Polish language series: Rdz 22, ofiara Izaaka

In the twenty-second chapter of the book of Genesis, Abraham is called upon by God to sacrifice his son Isaac. The feminine noun ofiara is the Polish for offering, sacrifice.

If you are arriving on this site for the first time, begin your study of the Polish language here.

Read Rdz 22

To read the Polish text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Biblia Tysiąclecia and consult Rdz 22. An archived version of the text can be found here.

Wersety 1-3

  • wystawić (pf.), to put out
  • próba (f.), test, trial
  • jedyny, only
  • miłować (impf.), to love, to cherish
  • pagórek (m.), hillock
  • wskazać (pf.), to indicate, to point out
  • osiodłać (pf.), to saddle
  • osioł (m.), ass, donkey
  • narąbać (pf.), to chop, to split
  • spalenie (n.), burning
  • ruszyć (pf.), to set off

Review: wydarzenie (n., occurrence, event, incident), rzec (pf., to say), odpowiedzieć (pf., to respond), powiedzieć (pf., to say), wziąć (pf., to take), syn (m., son), iść (impf., to go), kraj (m., land, country), tam (there), złożyć (pf., to offer up), ofiara (f., offering, sacrifice), nazajutrz rano (the following morning), zabrać (pf., to take), człowiek (m., man; pl., ludzie), drzewo (n., wood), droga (f., way, road), miejscowość (f., place, spot).

Verse 1: A po tych wydarzeniach: and after these events; indicates the passage of a certain amount of time following the birth of Isaac and the expulsion of Ishmael. Wystawić na próbę is to be understood as to put to the test, to try. Bóg wystawił Abrahama na próbę: God put Abraham to the test. When God calls out to Abraham, he says Abrahamie; this is the wołacz (vocative). Abraham responds: oto jestem (here I am).

Verse 2: Weź twego syna jedynego: take your only son; Abraham’s other son, Ishmael, is now disregarded. Którego miłujesz: whom you love. God tells Abraham to sacrifice Isaac: idź do kraju Moria (go to the land of Moriah) i tam (and there) złóż go w ofierze (offer him up in sacrifice) na jednym z pagórków (on one of the hillocks) jakie ci wskażę (that I shall point out to you).

Verse 3: Nazajutrz rano: the next (following) morning; the morning after. Abraham osiodłał swego osła: Abraham saddled his ass. Zabrał z sobą dwóch swych ludzi: he took two of his men with him. Narąbał drzewa do spalenia ofiary: he split (pieces of) wood for the burning of the offering; that is, he split wood for the burnt offering. You have seen the neuter drzewo before in the sense of tree; it is to be understood in the text of this verse as meaning wood. Abraham then leaves for the place where the sacrifice is to occur: ruszył w drogę (he set off) do miejscowości (for the place), o której mu Bóg powiedział (about which God had spoken to him).

Wersety 4-6

  • z daleka, from afar
  • drwa (pl.), firewood
  • włożyć (pf.), to put, to place
  • nóż (m.), knife

Review: trzeci (third), dzień (m., day), spojrzeć (pf., to look), dostrzec (pf., to perceive, to detect), miejscowość (f., place, spot), wtedy (then), sługa (m., servant), zostać (pf., to remain, to stay), tu (here), osioł (m., ass, donkey), chłopiec (m., boy, lad), tam (there), pójść (pf., to go), oddać pokłon (pf., to bow down), potem (then), wrócić (pf., to return), zabrać (pf., to take), drzewo (n., wood), spalenie (n., burning), ofiara (f., offering, sacrifice), syn (m., son), ręka (f., hand), ogień (m., fire), po czym (then, thereupon), obaj (both of them, the two of them), oddalić się (pf., to withdraw, to walk off).

Verse 4: You find the ordinal trzeci here: na trzeci dzień (on the third day). Review: Polish ordinal numbers. The text of this verse continues: Abraham, spojrzawszy (Abraham, having looked [up]), dostrzegł z daleka ową miejscowość (saw the place [that place] from afar).

Verse 5: Abraham says to his servants (do swych sług): zostańcie tu z osłem (stay here with the ass). Zostańcie is the second-person plural imperative of the perfect zostać. He continues: ja zaś i chłopiec (whereas I and the boy) pójdziemy tam (shall go [up] there), aby oddać pokłon Bogu (so as to bow down to God), a potem wrócimy do was (and then we shall return to you).

Verse 6: Abraham, zabrawszy drwa do spalenia ofiary: Abraham, having taken the (pieces of) wood for the burnt offering (for the burning of the offering). Abraham sets the pieces of firewood upon his son: włożył je na syna swego Izaaka (he placed them upon his son Isaac); he takes the fire and knife: wziął do ręki (he took into his hand) ogień i nóż (the fire and knife); and the two leave: po czym obaj się oddalili (then the two of them walked off).

