Exodus 14 in Friulian

The fourteenth chapter of the book of Exodus continues to recount the departure of the Israelites from Egypt. It is in this chapter that, commanded by God, Moses splits the sea to let the Israelites pass: Mosè al divît il mâr (Moses divideth the sea). From the chapter headings: viers il mâr (unto the sea); a passin il mâr (they pass through the sea).

The first-time visitor to this site ought to begin his study of the Friulian language here.

Read Esodo 14

To read the Friulian text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Bibie par un popul and consult Esodo 14. An archived version of the text is found here.

Versets 1-9

Vocabulary: fevelâ (to speak), cussì (so), (to tell, to say), il fi (son), tornâ indaûr (to turn back), campâsi (to encamp), denant di (before), jenfri (between), il mâr (sea), in face di (in face of), rimpet di (opposite), di li (thence), un ôr (edge), il faraon (pharaoh), un israelit (Israelite), lâ indenant (to go forwards), a sorte (haphazardly), il desert (desert), taiâ fûr (to cut off), indurî (to harden), il cûr (heart), parê (to seem), vêr (true), cori daûr (to run behind), ingloriâsi (to glorify oneself), a spesis di (at the expense of), dut (all), un esercit (host), un egjizian (Egyptian), savê (to know), a pene che (so soon as), contâ (to recount), il re (king), il popul (people), scjampâ (to flee), il famei (servant), gambiâ (to change), a rivuart di (in regard unto), lassâ (to let), sfrancjâsi (to redeem oneself), la paronance (mastership), preparâ (to prepare), il cjar (car), tirâ dongje (to draw alongside), la schirie (array), cjoli (to take), sîscent (six hundred), il miôr (best), ognidun (each), il graduât (officer), parsore (atop), metisi (to put oneself), saltâ fûr (to come forth), la man (hand), fuart (mighty), butâsi (to cast oneself), brincâ (to overtake), campât (encamped), il cjaval (horse), il cjavalîr (horseman), cjatâsi (to be found), dongje di (alongside).

Verses 1-2: Il Signôr i fevelà a Mosè cussì (the Lord spoke unto Moses so): dîsiur ai fîs di Israel di tornâ indaûr (tell the sons of Israel to turn back) e di campâsi denant di Pi-Achirot (and to encamp before Pi-Hahiroth), jenfri Migdol e il mâr (between Migdol and the sea), in face di Baal-Zefon (in face of Baal-Zephon); si camparês rimpet di li (ye shall encamp opposite thence), ad ôr dal mâr (at the edge of the sea).

Verse 3: Il faraon al disarà dai israelits (the pharaoh will say of the Israelites): veju là (there they are), che a van indenant a sorte (who go forwards haphazardly) e che il desert ju taiarà fûr (and whom the desert will cut off).

Verse 4: Jo o indurirai il cûr dal faraon (I shall harden the heart of the pharaoh) e no i pararà vere di corius daûr (and it will not seem true unto him to *run behind* you). Jo mi ingloriarai a spesis dal faraon (I shall glorify myself at the expense of the pharaoh) e di dut il so esercit (and of all his host), e i egjizians a savaran che jo o soi il Signôr (and the Egyptians will know that I am the Lord). — *To ‘run behind’ a one is to pursue him; the chase need not be performed on foot, as the literal rendering ‘run’ may lead one to believe: the Egyptian king rode behind the Israelites in his car. This expression also occurs at verses 8, 10, 17, 23, 28.

Verse 5: A pene che i contarin al re dal Egjit (so soon as they recounted unto the king of Egypt) che il popul al jere scjampât (that the people had fled), il cûr dal faraon e dai siei fameis (the heart of the pharaoh and his servants) al gambià di cussì a cussì (*changed utterly*) a rivuart dal popul (in regard unto the people). A diserin (they said): ce vino fat mo (what have we done then) a lassâ che Israel si sfrancjàs de nestre paronance? (by letting that Israel might redeem itself from our mastership?). — *literally, changed from so unto so

Verse 6: Il faraon al fasè preparâ il so cjar (the pharaoh had his car prepared) e al tirà dongje dutis lis sôs schiriis (and drew alongside all his arrays).

Verse 7: Al cjolè cun sè sîscent dai miôrs cjars (he took with himself six hundred of the best cars) e ducj i cjars dal Egjit (and all the cars of Egypt), ognidun cuntun graduât parsore (each with an officer atop).

