Friulian language series: Esodo 15, cjant di vitorie

In the fifteenth chapter of the book of Exodus, the subjects are: il cjant di vitorie (victory song); la marce pal desert (march through the desert).

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Read Esodo 15

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Versets 1-5

Vocabulary: alore (so, then), il fi (son), dâ sù (to exclaim, to intone), il cjant (chant, song), in onôr di (in honour of), cjantâ (to sing), cuvierzisi (to cover oneself), la glorie (glory), strucjâ (to pour, to overturn), il cjaval (horse), il cjavalîr (horseman), il mâr (sea), la fuarce (force, strength, might), puartâle fûr (to prevail), il merit (merit, credit), il pari (father), dî ben di (to praise), potent (powerful), la vuere (war), il non (name), il cjar (chariot), il faraon (pharaoh), la schirie (army, host), strucjâ (to pour, to overturn), il mâr (sea), la sbrume (highness, loftiness), un uficiâl (official), gloti (to swallow), il gorc (vortex), tirâ sot (to pull under, to sink), lâ jù (to go down, to sink), il font (bottom), un abìs (abyss), il clapon (rock, boulder).

Verse 1: Moses and the Israelites sing a victory song. Alore Mosè e i fîs di Israel a derin sù chest cjant in onôr dal Signôr: Moses and the sons of Israel then sang this song (exclaimed this chant) in honour of the Lord. O cjanti pal Signôr che si è cuviert di glorie, che al à strucjât cjaval e cjavalîr tal mâr: I sing for the Lord who has covered himself in glory, who turned over (poured) horse and horseman into the sea. The use of cjavalîr (horseman) is anachronistic given that the Egyptians of the time had no cavalry. Although the Friulian cjavalîr translates as horseman, it should be probably be understood in this context as referring to a chariot rider. (See also verse 19 regarding cjavalarie.) As for the expression cuvierzisi di glorie (to cover oneself in glory), compare it to the one used in verse 21 ahead, similar in meaning: vuluçâsi di glorie (to surround oneself in glory, to wrap oneself in glory).

Verse 2: Il Signôr al è la mê fuarce e il gno cjant (the Lord is my strength and my song); se le ài puartade fûr al è merit so (if he has prevailed, the merit is his). Al è lui il gno Diu e jo lu cjanti (it is he my God and I glorify [sing] him); il Diu di gno pari (the God of my father), e jo o dîs ben di lui (and I praise him [speak well of him]).

Verse 3: Il Signôr al è potent in vuere (the Lord is powerful in war); il so non al è Signôr (his name is Lord).

Verse 4: I cjars dal faraon e dutis lis sôs schiriis lui ju à strucjâts tal mâr: the Pharaoh’s chariots and all his armies he has turned over (poured) into the sea. La sbrume dai siei uficiâi il mâr le à glotude: the loftiness of his officials the sea has swallowed. The feminine sbrume is also the Friulian for foam; for example, la sbrume dal mâr is sea foam.

Verse 5: Il gorc ju à tirâts sot: the vortex pulled them under. A son lâts jù tal font dal abìs tant che un clapon: they sank (went down) to the bottom of the abyss like a rock. The masculine clapon (rock, big stone) is the augmentative form of clap (stone).

Versets 6-10

Vocabulary: la gjestre (right hand; also diestre, drete), fâ robonis (to do wondrous things), la fuarce (force, strength, might), un toc (bit, piece), fâ a tocs (to rip apart, to break into bits), il nemì (enemy, foe), cuant che (when), volê (to want, to mean), fâ viodi (to show), trop (how much), grant (great, large, big), strucjâ (to pour, to overturn), il nemì (enemy, foe), discjadenâ (to unleash), la rabie (anger, fury), parâ jù (to swallow), il stranc (straw), soflâ (to blow), la narile (nostril), la aghe (water), ingrumâsi (to pile up), di fâ pôre (frighteningly so), la onde (wave), petâ sù (to erupt, to burst forth), la murae (wall; also muraie), il mulignel (whirlpool), dâsi dongje (to gather, to come together), il mieç (middle, midst), il mâr (sea), (to say), cori daûr (to pursue), brincâ (to seize, to capture), dividi (to divide), raspâ (to make away with, to spoil), passisi (to sate oneself), avuâl di (level with, up to), il cuel (neck), sfodrâ (to unsheath, to draw), la spade (sword), scjafoiâ (to strangle), la man (hand), la soflade (blow, puff), tirâ sot (to pull under, to sink), lâ sot (to go under, to sink), il plomp (lead), disfâ (to destroy).

