Friulian language series: Esodo 14, Mosè al divît il mâr

The fourteenth chapter of the book of Exodus continues to relate the Israelites’ departure from Egypt. It is in this chapter that, commanded by God, Moses splits the sea (Mosè al divît il mâr) to let the Israelites pass.

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Read Esodo 14

To read the Friulian text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Bibie par un popul and consult Esodo 14. An archived version of the text can be found here.

Versets 1-9

Vocabulary: fevelâ (to speak), cussì (thus, so), (to say), il fi (son), tornâ indaûr (to turn back), campâsi (to encamp), denant di (before, in front of), jenfri (between), il mâr (sea), in face di (before, facing), rimpet di (opposite, across from), un ôr (edge), il faraon (pharaoh), un israelit (Israelite), lâ indenant (to go forwards), a sorte (haphazardly), il desert (desert), taiâ fûr (to cut off), indurî (to harden), il cûr (heart), parê (to seem), vêr (true), cori daûr (to pursue, to give chase), ingloriâsi (to glorify oneself), la spese (expense, cost), a spesis di (at the expense of), un esercit (army), un egjizian (Egyptian), savê (to know), a pene che (so soon as), contâ (to tell, to relate), il re (king), il popul (people), scjampâ (to flee), gambiâ (to change; also cambiâ), di cussì a cussì (completely, utterly), a rivuart di (with regard to), lassâ (to let, to allow), sfrancjâsi (to free oneself), la paronance (rule), preparâ (to prepare, to ready), il cjar (chariot), tirâ dongje (to gather), la schirie (host, army), cjoli (to take), sîscent (six hundred), il miôr (best), il graduât (officer), metisi (to put oneself to, to take to), saltâ fûr (to go/come forth), la man (hand), fuart (strong, mighty), butâsi daûr (to pursue, to give chase), brincâ (to catch up, to overtake), campât (encamped), il cjaval (horse), il cjavalîr (horseman), cjatâsi (to be found), dongje di (by, alongside, near).

Verses 1-2: Il Signôr i fevelà a Mosè cussì (thus spoke the Lord to Moses): dîsiur ai fîs di Israel di tornâ indaûr (tell the sons of Israel to turn back) e di campâsi denant di Pi-Achirot (and to encamp before Pi-Hahiroth), jenfri Migdol e il mâr (between Migdol and the sea), in face di Baal-Zefon (facing Baal-Zephon); si camparês rimpet di li (you shall encamp across from that place [across from there]), ad ôr dal mâr (by the sea [at the edge of the sea]).

Verse 3: Il faraon al disarà dai israelits (Pharaoh will say to the Israelites): veju là (there they are), che a van indenant a sorte (advancing aimlessly [who are going forwards haphazardly]) e che il desert ju taiarà fûr (and the desert will cut them off [and whom the desert will cut off]).

Verse 4: Jo o indurirai il cûr dal faraon (I will harden Pharaoh’s heart) e no i pararà vere di corius daûr (and he will not hold back in pursuing you [and it will seem untrue to him to pursue you]). Jo mi ingloriarai a spesis dal faraon (I will glorify myself at Pharaoh’s expense) e di dut il so esercit (and of all his army), e i egjizians a savaran che jo o soi il Signôr (and the Egyptians shall know that I am the Lord).

Verse 5: A pene che i contarin al re dal Egjit che il popul al jere scjampât (so soon as the king of Egypt had been told [so soon as they told the king of Egypt] that the people had fled), il cûr dal faraon e dai siei fameis al gambià di cussì a cussì a rivuart dal popul (Pharaoh and his servants had an utter change of heart [the heart of Pharaoh and of his servants changed from thus to thus] with regard to the people]). A diserin (they said): ce vino fat mo (what ever have we done) a lassâ che Israel si sfrancjàs de nestre paronance (by allowing Israel to free itself from our rule). The sense of di cussì a cussì (literally, from thus to thus or from so to so) is completely, utterly, in that changing ‘from thus to thus’ is to change ‘from this to that’, or ‘from one thing to another’.

