Friulian language series: Esodo 13, i primarûi

The thirteenth chapter of the book of Exodus tells of: i primarûi (firstborns); il pan cence levan (unleavened bread); Israel al partìs, seconde conte (Israel departs, second narration).

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Versets 1-10

Vocabulary: fevelâ (to speak), (to say), consacrâ (to consecrate, to sanctify), il prin nassût (firstborn), un israelit (Israelite), viergi (to open), la nature (nature), un om (man), il nemâl (animal), bandît (set apart), dissal (he said), visâsi di (to remember), la zornade (day), saltâ fûr (to come forth), la cjase (house), sotan (subjected), la fuarce (might), il braç (arm), (must, to have to), mangjâ (to eat), il pan (bread), jevât (risen), vuê (today), il mês (month), jentrâ (to enter), la tiere (land), zurâ (to swear), il von (forefather), (to give), scori (to flow), il riul (stream), il lat (milk), la mîl (honey), la fieste (feast), stes (same), siet (seven), il dì (day), di file (in a row), il levan (leaven), setim (seventh), viodi (to see), nancje (nor), nissun (no, not any), la bande (side), insegnâ (to instruct), cussì (thus, so), par vie di (on account of), il segnâl (sign), la man (hand), il ricuart (reminder), il cerneli (brow), la leç (law), la bocje (mouth), fuart (mighty), rispietâ (to respect), scjadê (to fall, to occur; of date), un an (year).

Verses 1-2: Il Signôr i fevelà a Mosè e i disè (the Lord spoke to Moses and said to him): consacrimi i prins nassûts di ducj i israelits (consecrate to me the firstborns of all the Israelites); ducj chei che a viergin la nature* (all those which open the nature)om o nemâl che al sedi (man or animal be he)a son bandîts+ par me (they are set apart for me). — *The feminine noun nature is employed here as a euphemism referring to the female reproductive organs. Nature may also be employed to refer to the virile member; in Gjenesi 17, the foreskin of the male is referred to as the ultime piel de nature (last skin of the nature). +Bandît: set apart, in the service of the Lord.

Verse 3: Dissal Mosè al popul (Moses said to the people): visaitsi di chê zornade (remember that day), chê che o sês saltâts fûr dal Egjit (the one when you came forth from Egypt), de cjase là che o jeris sotans (from the house where you were subjected), parcè che il Signôr us à fats saltâ fûr (for the Lord made you come forth) cu la fuarce dal so braç (by [with] the might of his arm). Par chel no si varà di mangjâ pan jevât: therefore leavened bread [risen bread] shall not be eaten.

Verse 4: Vualtris o saltais fûr vuê (you come forth today), tal mês di Abib (in the month of Abib).

Verse 5: Cuant che il Signôr ti varà fat jentrâ te tiere (when the Lord makes [will have made] you enter into the land) dai cananeus, dai itits, dai amoreus, dai eveus e dai gjebuseus (of the Canaanites, the Hittites, the Amorites, the Hivites and the Jebusites), che al à zurât ai tiei vons di dâte (which he swore to your forefathers to give to you), tiere che a scorin a riui lat e mîl (a land where milk and honey flow by streamfuls), tu varâs di fâ cheste fieste (you are to make this feast) in chest stes mês (in this same month).

Verse 6: Par siet dîs di file (for seven days in a row) tu mangjarâs pan cence levan (you shall eat unleavened bread [bread without leaven]). La setime zornade (on the seventh day) si fasarà fieste pal Signôr (shall a feast for the Lord be made).

Verse 7: Si mangjarà pan cence levan (unleavened bread [bread without leaven] shall be eaten) ducj i siet dîs (on all seven days) e no si varà di viodi in cjase tô pan jevât (and leavened bread [risen bread] shall not be seen in your house) e nancje no si varà di viodi levan *di nissune bande* (nor is leaven to be seen anywhere). — *Di nissune bande: literally, on no side, not on any side, the sense whereof is nowhere, not anywhere.

