Friulian language series: Esodo 13, i primarûi

The thirteenth chapter of the book of Exodus tells of: i primarûi (the firstborn); il pan cence levan (unleavened bread); Israel al partìs, seconde conte (Israel departs, second narration).

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Versets 1-10

Vocabulary: fevelâ (to speak), (to say), consacrâ (to consecrate, to sanctify), il prin nassût (firstborn), un israelit (Israelite), viergi (to open; also vierzi), la nature (womb), un om (man), il nemâl (animal), bandît (consecrated, sanctified), dissal (he said), visâsi di (to remember), la zornade (day), saltâ fûr (to come/go out), la cjase (house), sotan (enslaved, subjugated), la fuarce (force, might, strength), il braç (arm), par chel (for that reason), (must, to have to), mangjâ (to eat), il pan (bread), jevât (risen), vuê (today), il mês (month), jentrâ (to enter, to go in), la tiere (land), zurâ (to swear), il von (forefather), (to give), scori (to flow), il riul (stream), il lat (milk), la mîl (honey), la fieste (feast, festival), stes (same), siet (seven), il dì (day), di file (in a row), il levan (leaven), setim (seventh), viodi (to see), nancje (nor), nissun (no, not any), la bande (side), insegnâ (to instruct), cussì (thus, so), par vie di (on account of), il segnâl (sign, signal), la man (hand), il ricuart (reminder), il cerneli (forehead), la leç (law), la bocje (mouth), fuart (strong, mighty), rispietâ (to respect), scjadê (to fall, to occur; of date), un an (year).

Verses 1-2: Il Signôr i fevelà a Mosè e i disè (the Lord spoke to Moses and said to him): consacrimi i prins nassûts di ducj i israelits (consecrate to me the firstborn of all the Israelites); ducj chei che a viergin la nature (all those that open the womb)om o nemâl che al sedi (whether man or beast [man or animal that they may be])a son bandîts par me (they are to be consecrated to me [they are set apart for me]). The feminine noun nature can be used as a euphemism to refer to the reproductive organs of both the male and female. (In Gjenesi 17, the foreskin of the male is referred to as ultime piel de nature, where, in that context, nature is a euphemistic reference to the virile member.) Bandît translates literally as set apart; it is to be understood here as set apart in the service of the Lord.

Verse 3: Dissal Mosè al popul (Moses said to the people): visaitsi di chê zornade (remember that day), chê che o sês saltâts fûr dal Egjit (the one on which you went forth from Egypt), de cjase là che o jeris sotans (from the house where you were enslaved), parcè che il Signôr us à fats saltâ fûr (for the Lord brought you forth [made you come out]) cu la fuarce dal so braç (by [with] the might of his arm). Par chel no si varà di mangjâ pan jevât: leavened bread (risen bread) shall therefore not be eaten.

Verse 4: Vualtris o saltais fûr vuê (you go forth on this day), tal mês di Abib (in the month of Abib). The month Abib corresponded to part of March and April, which was the best time of year to undertake a journey into the desert region of Sinai.

Verse 5: Cuant che il Signôr ti varà fat jentrâ te tiere (when the Lord brings you into the land [when the Lord will have made you enter the land]) dai cananeus, dai itits, dai amoreus, dai eveus e dai gjebuseus (of the Canaanites, the Hittites, the Amorites, the Hivites and the Jebusites), che al à zurât ai tiei vons di dâte (which he swore to your forefathers to give you), tiere che a scorin a riui lat e mîl (a land where milk and honey flow by the streamfuls), tu varâs di fâ cheste fieste (you are to observe this feast [you shall have to do this feast]) in chest stes mês (in this same month).

Verse 6: Par siet dîs di file (for seven days in a row) tu mangjarâs pan cence levan (you shall eat unleavened bread [bread without leaven]). La setime zornade si fasarà fieste pal Signôr: on the seventh day, a feast to the Lord shall be observed.

Verse 7: Si mangjarà pan cence levan (unleavened bread [bread without leaven] shall be eaten) ducj i siet dîs (throughout the seven days) e no si varà di viodi in cjase tô pan jevât (and leavened bread [risen bread] shall not be seen in your house) e nancje no si varà di viodi levan di nissune bande (nor is leaven to be seen anywhere).

