Exodus 15 in Friulian

The fifteenth chapter of the book of Exodus is the victory song of the Israelites: cjant di vitorie (song of victory). Also from the subject headings: la marce pal desert (the march through the desert); Mare (Marah).

The first-time visitor to this site ought to begin his study of the Friulian language here.

Read Esodo 15

To read the Friulian text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Bibie par un popul and consult Esodo 15. An archived version of the text is found here.

Versets 1-5

Vocabulary: alore (then), il fi (son), dâ sù (to exclaim), il cjant (song), un onôr (honour), cjantâ (to sing), cuviergisi (to cover oneself), la glorie (glory), strucjâ (to pour), il cjaval (horse), il cjavalîr (horseman), il mâr (sea), la fuarce (might), puartâle fûr (to bear it forth), il merit (merit), il pari (father), (to say), potent (potent), la vuere (war), il non (name), il cjar (car), il faraon (pharaoh), dut (all), la schirie (array), la sbrume (foam), un uficiâl (official), gloti (to swallow), il gorc (vortex), tirâ sot (to draw under), lâ jù (to go down), il font (bottom), un abìs (abyss), il clapon (rock).

Verse 1: Alore Mosè e i fîs di Israel a derin sù chest cjant (then Moses and the sons of Israel exclaimed this song) in onôr dal Signôr (in honour of the Lord): o cjanti pal Signôr (I sing for the Lord) che si è cuviert di glorie (who hath covered himself in glory), che al à strucjât cjaval e cjavalîr tal mâr (who hath poured horse and horseman into the sea).

Verse 2: Il Signôr al è la mê fuarce e il gno cjant (the Lord is my might and my song); se le ài puartade fûr (if I have borne it forth), al è merit so (it is his merit). Al è lui il gno Diu e jo lu cjanti (it is he my God and I sing him); il Diu di gno pari (the God of my father), e jo o dîs ben di lui (and I say well of him).

Verse 3: Il Signôr al è potent in vuere (the Lord is potent in war); il so non al è Signôr (his name is Lord).

Verse 4: I cjars dal faraon e dutis lis sôs schiriis (the pharaoh’s cars and all his arrays) lui ju à strucjâts tal mâr (hath he poured into the sea). La sbrume dai siei uficiâi (the cream* of his officials) il mâr le à glotude (hath the sea swallowed). — *Sbrume literally means foam; for instance, la sbrume dal mâr is the Friulian for sea foam. This noun may be employed figuratively, as it has been in this verse, to identify a group of most select men. The rendering ‘the cream of his officials’ is to be understood in the sense of ‘the most select men from amongst his officials’.

Verse 5: Il gorc ju à tirâts sot (the vortex hath drawn them under), a son lâts jù tal font dal abìs (they are gone down into the bottom of the abyss) tant che un clapon (like a rock).

Versets 6-10

Vocabulary: la gjestre (right hand), la robone (wonder), la fuarce (might), il toc (piece), il nemì (enemy), cuant che (when), volê (to will), viodi (to see), trop (how {much}), grant (great), strucjâ (to pour), discjadenâ (to unchain), la rabie (anger), parâ jù (to drive down), il stranc (straw), soflâ (to blow), la narile (nostril), la aghe (water), ingrumâsi (to gather oneself), la pôre (fear), la onde (wave), petâ sù (to strike forth upwards), la murae (wall), il mulignel (whirlpool), dâsi dongje (to draw oneself together), il mieç (middle), il mâr (sea), (to say), cori daûr (to run behind), brincâ (to overtake), dividi (to divide), raspâ (to despoil), passisi (to sate oneself), avuâl di (up unto), il cuel (neck), sfodrâ (to unsheath), la spade (sword), scjafoiâ (to choke), la man (hand), (to give), la soflade (breath), tirâ sot (to draw under), lâ sot (to go under), il plomp (lead), disfâ (to undo).

Verse 6: La tô gjestre,Signôr (thy right hand, O Lord), e à fat robonis cu la sô fuarce (hath done wonders with its might), la tô gjestre, Signôr (thy right hand, O Lord), e fâs a tocs il nemì (doeth unto pieces the enemy). — *The right hand may be referred to as la gjestre, la diestre or la drete. These may also be expressed with the inclusion of man (hand), as in: la man gjestre, la man diestre, la man drete. The left hand is la çampe, or la man çampe.

Verse 7: Cuant che tu vûs fâ viodi (when thou wilt make see) trop grant che tu sês (how great thou art), tu strucjis i tiei nemîs (thou pourest thine enemies), tu discjadenis la tô rabie (thou unchainest thine anger) e tu ju paris jù come il stranc (and thou *drivest them down* like straw). — *as in devourest them

Verse 8: Cuant che tu soflis cu lis tôs narilis (when thou blowest with thy nostrils), lis aghis si ingrumin di fâ pôre (the waters gather themselves fearsomely), lis ondis a petin sù come une murae (the waves strike forth upwards like a wall), i mulignei si dan dongje tal mieç dal mâr (the whirlpools drew themselves together in the middle of the sea).