Verse 8: Ta chê dì (on [in] that day) tu i insegnarâs cussì a to fi (you shall instruct thus your son): al è par vie (it is on account) di ce che il Signôr *al à vût fat* par me (of that which the Lord happened to do for me) cuant che o soi saltât fûr dal Egjit (when I came forth from Egypt). — *Al à vût fat employs that which is called un timp bicomponût (bicompound tense). Whereas al à fat is ‘compound’ for the auxiliary [à] followed by one past participle (fat), al à vût fat is ‘bicompound’ in that the auxiliary is followed by two past participles (vût fat). A Friulian bicompound tense conveys chance; it is composed of a compound form of (al à vût, al varès vût, and the like) followed by the past participle of the main verb in question. Consider: ce che al à fat par me; ce che al à vût fat par me (that which he did for me; that which he happened to do for me); ce che al veve fat par me; ce che al veve vût fat par me (that which he had done for me; that which he had happened to do for me); al varès dit; al varès vût dit (he would have said; he would have happened to say).

Verse 9: Al sarà par te (it shall be for you) come un segnâl su la tô man (as a sign upon your hand) e come un ricuart sul to cerneli (and as a reminder upon your brow), par che la leç dal Signôr (that the law of the Lord) e sedi simpri inte tô bocje (may ever be in your mouth), parcè che il Signôr ti à fat saltâ fûr dal Egjit (for the Lord made you come forth from Egypt) cun man fuarte (by [with] a mighty hand). — Review: Parts of the human head.

Verse 10: Tu rispietarâs cheste leç (you shall respect* this law) cuant che e scjât (when it occurs), an par an (year to year). — *as in keep

Versets 11-16

Vocabulary: jentrâ (to enter), la tiere (land), zurâ (to swear), i vons (forefathers), deventâ (to become), il paron (master), cedi (to cede), viergi (to open), la nature (nature), ancje (also, too), il prin part (firstling), il nemâl (animal), il mascjo (male), prin (first), il mus (ass, donkey), sfrancjâ (to redeem), il cjâf (head), il besteam minût (little livestock), volê (to will), sfracaiâ (to crush), il grop (knob, knot, lump, lobe), la cope (nape, back of the neck), un om (man), però (but, however), nassi (to be born), vê di (must, to have to), doman (tomorrow, on the morrow), domandâ (to ask), (to say), rispuindi (to respond), saltâ fûr (to come forth), la cjase (house), sotan (subjected), la fuarce (might), la man (hand), midiant che (given that), il faraon (pharaoh), inrochîsi (to rise up), lassâ (to let), (to go), murî (to die), tant… come ancje (… and… alike), sacrifcâ (to sacrifice), il segnâl (sign), la fasse (band), il cerneli (brow).

Verses 11-12: Cuant che il Signôr ti varà fat jentrâ te tiere di Canaan (when the Lord makes [will have made] you enter into the land of Canaan), come che tal à zurât a ti e ai tiei vons (as he swore it to you and your forefathers), e che tu sarâs deventât paron (and you have [will have] become master {thereof}), tu i cedarâs al Signôr (you shall cede to the Lord) dut ce che al vierç la nature (all that which opens the nature) e ancje i prins parts dai tiei nemâi (and also the firstlings of your animals): i mascjos a son dal Signôr (the males belong to the lord [are of the Lord]).

Verse 13: Il prin mus tu lu sfrancjarâs (a firstling ass shall you redeem) cuntun cjâf di besteam minût (with a head of little livestock). Se no tu vûs sfrancjâlu (if you will not redeem it), tu i sfracaiarâs il grop de cope (you shall crush the knot of its nape [unto it shall you crush the knot of the nape]); i oms però che a nassin par prins (but men who are born first), ancje i tiei fîs (even your sons), tu âs di sfrancjâju (are you to redeem).

Verse 14: Cuant che un doman to fi ti domandarà (*when some morrow* your son asks you [will ask unto you]): ce vuelial dî chest? (what does this mean [will say]?), tu i rispuindarâs (you shall respond to him): il Signôr nus à fats saltâ fûr dal Egjit (the Lord made us come forth from Egypt), de cjase che o jerin sotans (from the house where we were subjected), cu la fuarce de sô man (by [with] the might of his hand). — *when someday; I have quite forcibly rendered cuant che un doman as when some morrow, that I should not lose in translation the use of either the word doman or its indefinite article un.