Wersety 7-10

  • całopalenie (n.), burnt offering
  • obydwaj, both
  • związać (pf.), to tie, to bind
  • sięgnąć (pf.), to reach

Review: odezwać się (pf., to say, to speak, to address), ojciec (m., father), syn (m., son), zapytać (pf., to ask), ogień (m., fire), drzewo (n., wood), jagnię (n., lamb), odpowiedzieć (pf., to respond), upatrzyć (pf., to choose, to see to), iść (impf., to go, to walk), dalej (onwards), przyjść (pf., to arrive, to come), miejsce (n., place, spot), wskazać (pf., to indicate, to point out), zbudować (pf., to construct, to build), ołtarz (m., altar), ułożyć (pf., to place, to put), położyć (pf., to place, to set down, to lay), ręka (f., hand), nóż (m., knife), zabić (pf., to kill).

Verse 7: Vocative forms: ojcze mój ([O] my father); mój synu ([O] my son). Izaak odezwał się do swego ojca Abrahama: Isaac said to his father Abraham. Oto jestem: here I am. Isaac asks his father: oto ogień i drwa (here is the fire and [pieces of] wood), a gdzież jest jagnię na całopalenie? (but where ever is the lamb for the burnt offering?). Gdzież (where ever, where on earth) is an emphatic form of gdzie (where).

Verse 8: Abraham responds: Bóg upatrzy sobie jagnię na całopalenie, synu mój (God will see to the lamb for himself, my son). In the following, you are dealing with the imperfective verb iść: i szli obydwaj dalej (and the two walked on [were walking on]).

Verse 9: A gdy przyszli na to miejsce, które Bóg wskazał: and when they came to the place which God had pointed out. Abraham zbudował tam ołtarz: Abraham built an altar there. Ułożył na nim drwa: he placed the (pieces of) wood upon it. Związawszy syna swego Izaaka położył go na tych drwach na ołtarzu: having bound his son Isaac, he laid his son upon the (pieces of) wood on the altar.

Verse 10: Potem Abraham sięgnął ręką po nóż (then Abraham reached out with his hand for the knife), aby zabić swego syna (in order to kill his son).

Wersety 11-12

  • podnosić (pf.), to raise
  • złe (n.), ill, harm
  • odmówić (pf.), to refuse, to deny

Review: ale (but), wtedy (then), anioł (m., angel), pański (lordly, lord’s), zawołać (pf., to call out, to summon), niebo (n., heaven, sky), rzec (pf., to say), powiedzieć (pf., to say), ręka (f., hand), chłopiec (m., boy, lad), czynić (impf., to do, to make), poznać (pf., to recognise, to know), bać się (impf., to be afraid, to fear), nawet (even), jedyny (only), syn (m., son).

Verse 11: Anioł Pański: angel of the Lord; literally, Lordly Angel. Ale wtedy Anioł Pański zawołał na niego z nieba: but then the angel of the Lord called out to him from the heaven.

Verse 12: The angel of the Lord says: nie podnoś ręki na chłopca (do not raise [your] hand against the boy) i nie czyń mu nic złego (and do him no harm). The angel continues: teraz poznałem (now I know [have known]), że boisz się Boga (that you fear God), bo nie odmówiłeś Mi nawet twego jedynego syna (for not even your only son have you denied me).

Wersety 13-14

  • poza siebie, behind himself
  • uwikłać (pf.) to entangle
  • róg (m.), horn
  • zarośla (pl.), thicket
  • całopalny, burnt offering
  • mówić się (impf.), to be said
  • dzisiaj, today
  • ukazywać się (impf.), to appear

Review: obejrzeć się (pf., to look round), spostrzec (pf., to notice, to see), baran (m., ram), pójść (pf., to go), więc (therefore, so), wziąć (pf., to take), złożyć (pf., to offer up), ofiara (f., offering, sacrifice), zamiast (instead of, in place of), syn (m., son), dać (pf., to give), miejsce (n., place), nazwa (f., name), widzieć (impf., to see), stąd (from here, whence), mówić się (impf., to be said), wzgórze (n., hill).

Verse 13: Abraham, obejrzawszy się poza siebie: Abraham, having looked round behind himself. He spots a ram: spostrzegł barana (he noticed a ram) uwikłanego rogami (entangled by its horns) w zaroślach (in the thickets); uwikłany (entangled, caught) is formed from the perfective uwikłać, which takes its accusative form in spostrzegł barana uwikłanego. In verse 7, you encountered the neuter całopalenie, meaning burnt offering; in the current verse, you now find burnt offering expressed as ofiara całopalna, where całopalna is the feminine form of the adjective całopalny: poszedł więc (so he went), wziął barana (he took the ram) i złożył w ofierze całopalnej (and he offered [it] up as a burnt offering) zamiast swego syna (in place of his son).

Verse 14: I dał Abraham miejscu temu nazwę: and Abraham named the place (gave unto the place the name). Pan widzi: the Lord sees. Stąd to mówi się dzisiaj: whence it is said today. Na wzgórzu Pan się ukazuje: on the hill the Lord appears.

