagnât di (accompanied by), il frut (boy, lad), lâi incuintri a (to go out to meet), butâsi (to throw oneself), cjapâ (to take), il bracecuel (embrace), domandâ (to ask), jentrâ (to enter, to go/come in), la tende (tent), contâ (to tell, to relate), un egizian (Egyptian), par vie di (because of), cetant (how many), la conseguence (tribulation), la strade (road, way), passisi (to sate oneself), sintî (to hear), il ben (good), la man (hand), benedet (blessed), la sgrife (claw, clutch), la sotanance (oppression, subjugation), fuart (strong, mighty), il diu (god), il fat (fact), compuartâsi (to behave), la rogance (arrogance), un olocaust (holocaust), il sacrifici (sacrifice), un anzian (elder), mangjâ (to eat), la presince (presence).

Verse 1: Jetro, predi di Madian, missêr di Mosè (Jethro priest of Midian, Moses’s father), al vignì a savê dut ce che Diu al veve cumbinât par Mosè (came to know of all that the Lord had carried out for Moses) e par Israel so popul (and for Israel his people); cemût che il Signôr al veve fat saltâ fûr Israel dal Egjit (how the Lord had brought Israel forth from Egypt).

Verses 2-4: Jetro, missêr di Mosè (Jethro, Moses’s father-in-law), al cjolè Zipore (took Zipporah), femine di Mosè (Moses’s wife), daspò che le veve mandade indaûr (after he had sent her back), e i siei doi fîs (and her two sons). Un al veve non Gherson parcè che (one was named [was having {the} name] Gershom because), al veve dit (he had said): “jo o soi un forest in tiere foreste” (I am a foreigner in a foreign land), e chel altri al veve non Eliezer parcè che (and the other was named [was having {the} name] Eliezer because) “il Diu di gno pari al è il gno jutori (the God of my father is my help) e mi à deliberât de spade dal faraon” (and he delivered me from the sword of Pharaoh).

Verse 5: Jetro, missêr di Mosè (Jethro, Moses’s father-in-law), al vignì a cjatâ Mosè cui siei fîs e cu la sô femine* (came to meet Moses with his sons and with his wife) tal desert là che al jere campât (in the desert where he was encamped), su la mont di Diu (on the mountain of God). *That is to say, with the sons and wife of Moses.

Verse 6: I diserin a Mosè (Moses was told [they said to Moses]): ve che al rive Jetro to missêr compagnât de tô femine cui siei doi fruts (here comes your father-in-law Jethro now, accompanied by your wife and two sons [boys]).

Verse 7: Mosè i lè incuintri a so missêr (Moses went out to meet [went towards] his father-in-law), si butà par tiere denant di lui (took to the ground {in deference} [threw himself on the ground] before him), lu cjapà a bracecuel (embraced him [took him in embrace]) e, dopo di jessisi domandâts cemût che a stavin (and, after having asked one another how each fared [how they were]), a jentrarin te tende (they went into the tent). The reflexive domandâsi means to ask one another; in the past tense, the auxiliary jessi is employed: dopo di jessisi domandâts (after having asked one another). Note the shift in position of the reflexive si to the end of the auxiliary jessi. More examples: dopo di jessisi lavât (after having washed himself); dopo di jessisi distacâts di lôr (after having separated themselves from them).

Verse 8: Mosè i contà a so missêr (Moses related to his father-in-law) dut ce che il Signôr i veve fat al faraon e ai egjizians (all that the Lord had done to Pharoah and the Egyptians) par vie di Israel (for Israel’s sake), e cetantis conseguencis che a vevin vudis pe strade (and all the tribulations [{just} how many tribulations] that they had experienced [that they had had] on the way) e che il Signôr ju veve deliberâts (and that the Lord had delivered them).

Verse 9: Jetro si passeve a sintî (Jethro rejoiced [was sating himself] upon hearing) dut il ben che il Signôr i veve fat a Israel (all the good that the Lord had done for Israel [to Israel]) e che lu veve deliberât des mans dai egjizians (and that he had delivered them from the hands of the Egyptians).

Verse 10: Jethro then says: benedet seial il Signôr (blessed be the Lord) che us à deliberâts des mans dai egjizians (who delivered you from the hands of the Egyptians) e des sgrifis dal faraon (and from the clutches of Pharoah), che al à deliberât il popul de sotanance egjiziane (who delivered the people from [from the] Egyptian subjugation). Regarding the optative subjunctive (such as benedet seial), see the notes at Esodo 16:3.