Verse 6: Il faraon al fasè preparâ il so cjar (Pharaoh made ready his chariot; Pharaoh had his chariot readied) e al tirà dongje dutis lis sôs schiriis (and gathered [pulled together] all his armies).

Verse 7: Al cjolè cun sè siscent dai miôrs cjars (he took with him six hundred of his best chariots) e ducj i cjars dal Egjit (and all the chariots of Egypt), ognidun cuntun graduât parsore (each with an officer atop).

Verse 8: Il Signôr al indurì il cûr dal faraon, re dal Egjit (the Lord hardened the heart of Pharaoh, king of Egypt), che si metè a coriur daûr ai israelits (who took to pursuing the Israelites). Ma i fîs di Israel a saltarin fûr cun man fuarte: but the sons of Israel went forth with a mighty hand. Cori daûr (to pursue, to give chase) translates literally as to run after; compare with butâsi daûr, also meaning to pursue, to give chase, used in the next verse.

Verse 9: I egjizians si butarin daûrjur (the Egyptians gave chase to them [threw themselves after them]) e ju brincarin (and caught up with them; and overtook them) cuant che a jerin campâts (when they were encamped) sul ôr dal mâr (by the sea [on the edge of the sea]): ducj i cjavai dal faraon (all the horses of Pharaoh), i siei cjars (his chariots), i siei cjavalîrs (his horsemen) e lis sôs schiriis (and his armies) si cjatarin dongje di Pi-Achirot (had come in proximity of Pi-Hahiroth [were found near Pi-Hahiroth]), in face di Baal-Zefon (facing Baal-Zephon). Review how masculine nouns ending in a vowel + l form their plural: il cjaval, i cjavai (horse, horses); il nemâl, i nemâi (animal, animals); il nûl, i nûi (cloud, clouds); il gjenerâl, i gjenerâi (general, generals). This change from l to i applies also to adjectives in the masculine plural: aspiets gjenerâi (general aspects); risultâts ecezionâi (exceptional results); but not in the feminine plural, where s is used: cundizions gjenerâls (general conditions); situazions ecezionâls (exceptional situations).

Versets 10-14

Vocabulary: viodi (to see), il faraon (pharaoh), rivâ (to arrive, to come), un israelit (Israelite), alçâ (to raise, to lift), il voli (eye), un egjizian (Egyptian), cori daûr (to pursue, to give chase), cjapâ un spac (to take fright), berlâ (to cry out, to yell), viers di (towards, unto), il tombâl (tomb, grave), ventijù (down there), menâ (to bring, to lead), murî (to die), il desert (desert), fâ saltâ fûr (to bring forth), pursì (even), ancjemò (yet, still), restâ (to remain, to stay), sot di (under), vê miôr (to prefer), la int (people), vê pôre (to fear), tignî dûr (to remain steadfast, to hold strong), jessi bon di fâ (to be capable of doing), cumò (now), salvâ (to save), vuê (today), no… altri (no more), metisi de bande di (to take the side of), vê di (must, to have to), dome (only, but), stâ cuiet (to be calm, to remain tranquil).

Verse 10: Viodût che il faraon al rivave (having seen that Pharaoh was advancing [arriving]), i israelits e alçarin i vôi (the Israelites lifted their eyes) e a vioderin che i egjizians ur corevin daûr (and saw that the Egyptians were pursuing them). I israelits a cjaparin un spac (the Israelites took fright) e a berlarin viers dal Signôr (and cried out to the Lord [towards the Lord]).

Verse 11: The Israelites say to Moses: no ’nd jerino tombâi ventijù pal Egjit (were there no graves down there in Egypt [throughout Egypt]), che tu nus âs menâts a murî tal desert? (that you brought us to die in desert?); for clarity: was it for want of graves in Egypt that you brought us to die in the desert? Parcè nus âstu fats saltâ fûr dal Egjit?: why did you bring us out of Egypt?

