Friulian language series: Esodo 13, i primarûi

The thirteenth chapter of the book of Exodus treats of: i primarûi (firstborns); il pan cence levan (bread without leaven); Israel al partìs, seconde conte (Israel departeth, second recounting).

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Versets 1-10

Vocabulary: fevelâ (to speak), (to say), consacrâ (to consecrate), il prin nassût (firstborn), dut (all), un israelit (Israelite), viergi (to open), la nature (nature), un om (man), il nemâl (animal), bandît (set apart), il popul (people), visâsi di (to remember), la zornade (day), saltâ fûr (to come forth), la cjase (house), sotan (held in bondage), la fuarce (might), il braç (arm), vê di (to have to), mangjâ (to eat), il pan (bread), jevât (arisen), vuê (today), il mês (month), jentrâ (to enter), la tiere (land), zurâ (to swear), il von (forefather), (to give), scori (to flow), il riul (stream), il lat (milk), la mîl (honey), la fieste (feast), stes (same), siet (seven), il dì; la dì (day), di file (in a row), cence (without), il levan (leaven), setim (seventh), viodi (to see), e nancje (nor), nissun (not any), la bande (side), di nissune bande (not anywhere), insegnâ (to instruct), cussì (so), il fi (son), par vie di (on account of), il segnâl (sign), la man (hand), il ricuart (reminder), il cerneli (brow), la leç (law), simpri (ever), la bocje (mouth), fuart (mighty), rispietâ (to respect), scjadê (to fall), un an (year).

Verses 1-2: Il Signôr i fevelà a Mosè e i disè (the Lord spoke unto Moses and said unto him): consacrimi i prins nassûts di ducj i israelits (consecrate unto me the firstborns of all the Israelites); ducj chei che a viergin la nature* (all those which open the nature)om o nemâl che al sedi (man or animal be he)a son bandîts+ par me (they are set apart for me). — *The feminine nature is here employed as a euphemism to refer to the female reproductive organs. Nature may also be employed to refer to the virile member; in Gjenesi 17 (see verses 11, 14, 23-25), the foreskin of the male is referred to as ultime piel de nature (last skin of the nature). +bandît: set apart, in service of the Lord

Verse 3: Dissal Mosè al popul (Moses said unto the people): visaitsi di chê zornade (remember that day), chê che o sês saltâts fûr dal Egjit (that one when ye came forth from Egypt), de cjase là che o jeris sotans (from the house where ye were held in bondage), parcè che il Signôr us à fats saltâ fûr (for the Lord made ye come forth) cu la fuarce dal so braç (with the might of his arm). Par chel no si varà di mangjâ pan jevât: therefore arisen bread is not to be eaten.

Verse 4: Vualtris o saltais fûr vuê (ye come forth today), tal mês di Abib (in the month of Abib).

Verse 5: Cuant che il Signôr ti varà fat jentrâ te tiere (when the Lord will have made thee enter into the land) dai cananeus, dai itits, dai amoreus, dai eveus e dai gjebuseus (of the Canaanites, the Hittites, the Amorites, the Hivites and the Jebusites), che al à zurât ai tiei vons di dâte (which he swore unto thy forefathers to give thee), tiere che a scorin a riui lat e mîl (land where milk and honey flow by streamfuls), tu varâs di fâ cheste fieste (thou art to make this feast) in chest stes mês (in this same month).

Verse 6: Par siet dîs* di file (for seven days in a row) tu mangjarâs pan cence levan (shalt thou eat bread without leaven). La setime zornade ({on} the seventh day) si fasarà fieste pal Signôr (feast for the Lord shall be made). — *Here is masculine, for it is employed with the cardinal numeral siet, whereas it is feminine at the beginning of verse 8 (ta chê dì), as revealed by the use of chê. As for zornade, found in the second sentence of verse 6, it is always feminine.

Verse 7: Si mangjarà pan cence levan (bread without leaven shall be eaten) ducj i siet dîs ({on} all seven days) e no si varà di viodi in cjase tô pan jevât (and arisen bread is not to be seen in thy house) e nancje no si varà di viodi levan di nissune bande (nor is leaven to be seen anywhere).