Verse 9: Il nemì al veve dit (the enemy had said): ur corarai daûr (I shall *run behind* them), ju brincarai (I shall overtake them), o dividarai dut ce che o rasparai (I shall divide all that which I shall despoil), mi passarai avuâl dal cuel (I shall sate myself up unto the neck), o sfodrarai la mê spade (I shall unsheath my sword) e ju scjafoiarai cu lis mês mans (and I shall choke them with my hands). — *see note at Esodo 14:4

Verse 10: Tu âs dade une soflade (thou hast given a breath) e il mâr ju à tirâts sot (and the sea hath drawn them under), a son lâts sot come il plomp (they are gone under like lead) e lis aghis ju àn disfats (and the waters have undone them).

Versets 11-18

Vocabulary: un diu (god), (where), cjatâsi (to be found), compagn di (like), grant (great), la santitât (holiness), trement (awesome), metisi (to put oneself), jessi bon di (to be capable of), il spieli (marvel), slungjâ (to extend), la gjestre (right hand), la tiere (earth), gloti (to swallow), il boncûr (compassion), indreçâ (to guide), il popul (people), sfrancjâ (to redeem), la fuarce (might), menâ (to lead), sant (holy), la cjase (house), sintî (to hear), voltâ (to turn), il sanc (blood), la Filistee (Philistia), stâ mâl (to be ill), murî (to die), il sorestant (chief), pierdi (to lose), il cjâf (head), il spac (fright), il princip (prince), la pôre (fear), cjonçâ (to cut off), la gjambe (leg), restâ (to be dismayed), il terôr (terror), plombâ (to plummet down), intor (about), il braç (arm), lassâ (to leave), il clap (stone), fin che (until), passâ (to pass {by}), cuistâ (to purchase), sistemâ (to install), la mont (mountain), la ereditât (inheritance), il lûc (place), jessi a stâ (to dwell), il santuari (sanctuary), preparâ (to prepare), la man (hand), regnâ (to reign), par simpri (for ever), in eterni (for all time).

Verse 11: Di ducj i dius (of all the gods), là si cjatial un compagn di te, Signôr? (where is one like thee found, O Lord?). Là esal un come te (where is one like thee), grant par santitât (great for holiness), trement cuant che si met (*awesome when he undertaketh*), bon di fâ spiei? (capable of making marvels?). — *literally, awesome when he putteth himself

Verse 12: Tu âs slungjade la tô gjestre (thou hast extended thy right hand) e la tiere ju à glotûts (and the earth hath swallowed them).

Verse 13: Al è stât il to boncûr a indreçâ chest popul (it was thy compassion which hath guided this people) che tu âs sfrancjât (whom thou hast redeemed), la tô fuarce lu* à menât (thy might hath led them) te tô sante cjase (into thy holy house). — *put for the masculine singular popul

Verse 14: I popui a àn sintût (the peoples have heard), si voltin di sanc (their blood turneth), chei de Filistee (those of Philistia) a stan mâl di murî (are ill as to die).

Verse 15: I sorestants di Edom a pierdin il cjâf cul spac (the chiefs of Edom lose their head with fright), ai princips di Moab la pôre ur cjonce lis gjambis (unto the princes of Moab fear cutteth off the legs), ducj chei di Canaan a restin (all those of Canaan are dismayed).

Verse 16: Il terôr e la pôre ur plombe intor (terror and fear plummet down about them); la fuarce dal to braç ju lasse di clap (the might of thine arm leaveth them stone), fin che nol passe il to popul, Signôr (until thy people pass by, O Lord), fin che nol passe chest popul che tu tu âs cuistât (until this people whom thou hast purchased pass by).

Verse 17: Tu ju menarâs tu (thou thyself wilt lead them) e tu ju sistemarâs su la mont de tô ereditât (and wilt install them on the mountain of thine inheritance), tal lûc che tu, Signôr, tu sês a stâ (in the place where thou, O Lord, dwellest), tal santuari, Signôr (in the sanctuary, O Lord), che a àn preparât lis tôs mans (which thy hands have prepared).

Verse 18: Il Signôr al regnarà (the Lord will reign) par simpri e in eterni (for ever and for all time).

Versets 19-21

Vocabulary: di fat (in fact), la cjavalarie (cavalry), il faraon (pharaoh), il cjar (car), il cjavalîr (horseman), no… dibot nancje (scarcely even), jentrâ (to enter), il mâr (sea), tornâ indaûr (to turn back), la aghe (water), parsore di (over), a la cuâl che (whereas), un israelit (Israelite), lâ indenant (to go forwards), il mieç (middle), cence (without), bagnâ (to wet), il pît (foot), la profetesse (prophetess), la sûr (sister), cjapâ in man (to take into hand), il tamburel (tambourine), dut (all), la femine (woman), lâ daûr (to go behind), cjantâ (to sing), balâ (to dance), dâ sù (to exclaim), vuluçâsi (to wrap oneself up), la glorie (glory), strucjâ (to pour), il cjaval (horse).

