Friulian language series: Esodo 14, Mosè al divît il mâr

The fourteenth chapter of the book of Exodus continues to relate the departure of the Israelites from Egypt. It is in this chapter that, commanded by God, Moses splits the sea to let the Israelites pass: Mosè al divît il mâr (Moses divides the sea).

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Versets 1-9

Vocabulary: fevelâ (to speak), cussì (thus, so), (to say), il fi (son), tornâ indaûr (to turn back), campâsi (to encamp), denant di (before), jenfri (between), il mâr (sea), in face di (in face of), rimpet di (opposite, across from), un ôr (edge), il faraon (pharaoh), un israelit (Israelite), lâ indenant (to go forwards), a sorte (aimlessly, haphazardly), il desert (desert), taiâ fûr (to cut off), indurî (to harden), il cûr (heart), parê (to seem), vêr (true), cori (to run), daûr (after), ingloriâsi (to glorify oneself), la spese (expense, cost), a spesis di (at the expense of), un esercit (army), un egjizian (Egyptian), savê (to know), a pene che (so soon as), contâ (to recount), il re (king), il popul (people), scjampâ (to flee), gambiâ (to change), di cussì a cussì (completely, utterly), a rivuart di (with regard to), lassâ (to let), sfrancjâsi (to redeem oneself), la paronance (mastership), preparâ (to prepare, to ready), il cjar (chariot), tirâ dongje (to draw alongside), la schirie (array), cjoli (to take), sîscent (six hundred), il miôr (best), il graduât (officer), parsore (atop), metisi (to put oneself), saltâ fûr (to come forth), la man (hand), fuart (mighty), butâsi (to cast oneself), brincâ (to overtake), campât (encamped), il cjaval (horse), il cjavalîr (horseman), cjatâsi (to be found), dongje di (alongside).

Verses 1-2: Il Signôr i fevelà a Mosè cussì (the Lord spoke to Moses thus): dîsiur ai fîs di Israel di tornâ indaûr (tell the sons of Israel to turn back) e di campâsi denant di Pi-Achirot (and to encamp before Pi-Hahiroth), jenfri Migdol e il mâr (between Migdol and the sea), in face di Baal-Zefon (in face of Baal-Zephon); si camparês rimpet di li (you shall encamp across thence), ad ôr dal mâr (at the edge of the sea).

Verse 3: Il faraon al disarà dai israelits (Pharaoh will say of the Israelites): veju là (there they are), che a van indenant a sorte (who go forwards aimlessly) e che il desert ju taiarà fûr (and whom the desert will cut off).

Verse 4: Jo o indurirai il cûr dal faraon (I will harden the heart of Pharaoh) *e no i pararà vere* di corius daûr (and he will not refrain from pursuing you [running after you]). Jo mi ingloriarai a spesis dal faraon (I will glorify myself at Pharaoh’s expense) e di dut il so esercit (and of all his army), e i egjizians a savaran che jo o soi il Signôr (and the Egyptians shall know that I am the Lord). — *Taken apart: e (and) no (not) i (unto him) pararà (will seem) vere (true), which results in and it will not seem true to him, the sense whereof seems to be one of it will seem irresistible to him, or so I have analysed it.

Verse 5: A pene che i contarin al re dal Egjit (so soon as it had been recounted [so soon as they recounted] to the king of Egypt) che il popul al jere scjampât (that the people had fled), il cûr dal faraon e dai siei fameis (the heart of Pharaoh and his servants) al gambià di cussì a cussì (utterly changed [changed from so to so]) a rivuart dal popul (with regard to the people). A diserin (they said): ce vino fat mo (what ever have we done) a lassâ che Israel si sfrancjàs de nestre paronance (in letting that Israel should redeem itself from our mastership).

Verse 6: Il faraon al fasè preparâ il so cjar (Pharaoh had his chariot readied) e al tirà dongje dutis lis sôs schiriis (and drew alongside all his arrays).

Verse 7: Al cjolè cun sè siscent dai miôrs cjars (he took with him six hundred of the best chariots) e ducj i cjars dal Egjit (and all the chariots of Egypt), ognidun cuntun graduât parsore (each with an officer atop).

Verse 8: Il Signôr al indurì il cûr dal faraon, re dal Egjit (the Lord hardened the heart of Pharaoh king of Egypt), che si metè a coriur daûr ai israelits (who put himself to pursuing the Israelites). Ma i fîs di Israel a saltarin fûr (but the sons of Israel came forth) cun man fuarte (with mighty hand).