Verse 6: La tô diestre, Signôr, e a fat robonis cu la so fuarce: your right hand, O Lord, has done wondrous things with its might. The right hand can be referred to as la (man) gjestre, la (man) diestre or la (man) drete; the left hand is la (man) çampe. La tô gjestre, Signôr, e fâs a tocs il nemì: your right hand, O Lord, shatters the foe. The masculine toc means bit, piece; fâ a tocs can be understood a number of different ways, such as: to shatter, to send into bits, to reduce to bits, to rip apart, to shred into pieces.

Verse 7: Cuant che tu vûs fâ viodi trop grant che tu sês: when you mean to show (make see) how great that you are. Tu strucjis i tiei nemîs: you overturn your enemies. Tu discjadenis la tô rabie: you unleash your fury; the verb discjadenâ is related to the feminine cjadene, meaning chain. Tu ju paris jù come il stranc: you devour them [swallow them (drive them down)] like straw. Quite literally, parâ jù translates as to drive down, to send down; it is used in the sense of to swallow.

Verse 8: Cuant che tu soflis cu lis tôs narilis (when you blow out with your nostrils), lis aghis si ingrumin di fâ pôre (the waters pile up frighteningly so), lis ondis a petin sù come une murae (the waves burst forth like a wall), i mulignei si dan dongje tal mieç dal mâr (the whirlpools gather in the midst of the sea).

Verse 9: Il nemì al veve dit (the foe had said): ur corarai daûr (I shall pursue them), ju brincarai (I shall capture them), o dividarai dut ce che o rasparai (I shall divide all that I spoil [will spoil]), mi passarai avuâl dal cuel (I shall sate myself up to the neck), o sfodrarai la mê spade (I shall draw my sword) e ju scjafoiarai cu lis mês mans (and I shall strangle them with my hands). Avuâl means same, equal, level, uniform; for example, ciertis robis a son simpri avuâls means some things are always the same. Avuâl di can be taken as meaning equal to, level to, uniform with; avuâl dal cuel, then, means up to the neck (level with the neck).

Verse 10: Tu âs dade une soflade (you have blown your breath [given a blow]) e il mâr ju à tirâts sot (and the sea pulled them under), a son lâts sot come il plomp (they sank [went under] like lead) e lis aghis ju àn disfats (and the waters destroyed them).

Versets 11-18

Vocabulary: un diu (god), (where), cjatâsi (to be found), compagn (identical), grant (great), la santitât (holiness), trement (formidable, awesome), metisi (to undertake, to operate), un spieli (wonder, marvel), slungjâ (to extend), la gjestre (right hand), la tiere (earth), gloti (to swallow), il boncûr (mercy, grace), indreçâ (to lead, to guide), il popul (people), sfrancjâ (to liberate, to redeem), la fuarce (force, strength, might), menâ (to lead, to bring), sant (holy), la cjase (house), sintî (to hear), voltâsi (to turn about), il sanc (blood), stâ mâl (to be unwell), murî (to die), il sorestant (chief), pierdi (to lose), il cjâf (head), il spac (terror, fear), il princip (prince), la pôre (fear), cjonçâ (to cut off; also çoncjâ), la gjambe (leg), restâ (to be dismayed), il terôr (terror), la pôre (fear), plombâ intor (to descend upon), il braç (arm), lassâ (to leave), il clap (stone), fin che (until), passâ (to pass, to cross), cuistâ (to acquire, to purchase), sistemâ (to set, to plant), la mont (mountain, mount), la ereditât (inheritance), il lûc (site, place), jessi a stâ (to dwell), il santuari (sanctuary), preparâ (to prepare), la man (hand), regnâ (to reign), par simpri e in eterni (for ever and ever).

Verse 11: Di ducj i dius, là si cjatial un compagn di te, Signôr?: of all the gods, where is one like you found, O Lord? Là esal un come te, grant par santitât, trement cuant che si met, bon di fâ spiei?: where is one like you, great in holiness, awesome when he undertakes, capable of working wonders?

Verse 12: Tu âs slungjade la tô gjestre e la tiere ju à glotûts: you stretched out your right hand and the earth swallowed them.

