Friulian language series: Esodo 17, il Signôr su la crete

From the headings of the seventeenth chapter of the book of Exodus: l’aghe ch’e ven fûr de crete (the water that comes forth from the rock); la batae cuintri di Amalec (the battle against Amalek). The femimine batae (battle, fight) is also expressed in Friulian as the standardised bataie.

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Read Esodo 17

To read the Friulian text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Bibie par un popul and consult Esodo 17. An archived version of the text can be found here.

Versets 1-7

Vocabulary: il popul (people), partî (to leave, to depart), il desert (desert), la tape (stage), ordenâ (to order, to command), campâsi (to encamp), la gote (drop), la aghe (water), distudâ (to quench), la sêt (thirst), la int (people), cjapâse (to become angered), (to say), dâ fûr (to give out, to provide), vê di (to have to, must), bevi (to drink), sfidâ (to defy, to try, to challenge), patî (to suffer from), l’arsetât (thirst), bruntulâ (to grumble, to complain), fâ saltâ fûr (to bring forth), murî (to die), il fi (son), il nemâl (animal), berlâ (to cry out. to yell), viers di (towards), no lâ vie trop che (to be not long before), copâ (to kill), la clapade (stone-throw), metisi (to put/place oneself), denant di (before, in front of), cjoli (to take), un pôc di (some, a little, a bit of), un anzian (elder), cjapâ (to take), la man (hand), il baston (rod, staff), bati (to strike), il flum (river), là jù (up there), la crete (rock, cliff, ridge), il colp (blow, smack), spissulâ fûr (to gush forth), podê (may, can, to be able), il voli (eye), il non (name), il lûc (place, site), implantâ (to initiate), il cavîl (quibble, cavil), tirâ a ciment (to defy, to try, to challenge), la bande (side).

Verse 1: Dut il popul di Israel (all the people of Israel) al partì dal desert di Sin (departed from the desert of Sin) par altris tapis (in further stages [by other stages]), come che al veve ordenât il Signôr (as the Lord had commanded), e si camparin a Refidim (and encamped at Rephidim), là che no’nd jere une gote di aghe (where there was not a drop of water) par distudâ la sêt de int (to quench the people’s thirst). Il popul: people in the sense of nation; la int: people in the sense of individuals.

Verse 2: Se cjaparin cun Mosè e i diserin (they became angered with Moses and said to him): dànus fûr aghe (provide us water), che o vin di bevi (for we must drink). Moses asks them: parcè se cjapaiso cun me? (why are you vexed with me?); parcè sfidaiso il Signôr? (why do you try the Lord?). Consider the interrogative formation: se cjapais > parcè se cjapaiso?; o sfidais > parcè sfidaiso?

Verse 3: Il popul al pative l’arsetât (the people suffered [were suffering] from thirst) e al bruntulà cuintri di Mosè (and grumbled against Moses): parcè mo nus âstu fats saltâ fûr dal Egjit? (why ever did you bring us out of Egypt?). Par fânus murî di sêt, me, i miei fîs e i miei nemâi?: to kill me, my children and my animals with thirst (to make us die of thirst — me, my children and my animals)?

Verse 4: Mosè al berlà viers dal Signôr e i disè (Moses called out to the Lord and said to him): ce àio di fâ par cheste int? (what have I to do for these people?; what am I to do for these people?). Nol va vie trop che (before long; it is not long before) mi coparan a clapadis (they will stone me to death [will kill me by stone-throws]).

Verse 5: The Lord tells Moses: metiti denant dal popul (place yourself before the people) e cjol cun te un pôcs di anzians di Israel (and take with you some of the elders of Israel); cjape in man il to baston (take your rod into your hand), chel che tu âs batût il flum (the one with which you struck the river), e va (and go).

Verse 6: Jo o sarai denant di te là jù (I will be {standing} before you up there), su la crete (on the rock), sul Oreb (on the Horeb). Tu batarâs un colp su la crete (you shall strike the rock [you shall strike a blow on the rock]) e l’aghe e spissularà fûr (and the water will gush forth) e la int e podarà distudâ la sêt (and the people will quench their thirst). Mosè al fasè propit cussì (Moses did just so) sot i vôi dai anzians di Israel (before [under] the eyes of the elders of Israel). La crete: a rocky mass.