Verse 9: I egjizians *si butarin daûrjur* (the Egyptians gave chase to them [cast themselves after them]) e ju brincarin (and overtook them) cuant che a jerin campâts (when they were encamped) sul ôr dal mâr (on the edge of the sea): ducj i cjavai+ dal faraon (all the horses of Pharaoh), i siei cjars (his chariots), i siei cjavalîrs (his horsemen) e lis sôs schiriis (and his arrays) si cjatarin dongje di Pi-Achirot (were found alongside Pi-Hahiroth), in face di Baal-Zefon (in face of Baal-Zephon). — *Taken apart: si (themselves) butarin (did they cast) daûrjur (after unto them), which is to say, gave chase to them; pursued them. Daûrjur is a contraction of daûr (behind, after) + ur (unto them), with an interposed j for reason of euphony. +Review how masculine nouns ending in a vowel + l form their plural: il cjaval, i cjavai (horse, horses); il nemâl, i nemâi (animal, animals); il nûl, i nûi (cloud, clouds); il gjenerâl, i gjenerâi (general, generals). This change from l to i applies also to adjectives in the masculine plural: aspiets gjenerâi (general aspects); risultâts ecezionâi (exceptional results); but not in the feminine plural, where s is used: cundizions gjenerâls (general conditions); situazions ecezionâls (exceptional situations).

Versets 10-14

Vocabulary: viodi (to see), il faraon (pharaoh), rivâ (to arrive), un israelit (Israelite), alçâ (to lift), il voli (eye), un egjizian (Egyptian), cori daûr (to pursue, to give chase), cjapâ un spac (to take fright), berlâ (to cry forth), viers di (unto), il tombâl (tomb, grave), ventijù (down there), menâ (to lead), murî (to die), il desert (desert), saltâ fûr (to come forth), pursì (even), ancjemò (yet), restâ (to remain, to stay), sot di (under), vê miôr (to prefer), la int (people), la pôre (fear), tignî dûr (to keep perseverant), jessi bon di fâ (to be capable of doing), cumò (now), salvâ (to save), vuê (today), no… altri (no more), metisi de bande di (to put oneself on the side of), vê di (must, to have to), dome (only, but), stâ cuiet (to be calm, to remain tranquil).

Verse 10: Viodût che il faraon al rivave (having seen that Pharaoh was arriving), i israelits e alçarin i vôi (the Israelites lifted their eyes) e a vioderin che i egjizians ur corevin daûr (and saw that the Egyptians were pursuing them). I israelits a cjaparin un spac (the Israelites took fright) e a berlarin viers dal Signôr (and cried forth unto the Lord).

Verse 11: I diserin a Mosè (they said to Moses): no ’nd jerino tombâi ventijù pal Egjit (were there no graves down there throughout Egypt), che tu nus âs menâts a murî tal desert? (that you led us to die in the desert?). Parcè nus âstu fats saltâ fûr dal Egjit?: why did you make us come forth from Egypt?

Verse 12: Tal vevin pursì dit ancjemò in Egjit (we had even said it to you yet in Egypt): lassinus restâ sot dai egjizians (let us remain subjected to [remain under] the Egyptians), che o vin miôr stâ sot dai egjizians (for we prefer to remain subjected to [remain under] the Egyptians) che no murî tal desert (than to die in the desert).

Verse 13: Dissal Mosè a la int (Moses said to the people): no stait a vê pôre (have not fear). Tignît dûr (keep perseverant) e o viodarês ce che al sarà bon di fâ cumò il Signôr (and you shall see that which the Lord is capable of doing now) par salvânus (to save us), parcè che i egjizians che o viodês vuê (for the Egyptians whom you see today) no ju viodarês altri (shall you see no more). — Review the formation of a negated imperative in the second-person plural: no stait a vê pôre (have not fear); no stait a fâsi un ramaric (do not be sorrowful); no stait a tormentâsi (do not torment yourselves); no stait a presentâsi devant di me (do not present yourselves before me); no stait a spandi il so sanc (do not shed his blood). No sta is the second-person singular equivalent: no sta vê nissun rimuars (have no remorse); no sta fâ adulteri (do not commit adultery); no sta copâ (do not kill); no sta robâ (do not steal). In the first-person plural, no stin a is used: no stin a dividisi (let us not divide ourselves); no stin a copâlu (let us not kill him).

Verse 14: Il Signôr si metarà de vuestre bande (the Lord will put himself on your side); vualtris o vês dome di stâ cuiets (you have only to remain tranquil).