Verse 13: Al è stât il to boncûr a indreçâ chest popul (it was your mercy that guided this people) che tu âs sfrancjât (whom you redeeemed), la tô fuarce lu à menât te tô sante cjase (your strength led them into your holy abode [holy house]). Because popul is a masculine singular noun, it is substituted by lu in la tô fuarce lu à menât (literally, your strength led it).

Verse 14: I popui a àn sintût (the people have heard), si voltin di sanc (they take fright), chei de Filistee (those of Philistia) a stan mâl di murî (have pangs of death).

Verse 15: I sorestants di Edom a pierdin il cjâf cul spac (the chiefs of Edom are troubled [lose their head] with terror), ai princips di Moab la pôre ur cjonce lis gjambis (fear incapacitates the princes of Moab [unto the princes of Moab fear cuts off the legs]), ducj chei di Canaan a restin (and those of Canaan are dismayed).

Verse 16: Il terôr e la pôre ur plombe intor (terror and fear descend upon them [roundabout them]); la fuarce dal to braç ju lasse di clap (the strength of your arm renders them stone [leaves them as stone]), fin che nol passe il to popul, Signôr (until your people cross over, O Lord), fin che nol passe chest popul che tu tu âs cuistât (until this people, whom you have purchased, crosses over). Because God has redeemed the enslaved Israelites, he has “purchased” them.

Verse 17: Tu ju menarâs tu e tu ju sistemarâs su la mont de tô ereditât (you will bring them and plant them in the mountain of your inheritance), tal lûc che tu, Signôr, tu sês a stâ (in the place where you dwell, O Lord), tal santuari, Signôr (in the sanctuary, O Lord), che a àn preparât lis tôs mans (which your hands have built [prepared]).

Verse 18: Il Signôr al regnarà par simpri e in eterni: the Lord shall reign for ever and ever.

Versets 19-21

Vocabulary: e di fat (and indeed), la cjavalarie (cavalry), il faraon (pharaoh), il cjar (chariot), il cjavalîr (horseman), no… dibot nancje (hardly even), jentrâ (to go in, to enter), il mâr (sea), fâ tornâ indaûr (to make turn back), la aghe (water), parsore di (upon), a la cuâl che (whereas), un israelit (Israelite), lâ indenant (to march [go] on), il mieç (middle, midst), cence (without), bagnâsi i pîts (to get one’s feet wet), la profetesse (prophetess), la sûr (sister), cjapâ in man (to pick up, to take in hand), il tamburel (timbrel, tambourine), la femine (woman), lâ daûr (to follow), cjantâ (to sing), balâ (to dance), dâ sù (to exclaim, to intone), vuluçâsi (to wrap oneself up; also voluçâsi), la glorie (glory), strucjâ (to pour, to overturn).

Verse 19: E di fat (and indeed), la cjavalarie dal faraon (the cavalry of the Pharaoh) cui siei cjars (with his chariots) e i siei cjavalîrs (and his horsemen) no jere dibot nancje jentrade tal mâr (had hardly even gone into the sea), che il Signôr al veve fat tornâ indaûr (that the Lord had made turn back) lis aghis dal mâr (the waters of the sea) parsore di lôr (upon them), a la cuâl che i israelits a jerin lâts indenant (whereas the Israelites marched [went] on) tal mieç dal mâr (in the midst of the sea) cence nancje bagnâsi i pîts (without even wetting their feet [without even wetting unto them the feet]). For clarity: and indeed, no sooner had the cavalry of the Pharaoh, with his chariots and horsemen, gone into the sea than the Lord turned back upon them the waters of the sea; as for the Israelites, they marched on without even wetting their feet. Given that the Egyptians had no cavalry at the time, the use of cjavalarie (cavalry) is anachronistic. (See also the note at verse 1 regarding the use of cjavalîr.) In this context, cjavalarie should probably be understood as meaning chariot-force. I have nonetheless translated it as cavalry because this is the meaning of the Friulian cjavalarie.

Verse 20: Miriam, la profetesse, sûr di Aron (Miriam the prophetess, sister of Aaron), e cjapà in man un tamburel (took a timbrel in her hand) e dutis lis feminis, i lerin daûrij cui tamburei (and all the women followed her with timbrels), cjantant e balant (singing and dancing).

Verse 21: E Miriam e dè sù par lôr: and Miriam exclaimed for them. Cjantait pal Signôr si è vuluçât di glorie: al à strucjât tal mâr cjaval e cjavalîr: sing for the Lord who has surrounded (wrapped) himself in glory: he has turned over horse and horseman into the sea.