Verse 8: Il Signôr al indurì il cûr dal faraon, re dal Egjit (the Lord hardened the heart of the pharaoh king of Egypt), che si metè a coriur daûr ai israelits (who put himself unto running behind the Israelites). Ma i fîs di Israel a saltarin fûr (but the sons of Israel came forth) cun man fuarte (with mighty hand).

Verse 9: I egjizians si butarin daûrjur* (the Egyptians cast themselves behind them) e ju brincarin (and overtook them) cuant che a jerin campâts (when they were encamped) sul ôr dal mâr (on the edge of the sea): ducj i cjavai+ dal faraon (all the horses of the pharaoh), i siei cjars (his cars), i siei cjavalîrs (his horsemen) e lis sôs schiriis (and his arrays) si cjatarin dongje di Pi-Achirot (were found alongside Pi-Hahiroth), in face di Baal-Zefon (in face of Baal-Zephon). — *Daûrjur is the contraction of daûr (behind) + ur (unto them), with an interposed j by reason of euphony. +Review how masculine nouns ending in a vowel + l form their plural: il cjaval, i cjavai (horse, horses); il nemâl, i nemâi (animal, animals); il nûl, i nûi (cloud, clouds); il gjenerâl, i gjenerâi (general, generals). This change from l to i applies also to adjectives in the masculine plural: aspiets gjenerâi (general aspects); risultâts ecezionâi (exceptional results); but not in the feminine plural, where s is employed: cundizions gjenerâls (general conditions); situazions ecezionâls (exceptional situations).

Versets 10-14

Vocabulary: viodi (to see), il faraon (pharaoh), rivâ (to arrive), un israelit (Israelite), alçâ (to lift), il voli (eye), un egjizian (Egyptian), cori daûr (to run behind), cjapâ (to take), il spac (fright), berlâ (to cry forth), viers di (unto), (to say), il tombâl (grave), ventijù (down there), menâ (to lead), murî (to die), il desert (desert), saltâ fûr (to come forth), pursì (even), ancjemò (yet), lassâ (to let), restâ (to remain), sot di (under), vê miôr (to prefer), stâ (to dwell), la int (people), la pôre (fear), tignî dûr (to keep perseverant), jessi bon di fâ (to be capable of doing), cumò (now), salvâ (to save), vuê (today), no… altri (no more), metisi (to put oneself), la bande (side), vê di (to have to), dome (but), cuiet (tranquil).

Verse 10: Viodût che il faraon al rivave (in having seen that the pharaoh was arriving), i israelits e alçarin i vôi (the Israelites lifted their eyes) e a vioderin che i egjizians ur corevin daûr (and saw that the Egyptians were running behind them). I israelits a cjaparin un spac (the Israelites took a fright) e a berlarin viers dal Signôr (and cried forth unto the Lord).

Verse 11: I diserin a Mosè (they said unto Moses): no ’nd jerino tombâi ventijù pal Egjit (were there not any graves down there throughout Egypt), che tu nus âs menâts a murî tal desert? (that thou hast led us to die in the desert?). Parcè nus âstu fats (why hast thou made us) saltâ fûr dal Egjit? (come forth from Egypt?).

Verse 12: Tal vevin pursì dit ancjemò in Egjit (we had even said it unto thee yet in Egypt): lassinus restâ sot dai egjizians (let us remain under the Egyptians), che o vin miôr stâ sot dai egjizians (for we prefer to dwell under the Egyptians) che no murî tal desert (than to die in the desert).

Verse 13: Dissal Mosè a la int (Moses said unto the people): no stait a vê pôre (have ye not fear). Tignît dûr (keep perseverant) e o viodarês ce che al sarà bon di fâ cumò il Signôr (and ye will see that which the Lord will be capable of doing now) par salvânus (to save us), parcè che i egjizians che o viodês vuê (for the Egyptians whom ye see today) no ju viodarês altri (will ye see no more). — Review the formation of a negated imperative in the second-person plural: no stait a vê pôre (have not fear); no stait a tormentâsi (torment not yourselves); no stait a presentâsi devant di me (present not yourselves before me); no stait a spandi il so sanc (shed not his blood). No sta is the second-person singular equivalent: no sta vê nissun rimuars (have not any remorse); no sta copâ (kill not); no sta robâ (rob not). In the first-person plural, no stin a is employed: no stin a dividisi (let us not divide ourselves); no stin a copâlu (let us not kill him).