Versets 15-23

Vocabulary: (to say), berlâ (to cry forth), viers di (unto), un israelit (Israelite), indenant (forwards), alçâ (to lift), il baston (staff), slungâ (to extend), la man (hand), il mâr (sea), dividi (to divide), jentrâ (to enter), il mieç (middle), cence (without), bagnâsi i pîts (to get one’s feet wet), indurî (to harden), il cûr (heart), un egjizian (Egyptian), cori daûr (to pursue, to give chase), cjamâsi (to charge oneself), la glorie (glory), la spese (expense, cost), a spesis di (at the expense of), il faraon (pharaoh), la schirie (array), il cjar (chariot), il cjavalîr (horseman), palpâ (to perceive, to feel), jemplâsi (to fill oneself), un agnul (angel), cjaminâ (to walk), denant di (before), il campament (camp), displaçâsi (to move/displace oneself), metisi (to put oneself), par daûr (in the rear, behind), la colone (coulmn), il nûl (cloud), par denant (at the front), plaçâsi (to place oneself), scûr (dark), penç (dense, thick), la gnot (night), passâ (to pass {by}), lâ dongje (to go alongside), fâ cessâ (to make stand back), midiant di (by way of), grant (great), un aiaron (great wind), la jevade (east), suiâ (to dry), la aghe (water), sut (dry), la murae (wall), a drete (on the right), a çampe (on the left), il cjaval (horse).

Verse 15: Il Signôr i disè a Mosè (the Lord said to Moses): parcè berlistu viers di me? (why do you cry forth unto me?). Dîsiur ai israelits di lâ indenant: tell the Israelites to go forwards.

Verse 16: Alce il to baston (lift your staff), slungje la man sul mâr (extend your hand over upon the sea) e dividilu (and divide it), par che i israelits a puedin jentrâ tal mieç dal mâr (that the Israelites may enter into the middle of the sea) cence bagnâsi i pîts (without getting their feet wet [without wetting unto themselves the feet]). — It is not found in the text of this chapter, but, of the verb dividi, the third-person singular of the presint indicatîf is divît. The Friulian, then, for Moses divides the waters is: Mosè al divît lis aghis.

Verse 17: Jo o indurissarai il cûr dai egjizians (I will harden the hearts [heart] of the Egyptians); lôr us coraran daûr (they will pursue you) e jo mi cjamarai* di glorie a spesis dal faraon (and I will charge myself with glory at the expense of Pharaoh), di dutis lis sôs schiriis, dai siei cjars e dai siei cjavalîrs (of all his arrays, his chariots and his horsemen). — *The verb cjamâ is related to the feminine noun cjame, meaning charge, load; the sense of the Lord’s charging himself (cjamâsi) is one of his taking unto himself.

Verse 18: I egjizians a palparan (the Egyptians shall perceive) che jo o soi il Signôr (that I am the Lord) cuant che jo mi sarai jemplât di glorie (when I have filled [will have filled] myself with glory) a spesis dal faraon, dai siei cjars e dai siei cjavalîrs (at the expense of Pharaoh, his chariots and his horsemen).

Verses 19-20: L’agnul dal Signôr (the angel of the Lord), che al cjaminave denant dal campament di Israel (who was walking before the camp of Israel), si displaçà di li (moved thence) e si metè par daûr di lôr (and put himself behind them) e la colone dal nûl (and the column of cloud), ch’e jere par denant (which was at the front), si plaçà par daûr (placed itself at the rear), e si metè fra i egjizians e il campament di Israel (and put itself between the Egyptians and the camp of Israel). Il nûl al jere scûr penç (the cloud was dark thick) e la gnot e passà (and the night passed by) cence che un al podès lâ dongje di chel altri (without the one’s being able to go alongside that other) par dute la gnot (through all the night).

Verse 21: Mosè al alçà la man sul mâr (Moses lifted his hand over upon the sea) e il Signôr al fasè cessâ il mâr dute la gnot (and the Lord made the sea stand back all night) midiant di un grant aiaron de jevade (by way of a most great wind from the east); lu suià (he dried it) e dutis lis aghis si dividerin (and all the waters divided themselves).

Verse 22: I fîs di Israel a jentrarin tal mieç dal mâr (the sons of Israel entered into the middle of the sea) a pît sut (on dry foot) e lis aghis ur fasevin di murae* (and the waters served them as a wall) a drete e a çampe (to the right and to the left). — *The feminine murae (standardised muraie) refers to a defensive wall, like that of a city or fortress; the Great Wall of China, for instance, is rendered in Friulian as la Grande muraie cinese (literally, Great Chinese Wall, where the Friulian adjective for Chinese is cinês).