Verse 12: Tal vevin pursì dit ancjemò in Egjit (we had even said to you [said it to you] yet in Egypt): lassinus restâ sot dai egjizians (let us remain under the Egyptians), che o vin miôr stâ sot dai egjizians (for we prefer to remain under the Egyptians) che no murî tal desert (than to die in the desert). The sense of stâ sot di (to remain under) is to be subjugated to.

Verse 13: To the people Moses says: no stait a vê pôre (fear not; have no fear). Tignît dûr (remain steadfast) e o viodarês ce che al sarà bon di fâ cumò il Signôr (and you shall see what the Lord is capable of next [will be capable of doing now]) par salvânus (as to save us), parcè che i egjizians che o viodês vuê (for the Egyptians whom you see today) no ju viodarês altri (you shall see them no more). Review the formation of a negated imperative in the second-person plural: no stait a vê pôre (do not be afraid; fear not; have no fear); no stait a fâsi un ramaric (do not be sorrowful); no stait a tormentâsi (do not torment yourselves); no stait a presentâsi devant di me (do not present yourselves before me); no stait a spandi il so sanc (do not spill his blood). No sta is the second-person singular equivalent: no sta vê nissun rimuars (do not have any remorse; have no remorse); no sta fâ adulteri (do not commit adultery); no sta copâ, no sta robâ (do not kill, do not steal). In the first-person plural, no stin a is used: no stin a dividisi (let us not divide ourselves); no stin a copâlu (let us not kill him).

Verse 14: Il Signôr si metarà de vuestre bande (the Lord will take our side [will put himself on our side]); vualtris o vês dome di stâ cuiets (you have only to remain tranquil).

Versets 15-23

Vocabulary: (to say), berlâ (to cry out, to yell), viers di (towards), un israelit (Israelite), lâ indenant (to go forwards), alçâ (to raise, to lift), il baston (rod, staff), slungâ (to extend, to stretch out), la man (hand), il mâr (sea), dividi (to divide, to split), jentrâ (to enter, to go in), il mieç (midst, middle), cence (without), bagnâ (to wet), il pît (foot), indurî (to harden), il cûr (heart), un egjizian (Egyptian), cori daûr (to pursue, to give chase), cjamâsi (to charge oneself), la glorie (glory), la spese (expense, cost), a spesis di (at the expense of), il faraon (pharaoh), la schirie (host, army), il cjar (chariot), il cjavalîr (horseman), palpâ (to perceive, to feel), jemplâsi (to fill oneself), un agnul (angel), cjaminâ (to walk), denant di (before, ahead of), il campament (camp), displaçâsi (to move, to displace oneself), metisi (to put oneself, to position oneself), par daûr (in the rear, behind), la colone (coulmn, pillar), il nûl (cloud), par denant (in front, ahead), plaçâsi (to place oneself, to position oneself), scûr (dark), penç (dense, thick), la gnot (night), passâ (to pass, to go by, to elapse), lâ dongje (to draw near), cessâ (to draw back, to withdraw), midiant di (by way of, through), grant (great, big), un aiaron (strong wind), la jevade (east), suiâ (to dry), la aghe (water), sut (dry), la murae (wall; also muraie), a drete (on the right), a çampe (on the left), il cjaval (horse).

Verse 15: The Lord asks Moses: parcè berlistu viers di me? (why do you cry out to me [towards me]?). He also says: dîsiur ai israelits di lâ indenant (tell the Israelites to go forwards).

Verse 16: Alce il to baston (lift up your rod), slungje la man sul mâr (stretch out your hand over the sea [upon the sea]) e dividilu (and split it), par che i israelits a puedin jentrâ tal mieç dal mâr (that the Israelites may go into the midst of the sea) cence bagnâsi i pîts (without getting their feet wet [without wetting unto themselves the feet]). It is not found in these verses, but the third-person singular of the presint indicatîf of the verb dividi is divît; the Friulian, then, for Moses splits the waters is Mosè al divît lis aghis.

