Friulian language series: Esodo 15, cjant di vitorie

The fifteenth chapter of the book of Exodus is the victory song of the Israelites: cjant di vitorie (song of victory). Also from the subject headings: la marce pal desert (the march through the desert); Mare (Marah).

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Read Esodo 15

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Versets 1-5

Vocabulary: alore (then), il fi (son), dâ sù (to exclaim), il cjant (song), un onôr (honour), cjantâ (to sing), cuviergisi (to cover oneself), la glorie (glory), strucjâ (to pour), il cjaval (horse), il cjavalîr (horseman), il mâr (sea), la fuarce (might), puartâle fûr (to bear it forth), il merit (merit), il pari (father), (to say), potent (potent), la vuere (war), il non (name), il cjar (car), il faraon (pharaoh), dut (all), la schirie (array), la sbrume (foam), un uficiâl (official), gloti (to swallow), il gorc (vortex), tirâ sot (to draw under), lâ jù (to go down), il font (bottom), un abìs (abyss), il clapon (rock).

Verse 1: Alore Mosè e i fîs di Israel a derin sù chest cjant (then Moses and the sons of Israel exclaimed this song) in onôr dal Signôr (in honour of the Lord): o cjanti pal Signôr (I sing for the Lord) che si è cuviert di glorie (who has covered himself in glory), che al à strucjât cjaval e cjavalîr tal mâr (who has poured horse and horseman into the sea).

Verse 2: Il Signôr al è la mê fuarce e il gno cjant (the Lord is my might and my song); se le ài puartade fûr (if I have borne it forth), al è merit so (it is his merit). Al è lui il gno Diu e jo lu cjanti (it is he my God and I sing him); il Diu di gno pari (the God of my father), e jo o dîs ben di lui (and I say well of him).

Verse 3: Il Signôr al è potent in vuere (the Lord is potent in war); il so non al è Signôr (his name is Lord).

Verse 4: I cjars dal faraon e dutis lis sôs schiriis (the pharaoh’s cars and all his arrays) lui ju à strucjâts tal mâr (has he poured into the sea). La sbrume* dai siei uficiâi (the cream [foam] of his officials) il mâr le à glotude (has the sea swallowed). — *Sbrume literally means foam; for instance, la sbrume dal mâr is the Friulian for sea foam. This noun may be employed figuratively, as it has been in this verse, to identify a group of most select men. The rendering ‘the cream of his officials’ is to be understood in the sense of ‘the most select men from amongst his officials’.

Verse 5: Il gorc ju à tirâts sot (the vortex has drawn them under), a son lâts jù tal font dal abìs (they have gone down into the bottom of the abyss) tant che un clapon (like a rock).

Versets 6-10

Vocabulary: la gjestre (right hand), la robone (wonder), la fuarce (might), il toc (piece), il nemì (enemy), cuant che (when), volê (to will), viodi (to see), trop (how {much}), grant (great), strucjâ (to pour), discjadenâ (to unchain), la rabie (anger), parâ jù (to drive down), il stranc (straw), soflâ (to blow), la narile (nostril), la aghe (water), ingrumâsi (to gather oneself), la pôre (fear), la onde (wave), petâ sù (to strike forth upwards), la murae (wall), il mulignel (whirlpool), dâsi dongje (to give oneself alongside), il mieç (middle), il mâr (sea), (to say), cori daûr (to run behind), brincâ (to overtake), dividi (to divide), raspâ (to despoil), passisi (to sate oneself), avuâl di (up to), il cuel (neck), sfodrâ (to unsheath), la spade (sword), scjafoiâ (to choke), la man (hand), (to give), la soflade (breath), tirâ sot (to draw under), lâ sot (to go under), il plomp (lead), disfâ (to undo).

Verse 6: La tô gjestre*, Signôr (your right hand, O Lord), e à fat robonis cu la sô fuarce (has done wonders with its might), la tô gjestre, Signôr (your right hand, O Lord), e fâs a tocs il nemì (does to pieces the enemy). — *The right hand may be referred to as la gjestre, la diestre or la drete. These may also be expressed with the inclusion of man (hand), as in: la man gjestre, la man diestre, la man drete. The left hand is la çampe, or la man çampe.

Verse 7: Cuant che tu vûs fâ viodi (when you will make see) trop grant che tu sês (how great you are), tu strucjis i tiei nemîs (you pour your enemies), tu discjadenis la tô rabie (you unchain your anger) e tu ju paris jù come il stranc (and you *drive them down* like straw). — *as in devour them

Verse 8: Cuant che tu soflis cu lis tôs narilis (when you blow with your nostrils), lis aghis si ingrumin di fâ pôre (the waters gather themselves fearsomely), lis ondis a petin sù come une murae (the waves strike forth upwards like a wall), i mulignei si dan dongje tal mieç dal mâr (the whirlpools draw together [give themselves alongside] in the middle of the sea).

