Friulian language series: Esodo 15, cjant di vitorie

Of the fifteenth chapter of the book of Exodus, the subjects are: il cjant di vitorie (victory song); la marce pal desert (march through the desert).

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Versets 1-5

Vocabulary: alore (so, then), il fi (son), dâ sù (to exclaim), il cjant (song), un onôr (honour), cjantâ (to sing), cuviergisi (to cover oneself), la glorie (glory), strucjâ (to overturn), il cjaval (horse), il cjavalîr (horseman), il mâr (sea), la fuarce (might), puartâle fûr (to bear it forth), il merit (merit, credit), il pari (father), (to say), potent (powerful), la vuere (war), il non (name), il cjar (chariot), il faraon (pharaoh), la schirie (array), il mâr (sea), la sbrume (highness, loftiness), un uficiâl (official), gloti (to swallow), il gorc (vortex), tirâ sot (to draw under), lâ jù (to go down), il font (bottom), un abìs (abyss), il clapon (rock, boulder).

Verse 1: Alore Mosè e i fîs di Israel a derin sù chest cjant (then Moses and the sons of Israel exclaimed this song) in onôr dal Signôr (in honour of the Lord): o cjanti pal Signôr (I sing for the Lord) che si è cuviert di glorie (who has covered himself in glory), che al à strucjât cjaval e cjavalîr tal mâr (who overturned horse and horseman into the sea).

Verse 2: Il Signôr al è la mê fuarce e il gno cjant (the Lord is my might and my song); se le ài puartade fûr (if I have prevailed [borne it forth]), al è merit so (the merit is his). Al è lui il gno Diu e jo lu cjanti (it is he my God and I glorify [sing] him); il Diu di gno pari (the God of my father), e jo o dîs ben di lui (and I praise [speak well of] him).

Verse 3: Il Signôr al è potent in vuere (the Lord is powerful in war); il so non al è Signôr (his name is Lord).

Verse 4: I cjars dal faraon e dutis lis sôs schiriis (Pharaoh’s chariots and all his arrays) lui ju à strucjâts tal mâr (he overturned into the sea). La sbrume* dai siei uficiâi (the loftiness of his officials) il mâr le à glotude (has the sea swallowed). — *Sbrume is a figurative usage; its literal meaning is foam; for instance, la sbrume dal mâr means sea foam.

Verse 5: Il gorc ju à tirâts sot (the vortex drew them under), a son lâts jù tal font dal abìs (they went down into the bottom of the abyss) tant che un clapon (like a rock).

Versets 6-10

Vocabulary: la gjestre (right hand), fâ robonis (to do wondrous things), la fuarce (might), fâ a tocs (to tear apart), il nemì (enemy), cuant che (when), volê (to will), viodi (to see), trop (how much), grant (great), strucjâ (to overturn), discjadenâ (to unleash), la rabie (anger, fury), parâ jù (to devour, to swallow up), il stranc (straw), soflâ (to blow), la narile (nostril), la aghe (water), ingrumâsi (to gather oneself), la pôre (fear), la onde (wave), petâ sù (to burst up{wards}), la murae (wall), il mulignel (whirlpool), dâsi dongje (to give oneself alongside), il mieç (middle), il mâr (sea), (to say), cori daûr (to pursue), brincâ (to overtake), dividi (to divide), raspâ (to make away with, to spoil), passisi (to sate oneself), avuâl di (level with, up to), il cuel (neck), sfodrâ (to unsheath, to draw), la spade (sword), scjafoiâ (to strangle), la man (hand), la soflade (breath), tirâ sot (to draw under), lâ sot (to go under), il plomp (lead), disfâ (to undo).

Verse 6: La tô gjestre*, Signôr (your right hand, O Lord), e à fat robonis cu la sô fuarce (has done wondrous things with its might), la tô gjestre, Signôr (your right hand, O Lord), e fâs a tocs+ il nemì (tears apart the enemy). — *The right hand can be referred to as la gjestre, la diestre or la drete. These can also be expressed with the inclusion of man, as in: la man gjestre, la man diestre, la man drete. The left hand is la çampe, or la man çampe. +The masculine toc means piece; fâ a tocs can be read as to tear apart.

Verse 7: Cuant che tu vûs fâ viodi trop grant che tu sês (when you will evince [make see] how great you are), tu strucjis i tiei nemîs (you overturn your enemies), tu discjadenis* la tô rabie (you unleash your fury) e tu ju paris jù come il stranc (and you devour them [drive them down] like straw). — *The verb discjadenâ is related to the feminine cjadene, meaning chain. +Parâ jù, literally, to drive/send down; it is used here in the sense of to devour, to swallow up.

Verse 8: Cuant che tu soflis cu lis tôs narilis (when you blow with your nostrils), lis aghis si ingrumin di fâ pôre (waters gather themselves fearfully so), lis ondis a petin sù come une murae (waves burst up like a wall), i mulignei si dan dongje tal mieç dal mâr (whirlpools draw together [give themselves alongside] in the middle of the sea).