Verse 11: Cumò o sai che il Signôr (now I know that the Lord) al è plui fuart di ducj chei altris dius (is mightier than all other gods), pal fat che (by {way of} the fact that) si son compuartâts cun rogance cuintri di lôr (they behaved with arrogance towards them [against them]).

Verse 12: Jetro, missêr di Mosè (Jethro, Moses’s father-in-law), i fasè al Signôr un olocaust e altris sacrificis (made a holocaust and other sacrifices to the Lord). Aron e ducj i anzians di Israel (Aaron and all the elders of Israel) a vignirin a mangjâ cul missêr di Mosè (came to eat with Moses’s father-in-law) in presince di Diu (in the presence of God).

Versets 13-18

Vocabulary: tal indoman (the next day), sentâsi (to sit down), fâ justizie (to judge), il popul (people), intant (whilst, as), stâ in pîts (to be standing), daprûf di (by, alongside), la buinore (morning), fintremai (until), sore sere (towards evening), il missêr (father-in-law), viodi (to see), trop che (how much that), scombati (to go to pains, to strain oneself), la int (people), rivâ a fâ (to manage to do, to be able to do), disgredeâ (to resolve), dibessôl (on one’s own), la cuistion (problem, matter, issue), sentât (seated), dome (only, but), a la cuâl che (whereas), vê di (must, to have to), stâ dongje di (to stand by/alongside), vignî (to come), savê (to know), pensâ (to think), la sentence (judgement), fâ cognossi (to make known), il decret (decree), la leç (law), la robe (thing, matter), no podê lâ (to be wrong), sigûr (sure, certain), scanâsi (to wear oneself out), la cjame (burden, load), masse (too, overly), grivi (onerous, heavy, burdensome), il font (bottom).

Verse 13: Tal indoman (the next day) Mosè si sentà par fâi justizie al popul (Moses sat to judge the people), intant che il popul al stave in pîts daprûf di lui (whilst the people stood [were standing] about him) di buinore fintremai sore sere (from morning to evening [towards evening]). The Friulian for foot is the masculine pît; in pîts is to be understood as meaning on foot, and stâ in pîts as meaning to stand. Sore sere: until the initial part of evening.

Verse 14: Il missêr di Mosè (Moses’s father-in-law), viodint trop che al scombateve pe int (seeing the pains to which he went for the people [seeing how much he was straining for the people]), i disè (said to him): cemût rivistu mo a disgredeâ dibessôl (how ever are you able to resolve on your own) dutis lis cuistions de int? (all the matters of the people?). Parcè stâstu sentât dome tu (why are you seated alone [only you]), a la cuâl che il popul al à di stâ dongje di te (whereas the people are to stand about you) di buinore fin sore sere? (from morning to evening [towards evening]).

la int e ven di me (the people come to me) par savê ce che al pense Diu (to know what God thinks). Cuant che a àn une cuistion (when they have a problem), a vegnin di me (they come to me). Jo o fâs sentence fra un e chel altri (I execute judgement between the one and the other) e ur fâs cognossi i decrets di Diu e lis sôs leçs (and I make known to them the decrees of God and his laws).

Verses 17-18: Jethro says: e je une robe che no pò lâ (this is not right [this is a thing that cannot go]). Sta sigûr che tu ti scanarâs (you will surely wear yourself out [be certain that you will wear yourself out]), tu e la int che e sta daprûf di te (you yourself and the people standing about you), parcè che la cjame e je masse grivie par te (for the burden is much too onerous for you); no tu rivarâs mai fint in font dibessôl (you will never manage on your own [you will never get (arrive) all the way to the bottom on your own]).