Verse 17: Jo o indurissarai il cûr dai egjizians (I will harden the hearts [heart] of the Egyptians); lôr us coraran daûr (they will pursue you) e jo mi cjamarai di glorie a spesis dal faraon (and I will charge myself with glory at the expense of Pharaoh), di dutis lis sôs schiriis (of all his armies), dai siei cjars (of his chariots) e dai siei cjavalîrs (and of his horsemen). The verb cjamâ is related to the feminine noun cjame, meaning charge, load; the sense of the Lord’s charging himself (cjamâsi) is that of his filling himself up.

Verse 18: I egjizians a palparan (the Egyptians shall know [perceive]) che jo o soi il Signôr (that I am the Lord) cuant che jo mi sarai jemplât di glorie (when I fill myself [will have filled myself] with glory) a spesis dal faraon, dai siei cjars e dai siei cjavalîrs (at the expense of Pharaoh, his chariots and his horsemen).

Verses 19-20: L’agnul dal Signôr (the angel of the Lord), che al cjaminave denant dal campament di Israel (who had been walking [who was walking] ahead of the camp of Israel), si displaçà di li (moved from there [moved himself from there]) e si metè par daûr di lôr (and took position [put himself] behind them) e la colone dal nûl (and the pillar of cloud [of the cloud]), ch’e jere par denant (which was in front), si plaçà par daûr (took position [placed itself] at the rear), e si metè fra i egjizians e il campament di Israel (and came [put itself] between the Egyptians and the camp of Israel). Il nûl al jere scûr penç (the cloud was pitch dark [dark thick]) e la gnot e passà (and the night went by) cence che un al podès lâ dongje di chel altri (without one’s being able to draw near to another) par dute la gnot (all through the night [for all the night]).

Verse 21: Mosè al alçà la man sul mâr (Moses raised his hand over the sea [upon the sea]) e il Signôr al fasè cessâ il mâr dute la gnot (and the Lord made the sea draw back all night) midiant di un grant aiaron de jevade (by way of a most mighty wind from the east); lu suià (he dried it) e dutis lis aghis si dividerin (and all the waters split). The Friulian for wind is the masculine aiar; its augmentative form is the masculine aiaron. In the text, you find grant aiaron: literally, great big-wind, or great strong-wind.

Verse 22: I fîs di Israel a jentrarin tal mieç dal mâr (the sons of Israel went into the midst of the sea) a pît sut (on dry foot) e lis aghis ur fasevin di murae (and the waters served them as walls [were serving (doing) unto them as walls]) a drete e a çampe (to the right and to the left). The feminine murae (standardised as muraie) refers to a defensive wall, like that of a city or fortress; the Great Wall of China, for instance, is rendered in Friulian as la Grande muraie cinese (literally, Great Chinese Wall; cinês, Chinese).

Verse 23: I egjizians ur corerin daûr (the Egyptians gave chase to them) e ducj i cjavai dal faraon (and all of Pharaoh’s horses), i siei cjars (his chariots) e i siei cjavalîrs (and his horsemen) a jentrarin tal mieç dal mâr (went into the midst of the sea) par coriur daûr (to pursue them).

Versets 24-31

Vocabulary: la vilie (watch, vigil), la buinore (morning), la colone (column, pillar), il fûc (fire), il nûl (cloud), cjalâ jù (to look down), il campament (camp), un egjizian (Egyptian), pierdi (to lose), il cjâf (head), ingredeâ (to snarl, to entangle), la ruede (wheel), il cjar (chariot), lâ indevant (to go forwards), a sun di vitis (with difficulty), scjampâ (to flee), combati (to fight, to combat), la bande (side), cuintri di (against), slungjâ (to extend, to stretch out), la man (hand), il mâr (sea), la aghe (water), gloti (to swallow), il cjavalîr (horseman), il crichedì (daybreak), tornâ (to return, to go/come back), la place (place), juste (only, but, just), petâ intor (to meet head-on with, to come up against), savoltâ (to turn upsidedown, to overthrow), il mieç (midst, middle), tornâ (to turn back, to turn round), la armade (army), jentrâ (to enter, to go in), cori daûr (to pursue, to give chase), il faraon (pharaoh), restâ (to remain, to left), il numar (number), no… di numar (not a single), invezit (as for, whereas, on the other hand), lâ indenant (to go forwards), il pît (foot), sut (dry), la murae (wall; also muraie), a drete (to the right), a çampe (to the left), la dì (day), gjavâ (to remove, to take out), la sgrife (claw, clutch), viodi (to see), muart (dead), la rive (shore, bank), jessi di peraule (to be of one’s word), cjapâ (to take), la pôre (fear), crodi (to believe).