Verse 9: Il nemì al veve dit (the enemy had said): ur corarai daûr (I will pursue them), ju brincarai (I will overtake them), o dividarai dut ce che o rasparai (I will divide all that which I spoil [will spoil]), mi passarai avuâl* dal cuel (I will sate myself up to the neck), o sfodrarai la mê spade (I will draw my sword) e ju scjafoiarai cu lis mês mans (and I will strangle them with my hands). — *Avuâl means same, equal, level, uniform; for instance, ciertis robis a son simpri avuâls means some things are ever the same. Avuâl di can be taken as meaning equal to, level to, uniform with; avuâl dal cuel, then, means up to the neck, level with the neck.

Verse 10: Tu âs dade une soflade (you gave a breath) e il mâr ju à tirâts sot (and the sea drew them under), a son lâts sot come il plomp (they went under like lead) e lis aghis ju àn disfats (and the waters undid them).

Versets 11-18

Vocabulary: un diu (god), (where), cjatâsi (to be found), compagn di (like), grant (great), la santitât (holiness), trement (awesome), metisi (to put oneself), un spieli (wonder, sign), slungjâ (to extend), la gjestre (right hand), la tiere (earth), gloti (to swallow), il boncûr (compassion), indreçâ (to lead, to guide), il popul (people), sfrancjâ (to redeem), la fuarce (might), menâ (to lead), sant (holy), la cjase (house), sintî (to hear), voltâsi (to turn round), il sanc (blood), stâ mâl (to be ill), murî (to die), il sorestant (chief), pierdi (to lose), il cjâf (head), il spac (terror, fear), il princip (prince), la pôre (fear), cjonçâ (to cut off), la gjambe (leg), restâ (to be dismayed), il terôr (terror), plombâ (to plummet down), il braç (arm), lassâ (to leave), il clap (stone), fin che (until), passâ (to pass {by}), cuistâ (to acquire, to purchase), sistemâ (to install), la mont (mountain, mount), la ereditât (inheritance), il lûc (place), jessi a stâ (to dwell), il santuari (sanctuary), preparâ (to prepare), la man (hand), regnâ (to reign), par simpri e in eterni (for ever and for all time).

Verse 11: Di ducj i dius (of all the gods), là si cjatial un compagn di te, Signôr? (where is one like you found, O Lord?). Là esal un come te (where is one like you), grant par santitât (great for holiness), trement cuant che si met (awesome when he undertakes [puts himself]), bon di fâ spiei? (capable of working wonders?).

Verse 12: Tu âs slungjade la tô gjestre (you extended your right hand) e la tiere ju à glotûts (and the earth swallowed them up).

Verse 13: Al è stât il to boncûr (it was your compassion) a indreçâ chest popul (which guided this people) che tu âs sfrancjât (whom you redeemed), la tô fuarce lu* à menât (your might led them) te tô sante cjase (into your holy house). — *Lu stands in for popul, a masculine singular noun. It is nevertheless rendered here by the plural them of English.

Verse 14: I popui a àn sintût (the peoples have heard), si voltin di sanc (*their blood turns*), chei de Filistee (those of Philistia) a stan mâl di murî (are ill as to die).

Verse 15: I sorestants di Edom a pierdin il cjâf cul spac (the chiefs of Edom panic [lose the{ir} head{s}] with terror), ai princips di Moab la pôre ur cjonce lis gjambis (fear incapacitates [cuts off the legs of] the princes of Moab), ducj chei di Canaan a restin (all those of Canaan are dismayed).

Verse 16: Il terôr e la pôre ur plombe intor (terror and fear plummet down about them); la fuarce dal to braç ju lasse di clap (the might of your arm leaves them stone), fin che nol passe il to popul, Signôr (until your people pass by, O Lord), fin che nol passe chest popul che tu tu âs cuistât (until this people, whom you have acquired, passes by).

Verse 17: Tu ju menarâs tu (you yourself will lead them) e tu ju sistemarâs su la mont de tô ereditât (and will install them in the mountain of your inheritance), tal lûc che tu, Signôr, tu sês a stâ (in the place where you, O Lord, dwell), tal santuari, Signôr (in the sanctuary, O Lord), che a àn preparât lis tôs mans (which your hands have prepared).

Verse 18: Il Signôr al regnarà par simpri (the Lord will reign for ever) e in eterni (and for all time).

Versets 19-21

Vocabulary: di fat (in fact), la cjavalarie (cavalry), il faraon (pharaoh), il cjar (chariot), il cjavalîr (horseman), no… dibot nancje (scarcely), jentrâ (to enter), il mâr (sea), tornâ indaûr (to turn back), la aghe (water), parsore di (over), a la cuâl che (whereas), un israelit (Israelite), lâ indenant (to go forwards), il mieç (middle), cence (without), bagnâsi i pîts (to get one’s feet wet), la profetesse (prophetess), la sûr (sister), cjapâ in man (to take into hand), il tamburel (timbrel, tambourine), la femine (woman), cjantâ (to sing), balâ (to dance), dâ sù (to exclaim), vuluçâsi (to wrap oneself up), la glorie (glory), strucjâ (to overturn).