Verse 14: Il Signôr si metarà de vuestre bande (the Lord will put himself on your side); vualtris o vês dome di stâ cuiets (ye have but to dwell tranquil).

Versets 15-23

Vocabulary: (to say, to tell), berlâ (to cry forth), viers di (unto), un israelit (Israelite), lâ indenant (to go forwards), alçâ (to lift), il baston (staff), slungâ (to extend), la man (hand), il mâr (sea), dividi (to divide), podê (to be able), jentrâ (to enter), il mieç (middle), cence (without), bagnâ (to wet), il pît (foot), indurî (to harden), il cûr (heart), un egjizian (Egyptian), cori daûr (to run behind), cjamâsi (to charge oneself), la glorie (glory), a spesis di (at the expense of), il faraon (pharaoh), dut (all), la schirie (array), il cjar (car), il cjavalîr (horseman), palpâ (to feel), jemplâsi (to fill oneself), un agnul (angel), cjaminâ (to walk), denant di (before), il campament (encampment), displaçâsi (to displace oneself), di li (thence), metisi (to put oneself), par daûr (in back), la colone (column), il nûl (cloud), par denant (in front), plaçâsi (to place oneself), scûr (dark), penç (thick), la gnot (night), passâ (to pass {by}), lâ dongje (to go alongside), altri (other), cessâ (to stand back), midiant di (by way of), grant (great), un aiaron (heavy wind), la jevade (east), suiâ (to dry), la aghe (water), sut (dry), la murae (wall), a drete (unto the right), a çampe (unto the left), il cjaval (horse).

Verse 15: Il Signôr i disè a Mosè (the Lord said unto Moses): parcè berlistu viers di me? (why criest thou forth unto me?). Dîsiur ai israelits di lâ indenant: tell the Israelites to go forwards.

Verse 16: Alce il to baston (lift thy staff), slungje la man sul mâr (extend thy hand upon the sea) e dividilu (and divide it), par che i israelits a puedin jentrâ tal mieç dal mâr (that the Israelites may be able to enter into the middle of the sea) cence bagnâsi i pîts (*without wetting their feet*). — *after the manner of the Friulian: without wetting unto themselves the feet

Verse 17: Jo o indurissarai il cûr dai egjizians (I shall harden the heart of the Egyptians); lôr us coraran daûr (they will run behind you) e jo mi cjamarai di glorie a spesis dal faraon (and I shall charge myself with glory at the expense of the pharaoh), di dutis lis sôs schiriis, dai siei cjars e dai siei cjavalîrs (of all his arrays, his cars and his horsemen).

Verse 18: I egjizians a palparan (the Egyptians will feel) che jo o soi il Signôr (that I am the Lord) cuant che jo mi sarai jemplât di glorie (when I shall have filled myself with glory) a spesis dal faraon, dai siei cjars e dai siei cjavalîrs (at the expense of the pharaoh, his cars and his horsemen).

Verses 19-20: L’agnul dal Signôr (the angel of the Lord), che al cjaminave denant dal campament di Israel (who was walking before the encampment of Israel), si displaçà di li (displaced himself thence) e si metè par daûr di lôr (and put himself in back of them) e la colone dal nûl (and the column of cloud), ch’e jere par denant (which was in front), si plaçà par daûr (placed itself in back), e si metè fra i egjizians e il campament di Israel (and put itself between the Egyptians and the encampment of Israel). Il nûl al jere scûr penç (the cloud was dark thick) e la gnot e passà (and the night passed by) cence che un al podès lâ dongje di chel altri (without the one’s being able to go alongside that other) par dute la gnot (through all the night).

Verse 21: Mosè al alçà la man sul mâr (Moses lifted his hand upon the sea) e il Signôr al fasè cessâ il mâr dute la gnot (and the Lord made the sea stand back all night) midiant di un grant aiaron de jevade (by way of a great heavy wind from the east); lu suià (he dried it) e dutis lis aghis si dividerin (and all the waters divided themselves).

Verse 22: I fîs di Israel a jentrarin tal mieç dal mâr (the sons of Israel entered into the middle of the sea) a pît sut (on dry foot) e lis aghis ur fasevin di murae* (and the waters would make unto them as a wall) a drete e a çampe (unto the right and unto the left). — *The feminine murae (standardised muraie) identifies a defensive wall, like that of a city or fortress; the Great Wall of China, for instance, is rendered in Friulian as la Grande muraie cinese (literally, the Great Chinese Wall). The Friulian for Chinese, in masculine singular form, is cinês.