Verse 9: Il nemì al veve dit (the enemy had said): ur corarai daûr (I will *run behind* them), ju brincarai (I will overtake them), o dividarai dut ce che o rasparai (I will divide all that which I despoil [will despoil]), mi passarai avuâl dal cuel (I will sate myself up to the neck), o sfodrarai la mê spade (I will unsheath my sword) e ju scjafoiarai cu lis mês mans (and I will choke them with my hands). — *See the note at Esodo 14:4.

Verse 10: Tu âs dade une soflade (you have given a breath) e il mâr ju à tirâts sot (and the sea has drawn them under), a son lâts sot come il plomp (they have gone under like lead) e lis aghis ju àn disfats (and the waters have undone them).

Versets 11-18

Vocabulary: un diu (god), (where), cjatâsi (to be found), compagn di (like), grant (great), la santitât (holiness), trement (awesome), metisi (to put oneself), jessi bon di (to be capable of), il spieli (marvel), slungjâ (to extend), la gjestre (right hand), la tiere (earth), gloti (to swallow), il boncûr (compassion), indreçâ (to guide), il popul (people), sfrancjâ (to redeem), la fuarce (might), menâ (to lead), sant (holy), la cjase (house), sintî (to hear), voltâ (to turn), il sanc (blood), la Filistee (Philistia), stâ mâl (to be ill), murî (to die), il sorestant (chief), pierdi (to lose), il cjâf (head), il spac (fright), il princip (prince), la pôre (fear), cjonçâ (to cut off), la gjambe (leg), restâ (to be dismayed), il terôr (terror), plombâ (to plummet down), intor (about), il braç (arm), lassâ (to leave), il clap (stone), fin che (until), passâ (to pass {by}), cuistâ (to purchase), sistemâ (to install), la mont (mountain), la ereditât (inheritance), il lûc (place), jessi a stâ (to dwell), il santuari (sanctuary), preparâ (to prepare), la man (hand), regnâ (to reign), par simpri (for ever), in eterni (for all time).

Verse 11: Di ducj i dius (of all the gods), là si cjatial un compagn di te, Signôr? (where is one like you found, O Lord?). Là esal un come te (where is one like you), grant par santitât (great for holiness), trement cuant che si met (awesome when he undertakes [puts himself]), bon di fâ spiei? (capable of doing marvels?).

Verse 12: Tu âs slungjade la tô gjestre (you have extended your right hand) e la tiere ju à glotûts (and the earth has swallowed them).

Verse 13: Al è stât il to boncûr a indreçâ chest popul (it was your compassion which has guided this people) che tu âs sfrancjât (whom you have redeemed), la tô fuarce lu* à menât (your might has led them) te tô sante cjase (into your holy house). — *Put for the masculine singular popul.

Verse 14: I popui a àn sintût (the peoples have heard), si voltin di sanc (their blood is turned), chei de Filistee (those of Philistia) a stan mâl di murî (are ill as to die).

Verse 15: I sorestants di Edom a pierdin il cjâf cul spac (the chiefs of Edom lose their head with fright), ai princips di Moab la pôre ur cjonce lis gjambis (unto the princes of Moab does fear cut off the legs), ducj chei di Canaan a restin (all those of Canaan are dismayed).

Verse 16: Il terôr e la pôre ur plombe intor (terror and fear plummet down about them); la fuarce dal to braç ju lasse di clap (the might of your arm leaves them stone), fin che nol passe il to popul, Signôr (until your people passes by, O Lord), fin che nol passe chest popul che tu tu âs cuistât (until this people whom you have purchased passes by).

Verse 17: Tu ju menarâs tu (you yourself will lead them) e tu ju sistemarâs su la mont de tô ereditât (and will install them on the mountain of your inheritance), tal lûc che tu, Signôr, tu sês a stâ (in the place where you, O Lord, dwell), tal santuari, Signôr (in the sanctuary, O Lord), che a àn preparât lis tôs mans (which your hands have prepared).

Verse 18: Il Signôr al regnarà (the Lord will reign) par simpri e in eterni (for ever and for all time).

Versets 19-21

Vocabulary: di fat (in fact), la cjavalarie (cavalry), il faraon (pharaoh), il cjar (car), il cjavalîr (horseman), no… dibot nancje (scarcely even), jentrâ (to enter), il mâr (sea), tornâ indaûr (to turn back), la aghe (water), parsore di (over), a la cuâl che (whereas), un israelit (Israelite), lâ indenant (to go forwards), il mieç (middle), cence (without), bagnâ (to wet), il pît (foot), la profetesse (prophetess), la sûr (sister), cjapâ in man (to take into hand), il tamburel (tambourine), dut (all), la femine (woman), lâ daûr (to go behind), cjantâ (to sing), balâ (to dance), dâ sù (to exclaim), vuluçâsi (to wrap oneself up), la glorie (glory), strucjâ (to pour), il cjaval (horse).