Verse 8: Ta chê dì (on that day) tu i insegnarâs cussì a to fi (thus shall you instruct your son): al è par vie (it is on account) di ce che il Signôr al à vût fat par me (of what the Lord happened to do for me) cuant che o soi saltât fûr dal Egjit (when I came forth from Egypt). In the text of this verse, you find what is called un timp bicomponût (bicompound tense): al à vût fat. (Whereas al à fat is “compound” because there is an auxiliary [à] followed by a past participle [fat], al à vût fat is “bicompound”: there is an auxiliary [à] followed by two past participles [vût fat].) A Friulian bicompound tense conveys chance; it is composed of a compound form of (al à vût, al varès vût, etc.) followed by the past participle of the main verb in question. Consider: ce che al à fat par me; ce che al à vût fat par me (that which he did for me; that which he happened to do for me); ce che al veve fat par me; ce che al veve vût fat par me (that which he had done for me; that which he had happened to do for me); al varès dit; al varès vût dit (he would have said; he would have happened to say).

Verse 9: Al sarà par te (it shall be for you) come un segnâl su la tô man (as a sign upon your hand) e come un ricuart sul to cerneli (and as a reminder upon your forehead), par che la leç dal Signôr (that the law of the Lord) e sedi simpri inte tô bocje (may always be in your mouth), parcè che il Signôr ti à fat saltâ fûr dal Egjit (for the Lord brought you forth from Egypt [made you come out of Egypt]) cun man fuarte (with a mighty hand). Review: Parts of the human head.

Verse 10: Tu rispietarâs cheste leç (you shall keep [respect] this law) cuant che e scjât (when it falls; when it occurs), an par an (year to year).

Versets 11-16

Vocabulary: jentrâ (to enter, to go in), la tiere (land), zurâ (to swear), i vons (forefathers), deventâ (to become), il paron (possessor, owner), cedi (to give, to surrender), viergi (to open; also vierzi), la nature (womb), ancje (also, too), il prin part (firstling, firstborn), il nemâl (animal), il mascjo (male), prin (first), il mus (ass, donkey), sfrancjâ (to redeem, to free), il cjâf (head), il besteam minût (small livestock), volê (to want, to mean), sfracaiâ (to break), il grop (lump, knot), la cope (nape, back of the neck), un om (man), però (but, however), nassi (to be born), vê di (must, to have to), un doman (someday), domandâ (to ask), (to say), rispuindi (to respond), fâ saltâ fûr (to bring forth), la cjase (house), sotan (enslaved, subjugated), la fuarce (force, might, strength), la man (hand), midiant che (given that), il faraon (pharaoh), inrochîsi (to rise up), lassâ lâ (to allow to depart), fâ murî (to kill), tant… come ancje (… and… alike), par chel (for that reason), sacrifcâ (to sacrifice), il segnâl (sign, signal), la fasse (band, headband), il cerneli (forehead).

Verses 11-12: Cuant che il Signôr (when the Lord) ti varà fat jentrâ te tiere di Canaan (brings you into [will have made you enter] the land of Canaan), come che tal à zurât a ti e ai tiei vons (as he swore to you [swore it to you] and your forefathers), e che tu sarâs deventât paron (and you have come into possession of it [and you will have become possessor [lord]), tu i cedarâs al Signôr (you shall surrender [cede] to the Lord) dut ce che al vierç la nature (all that opens the womb) e ancje i prins parts dai tiei nemâi (and even the firstlings of your animals): i mascjos a son dal Signôr (the males are the Lord’s [are of the Lord]).

Verse 13: Il prin mus tu lu sfrancjarâs cuntun cjâf di besteam minût: you shall redeem a firstling ass with a beast (head) from the flocks. Il grop de cope refers to the back of the neck, the vertebrae of it: se no tu vûs sfrancjâlu (if you will not redeem it), tu i sfracaiarâs il grop de cope (you shall break the back of its neck). I oms però che a nassin par prins, ancje i tiei fîs, tu âs di sfrancjâju: but the firstborn of man (but the men who are born first), even your sons, you are to redeem (redeem them).

Verse 14: Un doman (literally, a tomorrow) is to be understood as meaning someday, one day: cuant che un doman to fi ti domandarà (one day when your son asks you [will ask you]): ce vuelial dî chest? (what is the meaning of this?; what does this signify? [what does this mean to say?]), tu i rispuindarâs (you shall answer him): il Signôr nus à fats saltâ fûr dal Egjit (the Lord brought us forth from Egypt [made us come out of Egypt]), de cjase che o jerin sotans (from the house where we were enslaved), cu la fuarce de sô man (by [with] the might of his hand).