Verse 23: I egjizians ur corerin daûr (the Egyptians ran behind them) e ducj i cjavai dal faraon, i siei cjars e i siei cjavalîrs (and all the horses of the pharaoh, his cars and his horsemen) a jentrarin tal mieç dal mâr (entered into the middle of the sea) par coriur daûr (to run behind them).

Versets 24-31

Vocabulary: la vilie (watch), la buinore (morning), stâ (to dwell), la colone (column), il fûc (fire), il nûl (cloud), cjalâ jù (to look down), il campament (encampment), un egjizian (Egyptian), pierdi (to lose), il cjâf (head), ingredeâ (to tangle), la ruede (wheel), il cjar (car), indevant (forwards), a sun di (by dint of), lis vitis (toilings), (to say), scjampâ (to flee), denant di (before), combati (to fight), la bande (side), cuintri di (against), slungjâ (to extend), la man (hand), il mâr (sea), la aghe (water), gloti (to swallow), il cjavalîr (horseman), il crichedì (daybreak), tornâ (to return), la place (place), (to go), juste (just), petâ (to strike forth), intor (about), savoltâ (to overturn), il mieç (middle), la armade (army), il faraon (pharaoh), jentrâ (to enter), cori daûr (to run behind), restâ (to remain), il numar (number), invezit (as for), indenant (forwards), il pît (foot), sut (dry), la murae (wall), a drete (unto the right), a çampe (unto the left), la dì (day), gjavâ (to withdraw), lis sgrifis (clutches), viodi (to see), muart (dead), la rive (shore), la peraule (word), jessi di peraule (to be of one’s word), il popul (people), cjapâ (to take), la pôre (fear), crodi (to believe), il famei (servant).

Verse 24: Te vilie di buinore (in the morning watch), il Signôr, stant te colone di fûc e di nûl (the Lord, in dwelling in the column of fire and of cloud), al cjalà jù tal campament dai egjizians (looked down into the encampment of the Egyptians) e ur fasè pierdi il cjâf (and made them lose their head).

Verse 25: Al ingredeà lis ruedis dai cjars (he tangled the wheels of the cars), che a levin indevant a sun di vitis (which would go forwards by dint of toilings). A diserin i egjizians (the Egyptians said): scjampìn denant di Israel (let us flee before Israel), parcè che il Signôr al combat de lôr bande (for the Lord is fighting on their side) cuintri dai egjizians (against the Egyptians).

Verse 26: Dissal il Signôr a Mosè (the Lord said unto Moses): slungje la tô man sul mâr (extend thy hand upon the sea): che lis aghis a glotin i egjizians, i lôr cjars e i lôr cjavalîrs (let the waters swallow the Egyptians, their cars and their horsemen).

Verse 27: Mosè al slungjà la man sul mâr e (Moses extended his hand upon the sea and), sul crichedì (upon the daybreak), il mâr al tornà te sô place (the sea returned into its place). I egjizians, che a scjampavin (the Egyptians, who were fleeing), a lerin juste a petâi intor (just went striking forth thereabout) e il Signôr al savoltà i egjizians tal mieç dal mâr (and the Lord overturned the Egyptians into the middle of the sea).

Verse 28: Lis aghis a tornarin (the waters returned) e a gloterin ducj i cjars e i cjavalîrs de armade dal faraon (and swallowed all the cars and the horsemen of the pharaoh’s army), che a jerin jentrâts tal mâr par coriur daûr (who were entered into the sea to run behind them). No ’nt restà un di numar: not one of the number of them remained.

Verse 29: I israelits, invezit (as for the Israelites), a lerin indenant a pît sut (they went forwards on dry foot) tal mieç dal mâr (into the middle of the sea) e lis aghis ur fasevin di murae (and the waters would make unto them as a wall) a drete e a çampe (unto the right and unto the left).

Verse 30: In chê dì (in that day) il Signôr al gjavà Israel des sgrifis dai egjizians (the Lord withdrew Israel from the clutches of the Egyptians) e Israel al viodè i egjizians muarts su la rive dal mâr (and Israel saw the Egyptians dead on the shore of the sea).

Verse 31: Israel al viodè (Israel saw) che il Signôr al jere stât di peraule (that the Lord had been of his word) cuintri dai egjizians (against the Egyptians). Il popul al cjapà pôre dal Signôr (the people took fear of the Lord), al crodè tal Signôr ({and} believed in the Lord) e in Mosè so famei (and in his servant Moses).