Friulian language series: Esodo 17, il Signôr su la crete

You will now study the Friulian language as used in Esodo 17, or the seventeenth chapter of the book of Exodus, where the subjects are: l’aghe ch’e ven fûr de crete (the water that comes forth from the rock) and la batae cuintri di Amalec (the battle against Amalek). La batae (battle, fight) is also expressed as la bataie in Friulian.

If you are arriving on this site for the first time, begin your study of the Friulian language here.

Read Esodo 17

To read the Friulian text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Bibie par un popul and consult Esodo 17. An archived version of the text can be found here.

Versets 1-3

Vocabulary: partî (to leave, to depart), il desert (desert), la tape (stage), ordenâ (to order, to command), campâsi (to encamp), la gote di aghe (drop of water), distudâ la sêt (to quench one’s thirst), la int (people), cjapâse (to get upset, to get angry), dâ fûr (to give out, to provide), vê di (to have to, must), bevi (to drink), sfidâ (to defy, to challenge), patî l’arsetât (to suffer from thirst), bruntulâ (to grumble, to complain), fâ saltâ fûr (to bring out, to make come forth), murî di sêt (to die of thirst), il fi (son), il nemâl (animal).

Verse 1: il desert di Sin (Desert of Sin, Sin Desert; the name Sin is unrelated, of course, to the English word sin); par altris tapis (in other stages); là che no’nd jere une gote di aghe (there where there was not a drop of water).

Verse 2: The Israelites are thirsty at Rephidim, and they chide Moses. He asks: parcè se cjapaiso cun me? (why do you get angry with me?); parcè sfidaiso il Signôr? (why do you defy the Lord?).

se cjapais
parcè se cjapaiso?

o sfidais
parcè sfidaiso?

In verse 1 and 3, you find la sêt (thirst) used in distudâ la sêt (to quench one’s thirst) and fâ murî di sêt (to kill by thirst). In verse 3, you also find thirst expressed as l’arsetât in the expression patî l’arsetât (to suffer from thirst); a similar expression is patî la fan, meaning to suffer from hunger.

Versets 4-7

Vocabulary: berlâ viers di (to cry out unto), no lâ vie trop che (to not be long before), copâ a clapadis (to stone to death), la clapade (throwing of a stone), metisi denant di (to place oneself before), un anzian (elder), cjapâ in man (to take hold of), il baston (rod, staff), bati (to strike), il flum (river), là jù (up there), la crete (rock, cliff, ridge), bati un colp (to strike a blow), spissulâ fûr (to gush forth), sot i vôi (under one’s eyes; that is, in front of), meti non (to name), il lûc (place, site), implantâ un cavîl (to quibble), un cavîl (quibble, cavil), tirâ a ciment (to defy, to provoke, to take on), jessi de bande di (to be on the side of).

In verse 4, Moses asks the Lord: ce àio di fâ par cheste int? (what must I do for these people?); nol va vie trop che mi coparan a clapadis (it is not long before they will stone me to death). The feminine noun la clapade refers to the throwing of a stone; mi coparan a clapadis, then, can be understood more literally as they will kill me by stone-throws.

From verse 5, understand the following portions of text: cjol cun te un pôcs di anzians di Israel (take with you some of the elders of Israel); chel che tu âs batût il flum (the one with which you struck the river). Batût is the past participle of bati.

La crete, from verse 6, refers to a rocky mass. The Lord tells Moses to strike this rocky mass, out of which water shall then flow.

From verse 7, understand: i metè non al lûc Masse e Meribe (he named the place Massah and Meribah); i israelits a implantarin un cavîl (the Israelites quibbled); a tirarin a ciment il Signôr (they defied the Lord).

Versets 8-11

Vocabulary: plombâ cuintri di (to attack), combati (to battle, to fight), sielgisi (to choose for oneself; also sielzisi), tacâ (to attack, to battle), insomp di (at the top of; also insom di), la culine (hill), te man (in [one’s] hand), jessî (to go out), intant che (whilst), montâ insomp di (to climb to the top of), tignî lis mans alçadis (to hold one’s hands up), vinci (to win, to prevail), molâ jù (to put down, to lower).

Verse 8: i amalecits (the Amalekites); the Amalekites attack Israel and they fight at Rephidim.

In verse 9, Moses tells Gjosuè (Joshua): sielgiti un pôcs di oms (choose for yourself some men [that is, take some men]) e doman tu tachis Amalec (and tomorrow you fight Amalek). With the rod of God in hand, Moses says that he will stand atop the hill: jo o starai insomp de culine (I shall stand at the top of the hill). Insomp is a variant of the standardised insom: a p sound can be realised at the end of insom, which is reflected in the spelling insomp.

Verse 10: al jessì a combati cuintri di Amalec (he went out to fight against Amalek). Also: Mosè, Aron e Cur a montavin insomp de culine (Moses, Aaron and Hur went up to the top of the hill; climbed up to the top of the hill).

In verse 11, you read that the Israelites prevailed when Moses raised his hands: cuant che Mosè al tignive lis mans alçadis, Israel al vinceve (literally, when Moses was keeping his hands raised, Israel was prevailing), whereas when he let down his hands, it was Amalek that prevailed.

Versets 12-16

Vocabulary: parvie che (given that; also par vie che), il braç (arm), madûr (exhausted), la piere (stone), meti sot (to put underneath), sentâsi parsore (to sit down upon), biel che (whilst), tignî sù (to hold up), la bande (side), fer (fixed, still, stationary), il soreli (sun), lâ a mont (to set), fruçâ (to strike down), la spade (sword), a fîl di spade (by the edge of the sword), scrivi (to write), il libri (book), lâ in dismentie (to be forgotten; literally, to go into oblivion), scancelâ (to annihilate, to do away with), la memorie (memory, remembrance), fâ un altâr (to build an altar), il stendart (banner, standard), in vuere (at war), di ete in ete (from generation to generation).

Verse 12: e parvie che Mosè al veve i braçs madûrs (and given that Moses’ arms were exhausted). You read that Aaron and Hur take a stone (une piere) and put it under Moses: je meterin sot (they put it under him). Moses takes a seat upon the stone, and Aaron and Hur hold up his arms, un di une bande e un di chê altre (the one on one side and the [other] one on the other). Moses was thus able to keep his hands raised: cussì al tignì lis mans fermis (thus he kept his hands put) fin che il soreli nol lè a mont (until the sun set). Learn the four forms of the adjective fer, which are fer (masculine singular), fers (masculine plural), ferme (feminine singular), fermis (feminine plural).

Verse 14: chest tu âs di scrivilu intun libri (you must write this in a book) par che nol ledi in dismentie (so that it does not get forgotten).

Verse 16: il stendart dal Signôr in man (the banner of the Lord in hand); il Signôr al è in vuere cuintri di Amalec di ete in ete (the Lord is at war with Amalek from generation to generation).