Polish language series: Rdz 25, śmierć Abrahama

You will now study the Polish text of Rdz 25, or the twenty-fifth chapter of the book of Genesis, where you will read about the death of Abraham: śmierć Abrahama.

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Read Rdz 25

To read the Polish text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Biblia Tysiąclecia and consult Rdz 25. An archived version of the text can be found here.

Wersety 1-4

  • poślubić (pf.), to marry

Review: potomek (m., descendant), śmierć (f., death), drugi (second), kobieta (f., woman), imię (n., name), urodzić (pf., to bear), ojciec (m., father), syn (m., son).

Verse 1 tells you that Abraham married his second wife, whose name was Ketura. The names of Keturah’s sons are given in verse 2 in accusative position; their nominative equivalents are: Zimran, Jokszan, Medan, Midian, Jiszbak, Szuach. From verse 4, ci wszyscy means all these.

Wersety 5-8

  • obdarować (pf.), to endow, to bestow
  • dożyć (pf.), to reach (an age)
  • szczęśliwy, happy
  • syty, replete, full
  • połączyć się (pf.), to unite, to join

Review: majętność (f., fortune), oddać (pf., to grant, to bestow), drugorzędny (secondary), żona (f., wife), kazać (impf., to order, to command), życie (n., life), odejść (pf., to leave, to depart), wschód (m., east), kraj (m., land, country), leżeć (impf., to lie), rok (m., year), zbliżyć się (pf., to draw near), kres (m., end, limit), zemrzeć (pf., to die), późny (late, advanced), lecz (but), starość (f., old age), przodek (m., ancestor, forefather).

Abraham gave everything that he had to Isaac (verse 5). From verse 6, drugorzędna żona is a concubine (literally, secondary wife). You read: synów zaś, których miał z żon drugorzędnych (whereas the sons whom he had with [his] concubines). The remainder of the verse tells you that he endowed these other sons and sent them to the east. Jeszcze za swego życia means yet in his life (that is, whilst he was still alive). Do kraju leżącego na wschód means unto the land lying in the east, where leżący (lying) is inflected for the genitive as leżącego.

The Polish for one hundred and seventy five is sto siedemdziesiąt pięć. In verse 7, you read: a gdy Abraham dożył lat stu siedemdziesięciu pięciu (and when Abraham reached one hundred and seventy five years).

In verse 8, you read that Abraham drew near to the end of his life: zbliżył się kres jego życia. He died at an advanced but happy old age, replete with life. You also read that he joined his forefathers (połączył się ze swoimi przodkami); that is, he died and was united with his dead kinsmen.

Wersety 9-11

  • obok (+ gen.), next to, near

Review: pochować (pf., to bury), pieczara (f., cave, cavern), pole (n., field), pobliże (n., vicinity), w pobliżu (in the vicinity of, near), nabyć (pf., to buy, to obtain), śmierć (f., death), błogosławić (impf., to bless), zamieszkać (pf., to settle), studnia (f., well).

Isaac and Ishmael bury Abraham in the cave of Machphelah (w pieczarze Makpela), in the field of Ephron (na polu Efrona), the son of Zohar the Hittite (syna Sochara Chetyty). Recall that the Polish for Hittite is the nominative Chetyta; the nominative plural is Chetyci (Hittites). The cave was near Mamre: w pobliżu Mamre.

Verse 10 tells you that, in this field acquired from the Hittites, Abraham was buried next to Sarah: został on pochowany obok swej żony (he got buried next to his wife). Review this passive construction with different examples that you have already encountered, paying attention to the agreements:

został on pochowany
he got buried

dziecko zostało odłączone od piersi
the child got weaned

zostało wytępione
it got destroyed

została skażona
she got corrupted

został uprowadzony
he got taken captive

Wersety 12-18

  • zarazem, also, at the same time
  • naczelnik (m.), leader, chief
  • sprzeciw (m.), objection
  • spokrewniony, related

Review: Egipcjanka (Egyptian woman), niewolnica (f., slavewoman), pochodzić (impf., to descend), pierworodny (firstborn), nazwa (f., name), miejscowość (f., place, spot), przebywać (impf., to sojourn, to abide), lub (or), osiedlić się (pf., to settle), szczep (m., tribe), dojść (pf., to reach), kres (m., end, limit), życie (n., life), połączyć się (pf., to unite, to join), przodek (m., ancestor, forefather), mieszkać (impf., to live, to dwell), aż do (unto, as far as), leżeć (impf., to lie), naprzeciw (+ gen., opposite, before), Egipt (m., Egypt), droga (f., way, road), mimo (despite), strona (f., side).