Verse 8: Ta chê dì (in that day) tu i insegnarâs cussì a to fi (shalt thou instruct so thy son): al è par vie di ce che il Signôr (it is on account of that which the Lord) *al à vût fat* par me (happened to do for me) cuant che o soi saltât fûr dal Egjit (when I came forth from Egypt). — *Al à vût fat employs that which is called un timp bicomponût (bicompound tense). Whereas al à fat is ‘compound’, for the auxiliary (à) is followed by one past participle (fat), al à vût fat is ‘bicompound’, for the auxiliary is followed by two past participles (vût fat). A Friulian bicompound tense conveys chance; it is composed of a compound form of (al à vût, al varès vût, and the like), followed by the past participle of the main verb in question. Consider: ce che al à fat par me; ce che al à vût fat par me (that which he did for me; that which he happened to do for me); ce che al veve fat par me; ce che al veve vût fat par me (that which he had done for me; that which he had happened to do for me); ce che al varès dit; ce che al varès vût dit (that which he would have said; that which he would have happened to say).

Verse 9: Al sarà par te (it shall be for thee) come un segnâl su la tô man (as a sign upon thy hand) e come un ricuart sul to cerneli (and as a reminder upon thy brow), par che la leç dal Signôr (that the law of the Lord) e sedi simpri inte tô bocje (may ever be in thy mouth), parcè che il Signôr ti à fat saltâ fûr dal Egjit (for the Lord made thee come forth from Egypt) cun man fuarte (with mighty hand). — Review: Parts of the human head.

Verse 10: Tu rispietarâs cheste leç (thou shalt respect* this law) cuant che e scjât (when it falleth), an par an (year unto year). — *as in keep

Versets 11-16

Vocabulary: jentrâ (to enter), la tiere (land), zurâ (to swear), i vons (forefathers), deventâ (to become), il paron (master), cedi (to cede), viergi (to open), la nature (nature), ancje (also), il prin part (firstling), il nemâl (animal), il mascjo (male), prin (first), il mus (ass), sfrancjâ (to redeem), il cjâf (head), il besteam (cattle), minût (little), volê (to will), sfracaiâ (to crush), il grop (knob), la cope (nape), un om (man), però (but), nassi (to be born), par prin (first {of all}), il fi (son), vê di (to have to), il doman (morrow), domandâ (to ask), volê dî (to mean), rispuindi (to respond), saltâ fûr (to come forth), la cjase (house), sotan (held in bondage), la fuarce (might), la man (hand), midiant che (given that), il faraon (pharaoh), inrochîsi (to rise up), lassâ (to let), (to go), murî (to die), il prin nassût (firstborn), par chel (therefore), sacrifcâ (to sacrifice), ogni (every), il segnâl (sign), la fasse (band), il cerneli (brow).

Verses 11-12: Cuant che il Signôr ti varà fat jentrâ te tiere di Canaan (when the Lord will have made thee enter into the land of Canaan), come che tal à zurât a ti e ai tiei vons (as he swore it unto thee and unto thy forefathers), e che tu sarâs deventât paron (and thou wilt have become master), tu i cedarâs al Signôr (thou shalt cede unto the Lord) dut ce che al vierç la nature (all that which openeth the nature) e ancje i prins parts dai tiei nemâi (and also the firstlings of thine animals): i mascjos a son dal Signôr (the males are the Lord’s).

Verse 13: Il prin mus tu lu sfrancjarâs (the first ass shalt thou redeem) cuntun cjâf di besteam minût (with a head of little cattle). Se no tu vûs sfrancjâlu (if thou will not redeem it), *tu i sfracaiarâs il grop de cope* (thou shalt crush the knob of its nape); i oms però che a nassin par prins (but men who are born first), ancje i tiei fîs (also thy sons), tu âs di sfrancjâju (art thou to redeem). — *Taken apart: tu (thou) i (unto it) sfracaiarâs (shalt crush) il grop (the knob) de cope (of the nape).

Verse 14: Cuant che un doman to fi ti domandarà (when one morrow thy son will ask thee): ce vuelial dî chest? (what meaneth this?), tu i rispuindarâs (thou shalt respond unto him): il Signôr nus à fats saltâ fûr dal Egjit (the Lord made us come forth from Egypt), de cjase che o jerin sotans (from the house where we were held in bondage), cu la fuarce de sô man (with the might of his hand).