Verse 23: I egjizians ur corerin daûr (the Egyptians pursued them) e ducj i cjavai dal faraon, i siei cjars e i siei cjavalîrs (and all of Pharaoh’s horses, his chariots and his horsemen) a jentrarin tal mieç dal mâr (entered into the middle of the sea) par coriur daûr (to pursue them).

Versets 24-31

Vocabulary: la vilie (watch, vigil), la buinore (morning), la colone (column), il fûc (fire), il nûl (cloud), cjalâ jù (to look down), il campament (camp), un egjizian (Egyptian), pierdi (to lose), il cjâf (head), ingredeâ (to snarl, to entangle), la ruede (wheel), il cjar (chariot), indevant; indenant (forwards), lis vitis (toilings), scjampâ (to flee), combati (to fight, to combat), la bande (side), slungjâ (to extend), la man (hand), il mâr (sea), la aghe (water), gloti (to swallow), il cjavalîr (horseman), il crichedì (daybreak), tornâ (to return, to go/come back), la place (place), juste (only, but, just), petâ intor (to come/show up about), savoltâ (to overturn), il mieç (middle), tornâ (to turn back, to turn round), la armade (army), jentrâ (to enter), cori daûr (to pursue, to give chase), il faraon (pharaoh), restâ (to remain, to left), il numar (number), no… di numar (not one of the number, not a single one), invezit (as for, whereas, on the other hand), il pît (foot), sut (dry), la murae (wall), a drete (to the right), a çampe (to the left), la dì (day), gjavâ (to withdraw), la sgrife (claw, clutch), viodi (to see), muart (dead), la rive (shore, bank), jessi di peraule (to be of one’s word), cjapâ (to take), la pôre (fear), crodi (to believe).

Verse 24: Te vilie di buinore (in the morning watch), il Signôr, stant te colone di fûc e di nûl (the Lord, standing in the column of fire and cloud), al cjalà jù tal campament dai egjizians (looked below upon the camp of the Egyptians) e ur fasè pierdi il cjâf (and cast them into a panic [and made them lose the{ir} head{s}]).

Verse 25: Al ingredeà lis ruedis dai cjars (he snarled the wheels of their chariots), che a levin indevant a sun di vitis (which would go forwards by dint of toilings). A diserin i egjizians (the Egyptians said): scjampìn denant di Israel (let us flee before Israel), parcè che il Signôr al combat de lôr bande (for the Lord is fighting on their side) cuintri dai egjizians (against the Egyptians).

Verse 26: Dissal il Signôr a Mosè (the Lord said to Moses): slungje la tô man sul mâr (extend your hand over upon the sea): che lis aghis a glotin i egjizians, i lôr cjars e i lôr cjavalîrs (let the waters swallow up the Egyptians, their chariots and their horsemen).

Verse 27: Mosè al slungjà la man sul mâr e (Moses extended his hand over upon the sea and), sul crichedì (at daybreak), il mâr al tornà te sô place (the sea returned to its place). I egjizians, che a scjampavin (the Egyptians, who were fleeing), a lerin juste a petâi intor (only came up against it all round) e il Signôr al savoltà i egjizians tal mieç dal mâr (and the Lord overturned the Egyptians into the middle of the sea).

Verse 28: Lis aghis a tornarin (the waters turned back) e a gloterin ducj i cjars (and swallowed up all the chariots) e i cjavalîrs de armade dal faraon, che a jerin jentrâts tal mâr par coriur daûr (and the horsemen of Pharaoh’s army who had entered into the sea to pursue them). No ’nt restà un di numar: not one of the number of them remained.

Verse 29: I israelits, invezit (the Israelites, for their part), a lerin indenant a pît sut (went forwards on dry foot) tal mieç dal mâr (into the middle of the sea) e lis aghis ur fasevin di murae (and the waters served them as a wall) a drete e a çampe (to the right and to the left).

Verse 30: In chê dì (on [in] that day) il Signôr al gjavà Israel des sgrifis dai egjizians (the Lord withdrew Israel from the clutches of the Egyptians) e Israel al viodè i egjizians muarts su la rive dal mâr (and Israel saw the Egyptians dead on the shore of the sea).

Verse 31: Israel al viodè (Israel saw) che il Signôr al jere stât di peraule (that the Lord had been of his word) cuintri dai egjizians (against the Egyptians). Il popul al cjapà pôre dal Signôr (the people took fear of the Lord), al crodè tal Signôr ({and} believed in the Lord) e in Mosè so famei (and in his servant Moses).