Verse 24: Te vilie di buinore (in the morning watch), il Signôr, stant te colone di fûc e di nûl (the Lord, standing in the pillar of fire and cloud), al cjalà jù tal campament dai egjizians (looked down upon the camp of the Egyptians) e ur fasè pierdi il cjâf (and sent them into a panic [and made them lose their heads (and unto them made lose the head)]).

Verse 25: Al ingredeà lis ruedis dai cjars (he snarled the wheels of their chariots), che a levin indevant a sun di vitis (which advanced [were going forwards] with difficulty). The Egyptians say: scjampìn denant di Israel (let us flee from Israel [let us flee before Israel]), parcè che il Signôr al combat de lôr bande (for the Lord is fighting on their side) cuintri dai egjizians (against the Egyptians).

Verse 26: The Lord says to Moses: slungje la tô man sul mâr (stretch out your hand over the sea [upon the sea]): che lis aghis a glotin i egjizians, i lôr cjars e i lôr cjavalîrs (may the waters swallow up the Egyptians, their chariots and their horsemen).

Verse 27: Mosè al slungjà la man sul mâr (Moses stretched out his hand over the sea [upon the sea]) e, sul crichedì, il mâr al tornà te sô place (and, at daybreak, the sea returned to its place). I egjizians, che a scjampavin (the Egyptians in flight [who were fleeing]), a lerin juste a petâi intor* (could not but come up against it [they just went to strike about it]) e il Signôr al savoltà i egjizians tal mieç dal mâr (and the Lord hurled [overturned] the Egyptians into the midst of the sea). *That is to say, the attempts of the Egyptians to flee were in vain in that they were met with the sea every which way they turned. Petâ means to hit, to strike; petâ intor (literally, to hit about, to strike about) conveys the sense of to meet head-on with, to come up against, to crash into, to run into, to collide with.

Verse 28: Lis aghis a tornarin (the waters turned back) e a gloterin ducj i cjars e i cjavalîrs de armade dal faraon (and swallowed up all the chariots and horsemen of Pharaoh’s army), che a jerin jentrâts tal mâr par coriur daûr (who had gone into the sea to give them chase). No ’nt restà un di numar: not a single one of them remained (not one of the lot [number] remained).

Verse 29: I israelits, invezit (the Israelites, for their part), a lerin indenant a pît sut (marched ahead on dry foot) tal mieç dal mâr (in the midst of the sea) e lis aghis ur fasevin di murae (and the waters served them as walls [were serving (doing) unto them as walls]) a drete e a çampe (to the right and to the left).

Verse 30: In chê dì (on that day) il Signôr al gjavà Israel des sgrifis dai egjizians (the Lord freed [removed] Israel from the clutches of the Egyptians) e Israel al viodè i egjizians muarts su la rive dal mâr (and Israel saw the Egyptians dead on the shore of the sea).

Verse 31: Israel al viodè che il Signôr al jere stât di peraule cuintri dai egjizians: Israel saw that the Lord had kept his word with regard to the Egyptians (had been of his word against the Egyptians). Il popul al cjapà pôre dal Signôr (the people took fear of the Lord), al crodè tal Signôr e in Mosè so famei ({and} believed in the Lord and in his servant Moses).