Verse 7: I metè non al lûc Masse e Meribe (he named the site Massah and Meribah), parcè che i israelits a implantarin un cavîl (because the Israelites had taken to quibbling [initiated a cavil]) e parcè che a tirarin a ciment il Signôr (and because they had tried the Lord) disint (saying): il Signôr esal de nestre bande o no? (is the Lord on our side or not?).

Versets 8-16

Vocabulary: un amalecit (Amalekite), plombâ cuintri di (to attack), combati (to battle, to fight), sielgisi (to choose for oneself; also sielzisi), un pôc di (some, a little, a bit of), doman (tomorrow), tacâ (to attack, to do battle with), insomp di (at the top of; also insom di), la culine (hill), il baston (rod, staff), la man (hand), jessî (to go/come out), cuintri di (against), intant che (whilst, as), montâ insomp di (to climb to the top of), tignî (to keep, to maintain), alçâ (to raise, to lift up), vinci (to win, to prevail), molâ jù (to put down, to lower), parvie che (given that; also par vie che), il braç (arm), madûr (exhausted, swollen), cjoli (to take), la piere (stone), meti sot (to put underneath), sentâsi (to sit down), parsore (atop), biel che (whilst, as), tignî sù (to hold up), la bande (side), fer (steady, still, stationary), il soreli (sun), lâ a mont (to set), fruçâ (to strike down), il fîl (blade edge), la spade (sword), scrivi (to write, to inscribe), il libri (book), la dismentie (oblivion), scancelâ (to blot out, to do away with), la memorie (memory, remembrance), il cîl (heaven, sky), un altâr (altar), il non (name), il stendart (banner, standard), la vuere (war), la ete (age).

Verse 8: I amalecits a plombarin cuintri di Israel (the Amalekites attacked Israel [came down against Israel]) e a combaterin a Refidim (and they fought at Rephidim).

Verse 9: Alore Mosè i disè a Gjosuè (Moses then said to Joshua): sielgiti un pôcs di oms (choose some men for yourself) e doman tu tachis Amalec (and tomorrow you shall do battle with Amalek); jo o starai insomp de culine (I will be standing at the top of the hill) cul baston di Diu te man (with the rod of God in my hand).

Verse 10: Gjosuè al fasè come che i veve dit Mosè (Joshua did as Moses had told him); al jessì a combati cuintri di Amalec (he went out to fight against Amalek) intant che Mosè, Aron e Cur a montavin insomp de culine (whilst Moses, Aaron and Hur went up [were going up] to the top of the hill).

Verse 11: Cuant che Mosè al tignive lis mans alçadis (whenever Moses would keep his hands raised), Israel al vinceve (Israel prevailed [was prevailing]), e cuant che lis molave jù (and whenever he would lower them) al vinceve Amalec (Amalek prevailed [was prevailing]).

Verse 12: E parvie che Mosè al veve i braçs madûrs (and because Moses’s arms grew heavy [and by way {of the fact} that Moses was having heavy (exhausted) arms]), a cjolerin une piere e je meterin sot (they took a stone and put it under him [and unto him put it underneath]). Lui si sentà parsore (atop did he take his seat), biel che Aron e Cur i tignivin sù i braçs (whilst Aaron and Hur held up [were holding up] his arms) un di une bande e un di chê altre (one on either side of him [one on one side and one on the other]). Cussì al tignì lis mans fermis (thus did he keep his hands steady) fin che il soreli nol lè a mont (until the sun set).

Verse 13: Gjosuè al fruçà Amalec (Joshua struck down Amalek) e la sô int (and his people) a fîl di spade (by the edge of the sword). That is to say, he killed them by putting them to the sword. The masculine fîl, in the context of a sword, refers to the thin and sharp part of the blade.

Verse 14: To Moses the Lord says: chest tu âs di scrivilu intun libri (you are to inscribe this in a book [this, you are to inscribe it in a book]) par che nol ledi in dismentie (lest it be forgotten [that it may not go into oblivion]), e dîsii a Gjosuè (and tell Joshua) che jo o scancelarai la memorie di Amalec (that I will blot out the memory of Amalek) sot dal cîl (under the heaven).

Verses 15-16: Mosè alore al fasè un altâr (Moses then built [made] an altar) che i metè non “Signôr-Nissi” (which he named ‘Lord-Nissi’ [unto which he put {the} name ‘Lord-Nissi’]) parcè che, dissal (because, he said): il stendart dal Signôr in man (the banner of the Lord in hand); il Signôr al è in vuere (the Lord is at war) cuintri di Amalec (against Amalek) di ete in ete (throughout the ages [from age to age]).