From verse 13, understand: oto imiona synów Izmaela (these are the names of the sons of Ishmael), imiona pochodzących od nich potomków (the names of those descending from their descendants).

From verse 16, dwunastu naczelników ich szczepów means twelve leaders of their tribes. Dwunastu is the masculine personal form of dwanaście (twelve).

Verse 17: mając sto trzydzieści siedem lat (being one hundred and thirty-seven years old; literally, having one hundred and thirty-seven years).

In verse 18, of Ishmael’s descendants, you read: mieszkali od Chawila aż do Szur (they were dwelling from Havilah unto Shur), leżącego naprzeciw Egiptu (lying before Egypt), na drodze do Aszszuru (on the way to Asshur [Assyria]). They settled there despite the objection from their relatives: mimo sprzeciwu ze strony spokrewnionych z nimi szczepów (despite the objection on the part of [literally, from the side of] the tribes related to them [that is, their relatives, their brethren]).

Wersety 19-23

  • narodziny (pl.), birth
  • bywać (impf.), to happen, to be
  • przytrafiać się (impf.), to happen
  • odrębny, different, separate
  • wnętrzności (pl.), guts, entrails
  • silniejszy, stronger
  • starszy, older, elder
  • młodszy, younger

Review: dzieje (pl., history), wziąć za żonę (pf., to take as wife), córka (f., daughter), siostra (f., sister), modlić się (impf., to pray), niepłodny (barren), wysłuchać (pf., to hear), brzemienny (pregnant), walczyć (impf., to fight), dziecko (n., child), łono (n., womb), pomyśleć (pf., to think), czemu (why), pójść (pf., to go), zapytać (pf., to ask), powiedzieć (pf., to say, to tell), naród (m., nation), lud (m., people), wyjść (pf., to come out, to exit), sługa (m., servant).

In verse 20, you read that Isaac was forty years old (miał czterdzieści lat) when he took Rebekah unto himself as a wife (gdy wziął sobie za żonę Rebekę). In this same verse, Aramejczyk is the Polish for Aramean. Rebekah was the daughter of Bethuel, who was an Aramean from Paddan-Aram.

In verse 21, Isaac prays to God (modlił się do Pana) for his wife (za swą żonę) because she was barren (była ona niepłodna). The Lord heard, and Rebekah got pregnant with twins. In verse 22, however, you read that her sons fought in her womb: walczyły z sobą dzieci w jej łonie (the children fought with one another in her womb). Rebekah thinks: jeśli tak bywa (if it is thus; if this is the way that it is), to czemu mnie się to przytrafia? (why should this befall me?; why should I meet with this?). The sense of this question seems to be if I should suffer thus, why did I conceive at all?

Rebekah questions God regarding the matter (poszła więc zapytać o to Pana, she went therefore to ask the Lord about this) and, in verse 23, he provides a response: he tells her that there are two nations in her womb, that two different peoples will come forth from her guts. He also says: jeden będzie silniejszy od drugiego (one will be stronger than the other), starszy będzie sługą młodszego (the elder will be the slave of the younger).

silny — silniejszy — najsilniejszy
strongstrongerstrongest

stary — starszy — najstarszy
oldolderoldest

młody — młodszy — najmłodszy
youngyoungeryoungest

Wersety 24-28

  • poród (m.), birth, delivery
  • okazać się (pf.), to appear, to become evident
  • bliźnię (n.), twin
  • pokryć (pf.), to cover
  • owłosienie (n.), hairs, hairiness
  • trzymać (impf.), to hold, to hold onto
  • urosnąć, uróść (pf.), to grow
  • zręczny, skilled
  • spokojny, quiet, calm, peaceful
  • przyrządzać (impf.), to prepare
  • ulubiony, favourite
  • potrawa (f.), dish, meal
  • upolować (pf.), to catch, to shoot (game)
  • zwierzyna (f.), game, wildlife
  • natomiast, whereas, on the other hand
  • kochać (impf.), to love

Review: nadejść (pf., to approach, to come), czas (m., time), łono (n., womb), wyjść (pf., to come out, to exit), pierwszy (first), czerwony (red), jakby (as if, as though), płaszcz (m., cloak), nazwać (pf., to call), zaraz (at once, immediately), ukazać się (pf., to appear), pięta (f., heel), przeto (therefore), urodzić się (pf., to be born), chłopiec (m., boy, lad), myśliwy (m., hunter), żyć (impf., to live), pole (n., field), człowiek (m., man), mieszkać (impf., to live, to dwell), namiot (m., tent), miłować (impf., to love, to cherish).