Verse 15: E midiant che (and given that) il faraon si inrochive (Pharaoh would rise up) a no volê lassânus lâ (in willing not let us go), il Signôr al à fat murî ducj i prins nassûts dal Egjit (the Lord made all firstborns of Egypt die), tant i prins nassûts dai oms come ancje chei dal besteam (as much the firstborns of men as also those of the livestock). Al è par chel che (therefore it is that) jo i sacrifichi al Signôr (I sacrifice to the Lord) ogni mascjo che al vierç la nature (every male which opens the nature) e che o sfrancji il prin dai miei fîs (and that I redeem the firstborn of my sons).

Verse 16: Chest al sarà par te (this shall be for you) come un segnâl te tô man (as a sign upon* [in] your hand), une fasse sul cerneli (a band upon your brow), parcè che il Signôr us à fats saltâ fûr dal Egjit (for the Lord made you come forth from Egypt) cu la fuarce de sô man (by [with] the might of his hand). — *Verse 9 reads su la tô man.

Versets 17-22

Vocabulary: il faraon (pharaoh), lassâ (to let), (to go), la strade (way, road), la tiere (land), il filisteu (Philistine), seben che (even though), curt (short), pensâ (to think), il popul (people), viodi (to see), petâ intor (to spring up), il nemì (enemy), ogni (every), la bande (side), jessi bon di (to be capable of, to be likely to), la idee (idea), gambiâ idee (to change one’s idea/mind), tornâ (to return, to go/come back), il gîr (circuit), il desert (desert), il mâr (sea), la cjanusse (reed), un israelit (Israelite), armât (armed), pront (ready, prepared), puartâ daûrsi (to bear behind oneself), ancje (also, too), il vues (bone), il zurament (oath), vignî (to come), di sigûr (surely, certainly), viodi di (to see to), la volte (time), puartâ vie (to bear away), partî (to depart), campâsi (to encamp, to set up camp), un ôr (edge), cjaminâ (to walk), vie par (during), il dì (day), la colone (column), il nûl (cloud), mostrâ (to show, to indicate), la gnot (night), il fûc (fire), il lusôr (light), in mût che ({in order} that), rivâ adore di (to be able to), indenant (forwards), mancjâ (to lack), nancje (nor).

Verse 17: Cuant che il faraon al lassà lâ il popul (when Pharaoh let the people go), Diu no ju fasè lâ (God did not make them go) pe strade ch’e va te tiere dai filisteus (by the way which goes into the land of the Philistines), seben ch’e jere la plui curte (even though it was the shortest), parcè che Diu al veve pensât che il popul (for God had thought that the people), viodintsi a petâ intor nemîs di ogni bande (in seeing ememies spring up about them on every side), al jere bon di gambiâ idee (were prone to change idea) e di tornâ jù in Egjit (and to go back down into Egypt).

Verse 18: E cussì Diu i fasè fâ al popul un gîr (and so God made the people do a circuit) pe strade dal desert (by way of the desert), de bande dal mâr des Cjanussis (towards the Sea of Reeds). I israelits a saltarin fûr de tiere dal Egjit (the Israelites came forth from the land of Egypt) armâts e pronts a dut (armed and prepared for all).

Verse 19: Mosè al puartà daûrsi (Moses bore behind himself) ancje i vuès di Josef (also the bones of Joseph), che ur veve fat fâ ai israelits chest zurament (who had made the Israelites take this oath): Diu al vignarà di sigûr (God will surely come) a viodi di vualtris (to see to you) e in chê volte (and at [in] that time) puartait vie di chi i miei vuès cun vualtris (bear away hence my bones with you).

Verse 20: A partirin di Sucot (they departed from Succoth) e si camparin a Etam (and encamped at Etham), ad ôr dal desert (at the edge of the desert).

Verse 21: Il Signôr al cjaminave cun lôr (the Lord walked [was walking] with them): vie pal dì intune colone di nûl (during the day in a column of cloud) par mostrâur la strade (to show them the way) e vie pe gnot intune colone di fûc (and during the night in a column of fire) par fâur lusôr (to make light for them), in mût che a rivassin adore di lâ indenant di dì e di gnot (that they should be able to go forwards by day and by night).

Verse 22: No i è mancjade al popul (the people were not deprived of [unto the people did not lack]) la colone di nûl vie pal dì (the column of cloud during the day) e nancje la colone di fûc vie pe gnot (or the column of fire during the night).