Wersety 15-17

  • wyrocznia (f.) oracle
  • oszczędzić (pf.), to spare
  • piasek (m.), sand
  • warownia (f.), stronghold, fortress

Review: po czym (thereupon), anioł (m., angel), pański (lordly, lord’s), przemówić (pf., to address, to speak), głośno (loudly, in a loud voice), niebo (n., heaven, sky), raz (m., time), drugi (second), przysięgać (impf., to swear, to take an oath), ponieważ (because, given that), uczynić (pf., to do, to make), syn (m., son), jedyny (only), błogosławić (impf., to bless), dać (pf., to give), potomstwo (n., offspring), liczny (numerous), gwiazda (f., star), ziarnko (n., grain), wybrzeże (n., shore, coast), morze (n., sea), potomek (m., descendant), zdobyć (pf., to acquire, to capture), nieprzyjaciel (m., enemy, foe).

Verse 15: Po czym Anioł Pański (thereupon the angel of the Lord [Lordly Angel]) przemówił głośno (spoke loudly) z nieba (from the heaven) do Abrahama (to Abraham) po raz drugi (for the second time).

Verse 16: Przysięgam na siebie (I swear by [on] myself), wyrocznia Pana (oracle of the Lord), że ponieważ uczyniłeś to (that because you have done this), a nie oszczędziłeś syna twego jedynego (and have not spared your only son).

Verse 17: Ziarnko piasku: grain of sand. Wybrzeże morza: seashore, seacoast; literally, shore (coast) of the sea. You read: będę ci błogosławił (I shall bless you) i dam ci potomstwo tak liczne jak (and I shall give you offspring as numerous as) gwiazdy na niebie (the stars in the heaven) i jak ziarnka piasku (and as the grains of sand) na wybrzeżu morza (on the seashore). Potomkowie twoi zdobędą warownie swych nieprzyjaciół: your descendants shall capture the strongholds of their foes.

Wersety 18-19

  • życzyć (impf.), to wish
  • szczęście (n.), fortune, prosperity
  • udział (m.), lot
  • razem z, along with

Review: lud (m., people), ziemia (f., earth), potomstwo (n., offspring), dlatego że (because, given that), usłuchać (pf., to heed, to listen), rozkaz (m., command, order), wrócić (pf., to return), sługa (m., servant), wyruszyć (impf., to leave, to set out), droga (f., way, road), pójść (pf., to go), mieszkać (impf., to dwell), nadal (as before).

Verse 18: Wszystkie ludy ziemi będą sobie życzyć szczęścia [takiego, jakie jest udziałem] twego potomstwa: all the peoples of the earth shall wish for the prosperity (such as is the lot) of your offspring. Dlatego że usłuchałeś mego rozkazu: given that you took heed of my command.

Verse 19: Abraham wrócił do swych sług: Abraham returned to his servants. Wyruszywszy razem z nimi w drogę: having set out along with them. Poszedł do Beer-Szeby: he went to Beersheba. Mieszkał Abraham nadal w Beer-Szebie: Abraham dwelt as before in Beersheba.

Wersety 20-24

  • donieść (pf.), to inform
  • drugorzędny, secondary

Review: wydarzenie (n., occurrence, event, incident), również (also), urodzić (pf., to bear), syn (m., son), brat (m., brother), pierworodny (firstborn), praojciec (m., forefather), osiem (eight), żona (f., wife), imię (n., name).

Verse 20: Po tych wydarzeniach: see the notes at the first verse. Doniesiono is the impersonal past: doniesiono Abrahamowi (Abraham was informed [one informed (unto) Abraham]). Milka również urodziła synów twemu bratu, Nachorowi: Milcah too has borne sons to your brother Nahor. The nominative form of Nahor’s name in Polish is Nachor.

Verse 21: Aramejczyk (m.): Aramean. Milcah bore: Usa, syna pierworodnego (Uz, the firstborn son), Buza, jego brata (Buz, his brother), Kemuela, praojca Aramejczyków (Kemuel, the forefather of the Arameans). The names of these sons appear here in the accusative because they follow from the verb urodzić in the previous verse; in the nominative, they are: Us, Buz, Kemuel.

Verse 22: In the nominative: Kesed, Chazo, Pildasz, Jidlaf, Betuel.

Verse 23: Betuel zaś był ojcem Rebeki: as for Bethuel, he was the father of Rebekah. Ośmiu: accusative and masculine personal form of osiem (eight). Ośmiu synów urodziła Milka: Milcah bore eight sons.

Verse 24: Drugorzędna żona: concubine; literally, secondary wife. Imieniem Reuma: by the name of Reumah; that is, named Reumah; whose name was Reumah. Nominative forms of names: Nachor, Reuma, Tebach, Gacham, Tachasz, Maaka.