Verse 19: E di fat (and in fact), la cjavalarie dal faraon (the cavalry of the pharaoh) cui siei cjars (with his cars) e i siei cjavalîrs (and his horsemen) no jere dibot nancje jentrade tal mâr (was scarcely even entered into the sea), che il Signôr al veve fat tornâ indaûr (when the Lord had made turn back) lis aghis dal mâr parsore di lôr (the waters of the sea over them), a la cuâl che i israelits a jerin lâts indenant (whereas the Israelites had gone forwards) tal mieç dal mâr (into the middle of the sea) cence nancje bagnâsi i pîts (without even wetting their feet).

Verse 20: Miriam, la profetesse, sûr di Aron (Miriam the prophetess sister of Aaron), e cjapà in man un tamburel (took into hand a tambourine) e dutis lis feminis, i lerin daûrij cui tamburei (and all the women went behind her with tambourines), cjantant e balant (in singing and in dancing).

Verse 21: E Miriam e dè sù par lôr (and Miriam exclaimed for them): cjantait pal Signôr (sing for the Lord), si è vuluçât di glorie (he has wrapped himself in glory): al à strucjât tal mâr cjaval e cjavalîr (he has poured into the sea horse and horseman).

Versets 22-27

Vocabulary: (to give), un ordin (order), partî (to depart), il mâr (sea), la cjanusse (reed), inviâsi (to send oneself {off}), la bande (side), il desert (desert), cjaminâ (to walk), trê (three), il dì (day), cence (without), cjatâ (to find), la gote (drop), la aghe (water), rivâ (to arrive), podê (can), bevi (to drink), masse (too), mâr (bitter), par chel (therefore), meti (to put), il non (name), il lûc (place), il popul (people), cjapâse (to take it unto oneself), (to say), cumò (now), berlâ (to cry forth), viers (unto), mostrâ (to show), il toc (piece), il len (wood), butâ (to cast), indolcîsi (to sweeten oneself), al è li che (it is there where), il statût (statute), il dirit (body of law), la prove (proof), scoltâ (to heed), la vôs (voice), lâ ben (to be good), atent (attentive), il comandament (commandment), meti in vore (to put to task), il mâl (ill), mandâ (to send), vuarî (to heal), rivâ (to arrive), dodis (twelve), la risultive (spring), setante (seventy), la palme (palm tree), campâsi (to encamp), torator di (round about).

Verse 22: Mosè al dè a Israel l’ordin (Moses gave to Israel the order) di partî dal mâr des Cjanussis (to depart from the Sea of Reeds). Si inviarin de bande dal desert di Sur (they sent themselves off towards the desert of Shur) e a cjaminarin trê dîs tal desert (and walked three days in the desert) cence cjatâ une gote di aghe (without finding a drop of water).

Verse 23: Ma cuant che a rivarin a Mare (but when they arrived at Marah), no poderin bevi l’aghe di Mare (they could not drink the water of Marah) parcè che e jere masse mare (for it was too bitter); par chel i meterin non al lûc Mare* (therefore they put unto the place the name Marah). — *The standardised Friulian for bitter is amâr; found in the text of this verse is the variant mâr — or rather mare, in feminine form. The variant form mare has the admirable advantage of aligning with the name given to the place: Mare, also meaning bitter, from the Hebrew.

Verse 24: Il popul *se cjapà* cun Mosè (the people took it unto themselves with Moses) e i diserin (and said to him): e cumò ce bevìno? (and now what drink we?). — *Cjapâse is the contraction of cjapâ + si + le. To ‘take it unto oneself’ is a Friulian manner of identifying one’s becoming angered.

Verse 25: Mosè al berlà viers Diu (Moses cried forth unto God) e Diu i mostrà un toc di len (and God showed him a piece of wood). Mosè lu butà ta l’aghe (Moses cast it into the water) e l’aghe si indolcì (and the water sweetened itself). Al è li che ur à dât un statût e un dirit (it is there where he gave to them a statute and a body of law), al è li che ju à metûts a lis provis (it is there where he put them to the proof[s]).

Verse 26: Po al disè (then he said): se tu scoltis la vôs dal Signôr to Diu (if you heed the voice of the Lord your God) e tu fasis ce che al va ben par lui (and do that which is good by him), se tu starâs atent ai siei comandaments (if you are [will be] attentive to his commandments) e tu metarâs in vore ducj i siei ordins (and put [will put] to task all his orders), ducj i mâi* che ur ài mandât al Egjit (all the ills which I have sent to Egypt) a ti no tai+ mandarai (will I not send to you), parcè che jo o soi il Signôr (for I am the Lord), chel che ti vuarìs (that one who heals you). — *Mâi: plural of the masculine noun mâl (ill). +Tai: contraction of ti + ju (unto you + them).

Verse 27: A rivarin a Elim (they arrived at Elim), là che a son dodis risultivis (where there are twelve springs) e setante palmis (and seventy palm trees) e li si camparin torator da l’aghe (and there did they encamp round about the water). — Review: How to count in Friulian.