Versets 19-27

Vocabulary: scoltâ (to listen, to heed), conseâ (to advise, to counsel), impen di (in place of, on behalf of), il popul (people), restâ (to remain, to stay), presentâ (to present), la cuistion (problem, matter, issue), indreçâ (to guide, to direct), il decret (decree), la lêç (law), fâ cognossi (to make known), il troi (path), (to go), sielgi (to choose; also sielzi), framieç di (amongst), la int (people), un pôc di (some, a few, a number of), un om (man), cussient (conscientious, principled), plen (full, filled), il timôr (fear), sigûr (trustworthy), lassâsi (to allow oneself, to let oneself), comprâ (to buy, to acquire), meti (to put, to place), sore di (over, above), il sorestant (chief), un miâr (about a thousand), un centenâr (about a hundred), une cincuantine (about fifty), une desene (about ten), la sentence (judgement), ogni (every), il moment (moment), impuartant (important), vignî (to come), il berdei (problem, matter, issue), di nuie (small, trifle), rangjâsi (to sort out for oneself), sliserîsi (to lighten; also slizerîsi), la cjame (load, burden), puartâ (to carry, to bear), ordenâ (to order, to command), rivâ a fâ (to manage to do, to be able to do), tignî dûr (to endure, to hold steadfast), rivuardâ (to concern), tornâ (to return, to go/come back), la pâs (peace), la cjase (house), lâ daûr di (to follow, to heed), il consei (advice, counsel), il missêr (father-in-law), un israelit (Israelite), un om (man), il sintiment (discernment, reason, wisdom), judicâ (to judge), il dì (day), la gnot (night), un afâr (affair, matter), la robe (thing, matter), piçul (small, little), il cont (account), saludâ (to bid farewell), cjapâ (to take), la strade (way, road), la tiere (land).

Verse 19: Alore scolte ce che ti consei jo (so heed what I advise you) par che Diu al sedi cun te (that God may be with you). Impen dal popul (on behalf of the people), reste tu denant di Diu (you remain [remain you yourself] before God) e presentii tu a Diu lis lôr cuistions (and you present [present you yourself] their matters to God).

Verse 20: Indreciju sui decrets e su lis leçs (guide them with regard to the decrees and laws [on the decrees and on the laws]), fâsiur cognossi il troi (make known to them the path) che a àn di lâ (that they are to follow [to go]) e ce che a àn di fâ (and what they are to do).

Verse 21: Ma però sielgiti (but choose for yourself), framieç di dute la int ({from} amongst all the people), un pôcs di oms cussients (a number of conscientious men), plens di timôr di Diu (filled with the fear of God), sigûrs (trustworthy), di chei che no si lassin comprâ (men of the sort who [from {amongst} those who] do not allow themselves to be bought) e metiju sore di lôr (and set these men [and set them] over them) come sorestants di miârs (as chiefs of thousands), sorestants di centenârs (chiefs of hundreds), sorestants di cincuantinis (chiefs of fifties) e sorestants di desenis (and chiefs of tens).

Verse 22: A fasaran sentence pal popul (they will execute judgement for the people) ogni moment (at all times [{at} every moment]). Pes cuistions impuartantis (for important issues) a vignaran di te (they will come to you) e pai berdeis di nuie (and for trifle matters [matters of nothing]) si rangjaran lôr (they will sort themselves out {on their own}). Cussì tu ti sliserissis la cjame (you will thus lighten your burden [thus you lighten unto yourself the burden]), e lôr le puartaran cun te (and they will bear it with you).

Verse 23: Se tu fasarâs chest (if you do [will do] this), che tal ordene Diu (which God commands of you [which unto you God commands it]), tu rivarâs a tignî dûr (you will be able to endure), e dute cheste int, par chel che le rivuarde* (and all these people, for their part), e podarà tornâ in pâs a cjase sô (will be able to return home in peace). *Par chel che le rivarde can be taken here as meaning for their part; literally, it translates as for what it concerns them (or, better, as for what it concerns it, given that int is a feminine singular noun), the sense of which is as far as they are concerned.

Verse 24: Mosè al lè daûr dal consei di so missêr (Moses heeded [went behind] his father-in-law’s advice) e al fasè dut ce che i veve dit (and did all that he had said to him).

Verse 25: Mosè al sielgè (Moses chose), fra ducj i israelits (from amongst [between] all the Israelites), oms di sintiment (men of discernment) e ju metè sorestants dal popul (and set them as chiefs over [of] the people): sorestants di miârs (chiefs of thousands), sorestants di centenârs (chiefs of hundreds), sorestants di cincuantinis (chiefs of fifties) e sorestants di desenis (and chiefs of tens).

Verse 26: Lôr a judicavin il popul (they judged [were judging] the people) dì e gnot (day and night). Cuant che a jerin afârs impuartants (when the matters were important) a levin di Mosè (they would go to Moses) e par chês altris robis plui piçulis (and for minor matters [and for those other smaller matters]) si rangjavin par cont lôr (they would sort themselves out on their own [by their {own} account]).

Verse 27: Daspò Mosè al saludà so missêr (Moses then bade his father-in-law farewell), che al cjapà la strade par tornâ te sô tiere (who made his way back to his own land [who took the way to return to his land]).