Verse 19: E di fat (and in fact), la cjavalarie dal faraon (the cavalry of the pharaoh) cui siei cjars (with his cars) e i siei cjavalîrs (and his horsemen) no jere dibot nancje jentrade tal mâr (was scarcely even entered into the sea), che il Signôr al veve fat tornâ indaûr (when the Lord had made turn back) lis aghis dal mâr parsore di lôr (the waters of the sea over them), a la cuâl che i israelits a jerin lâts indenant (whereas the Israelites were gone forwards) tal mieç dal mâr (into the middle of the sea) cence nancje bagnâsi i pîts (without even wetting their feet).

Verse 20: Miriam, la profetesse, sûr di Aron (Miriam the prophetess sister of Aaron), e cjapà in man un tamburel (took into hand a tambourine) e dutis lis feminis, i lerin daûrij cui tamburei (and all the women went behind her with tambourines), cjantant e balant (in singing and in dancing).

Verse 21: E Miriam e dè sù par lôr (and Miriam exclaimed for them): cjantait pal Signôr (sing for the Lord), si è vuluçât di glorie (he hath wrapped himself in glory): al à strucjât tal mâr cjaval e cjavalîr (*he hath poured horse and horseman into the sea*). — *I have changed the word order slightly here to avoid an awkward rendering. The Friulian employs this order: he hath poured into the sea horse and horseman; however, this does not read well in English, for it creates the wording ‘sea horse’.

Versets 22-27

Vocabulary: (to give), un ordin (order), partî (to depart), il mâr (sea), la cjanusse (reed), inviâsi (to send oneself off), la bande (side), il desert (desert), cjaminâ (to walk), trê (three), il dì (day), cence (without), cjatâ (to find), la gote (drop), la aghe (water), rivâ (to arrive), podê (can), bevi (to drink), masse (too), mâr (bitter), par chel (therefore), meti (to put), il non (name), il lûc (place), il popul (people), cjapâse (to take it unto oneself), (to say), cumò (now), berlâ (to cry forth), viers (unto), mostrâ (to show), il toc (piece), il len (wood), butâ (to cast), indolcîsi (to sweeten oneself), al è li che (it is there where), il statût (statute), il dirit (body of law), la prove (proof), scoltâ (to hearken), la vôs (voice), lâ ben (to be good), stâ (to dwell), atent (attentive), il comandament (commandment), meti in vore (to put unto task), il mâl (ill), mandâ (to send), vuarî (to heal), rivâ (to arrive), dodis (twelve), la risultive (spring), setante (seventy), la palme (palm tree), campâsi (to encamp), torator di (round about).

Verse 22: Mosè al dè a Israel l’ordin (Moses gave Israel the order) di partî dal mâr des Cjanussis (to depart from the Sea of Reeds). Si inviarin de bande dal desert di Sur (they sent themselves off towards the desert of Shur) e a cjaminarin trê dîs tal desert (and walked three days in the desert) cence cjatâ une gote di aghe (without finding a drop of water).

Verse 23: Ma cuant che a rivarin a Mare (but when they arrived at Marah), no poderin bevi l’aghe di Mare (they could not drink the water of Marah) parcè che e jere masse mare (for it was too bitter); par chel i meterin non al lûc Mare* (therefore they put unto the place the name Marah). — *The standard Friulian for bitter is amâr; found in the text of this verse is the variant mâr – or rather mare, in feminine form. The variant mare has the admirable advantage of aligning with the name given to the place: Mare, also meaning bitter, from the Hebrew.

Verse 24: Il popul *se cjapà* cun Mosè (the people took it unto themselves with Moses) e i diserin (and said unto him): e cumò ce bevìno? (and now what drink we?). — *Cjapâse is the contraction of cjapâ + si + le. To ‘take it unto oneself’ is a Friulian manner of identifying one’s becoming angered.

Verse 25: Mosè al berlà viers Diu (Moses cried forth unto God) e Diu i mostrà un toc di len (and God showed him a piece of wood). Mosè lu butà ta l’aghe (Moses cast it into the water) e l’aghe si indolcì (and the water sweetened itself). Al è li che ur à dât un statût e un dirit (it is there where he gave them a statute and a body of law), al è li che ju à metûts a lis provis (it is there where he put them unto the proof*). — *literally, proofs

Verse 26: Po al disè (then he said): se tu scoltis la vôs dal Signôr to Diu (if thou hearken unto the voice of the Lord thy God) e tu fasis ce che al va ben par lui (and do that which is good by him), se tu starâs atent ai siei comandaments (if thou will dwell attentive unto his commandments) e tu metarâs in vore ducj i siei ordins (and will put unto task all his orders), ducj i mâi* che ur ài mandât al Egjit (all the ills which I have sent unto Egypt) a ti no tai+ mandarai (shall I not send unto thee), parcè che jo o soi il Signôr (for I am the Lord), chel che ti vuarìs (that who healeth thee). — *Mâi is the plural of the masculine noun mâl (ill). +Tai is the contraction of ti + ju (unto thee + them).

Verse 27: A rivarin a Elim (they arrived at Elim), là che a son dodis risultivis (where there are twelve springs) e setante palmis (and seventy palm trees) e li si camparin torator da l’aghe (and there did they encamp round about the water). — Review: How to count in Friulian.