Verse 15: E midiant che il faraon si inrochive (and because Pharaoh rose up [was rising up]) a no volê lassânus lâ (to refuse our departure [in not wanting to let us go]), il Signôr al à fat murî ducj i prins nassûts dal Egjit (the Lord killed [made die] all the firstborn of Egypt), tant i prins nassûts dai oms come ancje chei dal besteam (the firstborn of both man and beast [as much the firstborn of men as those of the livestock also]). Al è par chel che jo i sacrifichi al Signôr ogni mascjo che al vierç la nature e che o sfrancji il prin dai miei fîs: I therefore sacrifice to the Lord every male that opens the womb and redeem the firstborn of my sons. Al è par chel che translates literally as it is for that that, which is to be understood as meaning it is for that reason that. Taken literally: al è par chel (it is for that reason [it is for that]) che jo i sacrifichi al Signôr (that I sacrifice to the Lord) ogni mascjo che al vierç la nature (every male that opens the womb [nature]) e che o sfrancji il prin dai miei fîs (and that I sacrifice the firstborn of my sons [first of my sons]).

Verse 16: Chest al sarà par te (this shall be for you) come un segnâl te tô man (as a sign upon your hand), une fasse sul cerneli (a band upon your forehead), parcè che il Signôr us à fats saltâ fûr dal Egjit (for the Lord brought you forth from Egypt [made you come out of Egypt]) cu la fuarce de sô man (by [with] the might of his hand).

Versets 17-22

Vocabulary: il faraon (pharaoh), lassâ lâ (to allow to depart), (to go), la strade (way, road), la tiere (land), il filisteu (Philistine), seben che (even though), curt (short), pensâ (to think), il popul (people), viodi (to see), petâ intor (to show up about one), il nemì (enemy, foe), ogni (every), la bande (side), jessi bon di (to be capable of, to be likely to), gambiâ idee (to change one’s mind; also cambiâ), tornâ (to return, to go/come back), e cussì (and so), il gîr (circuit, rotation), il desert (desert), il mâr (sea), la cjanusse (reed), un israelit (Israelite), armât (armed), pront (ready, prepared), puartâ daûrsi (to bring along), ancje (also, too), il vues (bone), il zurament (oath), vignî (to come), di sigûr (surely, certainly), viodi di (to take note of, to check in on), la volte (time), puartâ vie (to take/carry away), partî (to depart, to leave), campâsi (to encamp, to set up camp), un ôr (edge), cjaminâ (to walk), vie par (during), il dì (day), la colone (column, pillar), il nûl (cloud), mostrâ (to show, to indicate), la gnot (night), il fûc (fire), il lusôr (light), in mût che (so that), rivâ adore di (to be able to, to manage to), lâ indenant (to go forwards, to continue), mancjâ (to be lacking), nancje (nor).

Verse 17: Cuant che il faraon al lassà lâ il popul (when Pharaoh let the people depart), Diu no ju fasè lâ (God did not make them go) pe strade (by the way) ch’e va te tiere dai filisteus (that goes into the land of the Philistines), seben ch’e jere la plui curte (even though it was the shortest), parcè che Diu al veve pensât che il popul (for God had thought that the people), viodintsi a petâ intor nemîs di ogni bande (at the sight of enemies [seeing enemies] springing up about them), al jere bon di gambiâ idee (were prone to change their minds) e di tornâ jù in Egjit (and go back down into Egypt).

Verse 18: E cussì (and so) Diu i fasè fâ al popul un gîr (God made the people take a circuitous route [unto the people God made do a circuit]) pe strade dal desert (by way of the desert), de bande dal mâr des Cjanussis (towards the Sea of Reeds). I israelits a saltarin fûr de tiere dal Egjit armâts e pronts a dut: the Israelites came forth from the land of Egypt armed and prepared for all things.

Verse 19: Mosè al puartà daûrsi (Moses took with him [behind him]) ancje i vuès di Josef (also the bones of Joseph), che ur veve fat fâ ai israelits chest zurament (who had made the Israelites take this oath): Diu al vignarà di sigûr (God will surely come) a viodi di vualtris (to take note of you) e in chê volte (and upon that [and at that time]) puartait vie di chi i miei vuès cun vualtris (carry away my bones from here with you).

Verse 20: A partirin di Sucot (they left from Succoth) e si camparin a Etam (and encamped at Etham), ad ôr dal desert (at the edge of the desert).

Verse 21: Il Signôr al cjaminave cun lôr (the Lord walked [was walking] with them): vie pal dì (by day) intune colone di nûl (in a pillar of cloud) par mostrâur la strade (to show them the way) e vie pe gnot (and by night) intune colone di fûc (in a pillar of fire) par fâur lusôr (to give them light [to make light unto them]), in mût che a rivassin adore di lâ indenant di dì e di gnot (that they might advance [in order that they were going forwards] by day and by night).

Verse 22: No i è mancjade al popul la colone di nûl vie pal dì (the people were not deprived of the pillar of cloud by day [unto the people the pillar of cloud did not lack by day]) e nancje la colone di fûc vie pe gnot (or of the pillar of fire by night).