Verse 19: E di fat (and in fact), la cjavalarie dal faraon (the cavalry of Pharaoh) cui siei cjars (with his chariots) e i siei cjavalîrs (and his horsemen) no jere dibot nancje jentrade tal mâr (had scarcely entered into the sea), che il Signôr al veve fat tornâ indaûr (when the Lord made turn back) lis aghis dal mâr parsore di lôr (the waters of the sea over them), a la cuâl che i israelits a jerin lâts indenant (whereas the Israelites went forwards) tal mieç dal mâr (into the middle of the sea) cence nancje bagnâsi i pîts (without even wetting their feet).

Verse 20: Miriam, la profetesse, sûr di Aron (Miriam the prophetess, sister of Aaron), e cjapà in man un tamburel (took into hand a timbrel) e dutis lis feminis, i lerin daûrij cui tamburei (and all the women went behind her with timbrels), cjantant e balant (singing and dancing).

Verse 21: E Miriam e dè sù par lôr (and Miriam exclaimed for them): cjantait pal Signôr (sing for the Lord), si è vuluçât di glorie (he has wrapped himself in glory): al à strucjât tal mâr cjaval e cjavalîr (he has overturned into the sea horse and horseman).

Versets 22-27

Vocabulary: (ti give), un ordin (order), partî (to depart), il mâr (sea), la cjanusse (reed), inviâsi (to send oneself {off}), la bande (side), il desert (desert), cjaminâ (to walk), trê (three), il dì (day), cjatâ (to find), la gote (drop), la aghe (water), rivâ (to arrive), podê (can, to be able), bevi (to drink), masse (too), amâr (bitter), meti (to put), il non (name), il lûc (place), il popul (people), cjapâse (to take it unto oneself), (to say), cumò (now), berlâ (to cry forth), mostrâ (to show, to indicate), il toc (piece), il len (wood), butâ (to cast), indolcîsi (to become sweet), al è li che (it is there where), il statût (statute), il dirit (law), la prove (test, trial, proof), scoltâ (to heed), la vôs (voice), lâ ben (to be good), atent (attentive), il comandament (commandment), meti in vore (to put to task), il mâl (ill), mandâ (to send), vuarî (to heal, to cure), dodis (twelve), la risultive (spring), setante (seventy), la palme (palm tree), campâsi (to encamp, to set up camp), torator di (round about).

Verse 22: Mosè al dè a Israel l’ordin (Moses gave Israel the order) di partî dal mâr des Cjanussis (to depart from the Sea of Reeds). Si inviarin de bande dal desert di Sur (they sent themselves off towards the desert of Shur) e a cjaminarin trê dîs tal desert (and walked for three days in the desert) cence cjatâ une gote di aghe (without finding a drop of water).

Verse 23: Ma cuant che a rivarin a Mare (but when they arrived at Marah), no poderin bevi l’aghe di Mare (they could not drink the water of Marah) parcè che e jere masse mare (for it was too bitter); par chel i meterin non al lûc Mare* (therefore they put unto the place {the} name Marah). — *The Friulian for bitter is amâr; you find the variant mar here (or rather mare, in feminine form), which has the added advantage of aligning with the name given to the place: Mare, also meaning bitter, from the Hebrew.

Verse 24: Il popul *se cjapà* cun Mosè (the people became angered [took it unto themselves] with Moses) e i diserin (and said to him): e cumò ce bevìno? (and now what do we drink?). — *Cjapâse is a contraction of cjapâ + si + le.

Verse 25: Mosè al berlà viers Diu (Moses cried forth unto God) e Diu i mostrà un toc di len (and God showed him a piece of wood). Mosè lu butà ta l’aghe (Moses cast it into the water) e l’aghe si indolcì (and the water sweetened). Al è li che ur à dât un statût e un dirit (it is there where he gave to them a statute and a law), al è li che ju à metûts a lis provis (it is there where he put them to the proof[s]).

Verse 26: Po al disè (then he said): se tu scoltis la vôs dal Signôr to Diu (if you heed the voice of the Lord your God) e tu fasis ce che al va ben par lui (and do that which is good by him), se tu starâs atent ai siei comandaments (if you are [will be] attentive to his commandments) e tu metarâs in vore ducj i siei ordins (and will enact [put to task] all his orders), ducj i mâi* che +ur ài+ mandât al Egjit (all the ills which I sent to Egypt) a ti no tai¬ mandarai (will I not send to you), parcè che jo o soi il Signôr (for I am the Lord), chel che ti vuarìs (he who heals you). — *Mâi: plural of mâl. +Ur ài: contraction of ur + ju. ¬Tai: contraction of ti + ju.

Verse 27: A rivarin a Elim (they arrived at Elim), là che a son dodis risultivis (where there are twelve springs) e setante palmis (and seventy palms) e li si camparin torator da l’aghe (and there they encamped round about the water). — Review: How to count in Friulian.