Verse 24: kiedy nadszedł czas porodu (when the time of delivery came), okazało się, że w łonie jej były bliźnięta (it became evident that there were twins in her womb).

In verse 25, you read that the first son came out red and covered in hairs, similar to a cloak. He was named Ezaw (Esau). The second son then appeared, holding onto Esau’s heel; he was named Jakub (Jacob). Verse 26: trzymający Ezawa za piętę (holding onto Esau by the heel). Also in verse 26, you read how old Isaac was when Esau and Jacob were born: Izaak miał lat sześćdziesiąt (Isaac was sixty years old), gdy mu się oni urodzili (when they were born unto him).

In verses 25 and 26, you find two impersonal past forms: nazwano (verse 25), dano (verse 26). Nazwano go can be understood as meaning one named him; dano mu imię can be understood as one gave him the name.

From verse 27, understand: a gdy chłopcy urośli (and when the boys grew), Ezaw stał się zręcznym myśliwym (Esau became a skilled hunter), żyjącym w polu (living in the field). Jacob, on the other hand, was a quiet man who used to dwell in tents.

Verse 28 tells you of the parents’ preferences for their sons: Isaac loved Esau because this son prepared his father’s favourite dishes for him from hunted animals, whereas Rebekah loved Jacob. Upolowana zwierzyna can be understood as hunted game.

Wersety 29-34

  • sprzedawać (impf.) to sell
  • gotować (impf.), to cook, to boil
  • jakiś, some
  • znużony, tired, weary
  • odstąpić (pf.), to sell
  • najprzód, first (of all)
  • przywilej (m.), privilege
  • pierworodztwo (n.), primordiality
  • niemal, almost, practically
  • głód (m.), hunger
  • soczewica (f.), lentil
  • zlekceważyć (pf.), to disregard

Review: pewien (a, one, a certain), raz (m., time), potrawa (f., dish, meal), nadejść (pf., to approach, to come), pole (n., field), dać (pf., to give), choć (at least), trochę (a little, a bit of), czerwony (red), dlatego (therefore), nazwać (pf., to call), odpowiedzieć (pf., to reply), skoro (since, given that), umierać (impf., to die), zaraz (at once, immediately), przysięgnąć (pf., to swear), podać (pf., to serve), chleb (m., bread), najeść się (pf., to eat one’s fill), napić się (pf., to have a drink), wstać (pf., to arise, to get up), oddalić się (pf., to withdraw, to walk away).

The subject line can be understood as follows: Ezaw sprzedaje Jakubowi swe pierworodztwo (Esau sells Jacob his birthright). In verse 29, you read that Esau arrived very tired from the field; meanwhile, Jacob was preparing a meal. Esau, in verse 30 says to his brother: daj mi choć trochę tej czerwonej potrawy (give me at least a little of your red dish [food]), jestem bowiem znużony (for I am weary). In verse 31, however, the crafty Jacob tells the tired Esau to sell him his birthright before he can eat: odstąp mi najprzód twój przywilej pierworodztwa (sell me first your birthright [privilege of primordiality]).

Esau, in verse 32, is so hungry (he says: skoro niemal umieram [z głodu], given that I am practically dying of hunger) that he disconsiders his birthright: cóż mi po pierworodztwie? (what ever does my birthright matter to me?). Jacob, in verse 33, has Esau swear to the transaction: zaraz mi przysięgnij (swear [it] to me at once), to which Esau consents.

In the final verse of the chapter, you read that Jacob served his brother bread and cooked lentils. Esau ate his fill and drank (najadł się i napił), and then he got up and left (a potem wstał i oddalił się). The final sentence tells you: tak to Ezaw zlekceważył przywilej pierworodztwa (in this way Esau disregarded his birthright).