Verse 15: E midiant che il faraon si inrochive (and given that the pharaoh would rise up) a no volê lassânus lâ (in willing not let us go), il Signôr al à fat murî ducj i prins nassûts dal Egjit (the Lord made all the firstborns of Egypt die), tant i prins nassûts dai oms come ancje chei dal besteam (as much the firstborns of men as also those of cattle). Al è par chel che (therefore it is that) jo i sacrifichi al Signôr (I sacrifice unto the Lord) ogni mascjo che al vierç la nature (every male which openeth the nature) e che o sfrancji il prin dai miei fîs (and that I redeem the first of my sons).

Verse 16: Chest al sarà par te (this shall be for thee) come un segnâl te tô man (as a sign upon* thy hand), une fasse sul cerneli (a band upon the brow), parcè che il Signôr us à fats saltâ fûr dal Egjit (for the Lord made you come forth from Egypt) cu la fuarce de sô man (with the might of his hand). — *literally, in; verse 9 employs upon

Versets 17-22

Vocabulary: il faraon (pharaoh), lassâ (to let), (to go), il popul (people), la strade (way), la tiere (land), il filisteu (Philistine), seben che (although), curt (short), pensâ (to think), viodi (to see), petâ (to strike forth), intor (about), il nemì (enemy), ogni (every), la bande (side), jessi bon di (to be capable of), gambiâ (to change), la idee (idea), tornâ (to go back down), cussì (so), il gîr (circuit), il desert (desert), il mâr (sea), la cjanusse (reed), un israelit (Israelite), saltâ fûr (to come forth), armât (armed), pront (ready), dut (all), puartâ daûrsi (to bear behind oneself), ancje (also), il vuès (bone), il zurament (oath), vignî (to come), di sigûr (surely), viodi di (to see unto), une volte (one time), puartâ vie (to bear away), di chi (hence), partî (to depart), campâsi (to encamp), un ôr (edge), cjaminâ (to walk), vie par (during), il dì (day), la colone (column), il nûl (cloud), mostrâ (to show), la gnot (night), il fûc (fire), il lusôr (light), in mût che ({in order} that), rivâ adore di (to be able to), indenant (forwards), mancjâ (to lack), e nancje (nor).

Verse 17: Cuant che il faraon al lassà lâ il popul (when the pharaoh let the people go), Diu no ju fasè lâ (God did not make them go) pe strade ch’e va te tiere dai filisteus (by the way which goeth into the land of the Philistines), seben ch’e jere la plui curte (although it was the shortest), parcè che Diu al veve pensât che il popul (for God had thought that the people), viodintsi a petâ intor nemîs di ogni bande (in seeing enemies strike forth about them from every side), al jere bon di gambiâ idee (were capable of changing idea) e di tornâ jù in Egjit (and of going back down into Egypt).

Verse 18: E cussì Diu i fasè fâ al popul un gîr (and so God made the people make a circuit) pe strade dal desert (by the way of the desert), de bande dal mâr des Cjanussis (towards the Sea of Reeds). I israelits a saltarin fûr de tiere dal Egjit (the Israelites came forth from the land of Egypt) armâts e pronts a dut (armed and ready for all).

Verse 19: Mosè al puartà daûrsi (Moses bore behind himself) ancje i vues di Josef (also the bones of Joseph), che ur veve fat fâ ai israelits chest zurament (who had made the Israelites make this oath): Diu al vignarà di sigûr (God will surely come) a viodi di vualtris (to see unto you) e in chê volte (and in that time) puartait vie di chi i miei vues cun vualtris (bear away hence my bones with you).

Verse 20: A partirin di Sucot (they departed from Succoth) e si camparin a Etam (and encamped at Etham), ad ôr dal desert (at the edge of the desert).

Verse 21: Il Signôr al cjaminave cun lôr (the Lord would walk with them): vie pal dì intune colone di nûl (during the day in a column of cloud) par mostrâur la strade (to show them the way) e vie pe gnot intune colone di fûc (and during the night in a column of fire) par fâur lusôr (to make light for them), in mût che a rivassin adore di lâ indenant di dì e di gnot (that they should be able to go forwards by day and by night).

Verse 22: No i è mancjade al popul la colone di nûl vie pal dì (the column of cloud lacked not unto the people during the day) e nancje la colone di fûc vie pe gnot (nor the column of fire during the night).