Versets 22-27

Vocabulary: (ti give), un ordin (order, instruction), partî (to leave, to depart), il mâr (sea), la cjanusse (reed), inviâsi de bande di (to head towards), il desert (desert), cjaminâ (to walk), trê (three), il dì (day), cjatâ (to find), la gote (drop), la aghe (water), rivâ (to arrive, to come), podê (can, to be able), bevi (to drink), masse (too, excessively), amâr (bitter), par chel (hence), meti non (to name), il lûc (place, site), il popul (people), cjapâse (to get upset, to become angered), (to say), cumò (now), berlâ viers (to call out to), mostrâ (to show, to indicate), un toc di (a piece of, a bit of), il len (wood), butâ (to throw, to cast), indolcîsi (to become sweet), al è li che (it is there that), il statût (statute), il dirit (law, ordinance), la prove (test, trial), meti a lis provis (to put to the test), scoltâ (to listen, to heed), la vôs (voice), lâ ben (to be good, to be right), atent (attentive), stâ atent (to pay heed, to pay attention), il comandament (commandment), meti in vore (to put into practice, to enact), il mâl (ill, harm), mandâ (to send), vuarî (to heal, to cure), rivâ (to arrive), dodis (twelve), la risultive (spring, fountain), setante (seventy), la palme (palm tree), campâsi (to encamp, to set up camp), torator di (roundabout).

Verse 22: Mosè al dè a Israel l’ordin di partî dal mâr des Cjanussis: Moses instructed Israel (gave Israel the order) to depart from the sea of Reeds; the sea of Reeds is identified with the Red Sea. Si inviarin de bande dal desert di Sur: they headed towards the desert of Shur. A cjaminarin trê dîs tal desert cence cjatâ une gote di aghe: they walked for three days without finding a drop of water.

Verse 23: Ma cuant che a rivarin a Mare (but when they came to Marah), no poderin bevi l’aghe di Mare (they could not drink the water of Marah) parcè che e jere masse mare (because it was too bitter); par chel i meterin non al lûc Mare (hence the place was named Marah [for that (reason) they put (the) name Marah unto the place]). The Friulian for bitter is amâr; you find the variant mar here (rather, you find mare, in feminine form), which has the advantage of aligning with the name given to the place: Mare, also meaning bitter (from the Hebrew).

Verse 24: Il popul se cjapà cun Mosè: the people got upset with Moses. Cjapâse is a contraction of cjapâ + si + le. The Israelites say: e cumò ce bevìno? (and what now shall we drink?, and what are we supposed to drink now?).

Verse 25: Mosè al berlà viers Diu: Moses called out to the Lord. Diu i mostrà un toc di len: God pointed out (showed) to him a piece of wood. Mosè lu butà ta l’aghe e l’aghe si indolcì: Moses cast it into the water and the water became sweet. The Friulian for sweet is dolç; from this comes the verb indolcî, meaning to sweeten. The reflexive indolcîsi means to become sweet. Al è li che ur à dât un statût e un dirit: it is there that he gave them a statute and an ordinance. Al è li che ju à metûts a lis provis: it is there that he put them to the test.

Verse 26: Po al disè: then he said. The Lord says: se tu scoltis la vôs dal Signôr to Diu (if you heed the voice of the Lord your God) e tu fasis ce che al va ben par lui (and do what is right by him), se tu starâs atent ai siei comandaments (if you are mindful of [will be attentive to] his commandments) e tu metarâs in vore ducj i siei ordins (and enact [will put into practice (work)] all his injunctions), ducj i mâi che ur ài mandât al Egjit (all the ills that I brought upon Egypt [sent to Egypt]) a ti no tai mandarai (I shall not bring them upon you [send them to you]), parcè che jo o soi il Signôr (for I am the Lord), chel che ti vuarìs (he who heals you). Mâi is the plural of mâl. No tai mandarai = no ti + ju mandarai. Note the form taken by the third-person singular of the presint indicatîf of the verb vuarî (to heal, to cure), which is al vuarìs.

Verse 27: A rivarin a Elim (they came to Elim), là che a son dodis risultivis (where there are twelve springs) e setante palmis (and seventy palms) e li si camparin torator da l’aghe (and there they encamped roundabout the water). Review: How to count in Friulian.