Polish language series: Rdz 19, zniszczenie Sodomy i Gomory

In the nineteenth chapter of the book of Genesis, you read about: zniszczenie Sodomy i Gomory (destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah); występek córek Lota (offence committed by Lot’s daughters [offence of the daughters of Lot]). The Polish for Sodom in its nominative form is Sodoma; for Gomorrah, it is Gomora.

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Read Rdz 19

To read the Polish text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Biblia Tysiąclecia and consult Rdz 19. An archived version of the text can be found here.

Wersety 1-2

  • brama (f.), gate
  • zajść (pf.), to drop in, to turn aside
  • nocleg (m.), accommodation
  • rano, in the morning
  • dalszy, farther, continued
  • spędzić (pf.), to spend, to pass

Review: anioł (m., angel), przybyć (pf., to arrive), wieczór (m., evening), siedzieć (impf., to sit, to be seated), ujrzeć (pf., to see), wyjść (pf., to go [come] out), naprzeciw (+ gen., opposite), oddać pokłon (pf., to bow down), ziemia (f., earth, ground), rzec (pf., to say), raczyć (pf., to be so kind as to), pan (m., lord), dom (m., house), sługa (m., servant), obmyć (pf., to wash), noga (f., foot), pójść (pf., to go), droga (f., way, road), noc (f., night), dwór (m., court).

Verse 1: Owi dwaj aniołowie: those two angels; that is, two of the three from Rdz 18. Owi dwaj aniołowie przybyli do Sodomy wieczorem: those two angels arrived in Sodom in the evening. Kiedy to Lot siedział w bramie Sodomy: as (when it was that) Lot was sitting in the gate of Sodom. Gdy Lot ich ujrzał: when Lot saw them. In the following, wyjść naprzeciw is to be taken as meaning to go out to meet them, to go out to greet them: wyszedł naprzeciw nich (he went out to greet them) i oddawszy im pokłon do ziemi (and having bowed down to the ground before them [and having unto them paid obeisance to the ground).

Verse 2: Lot invites them to spend the night at his house. Raczcie, panowie moi, zajść do domu sługi waszego na nocleg: please, my lords, turn aside at your servant’s house for the night; na nocleg can be taken in the sense of for the night. Lot then tells them: obmyjcie sobie nogi (wash your feet) a rano pójdziecie w dalszą drogę (and in the morning you will continue on your way; literally, you will go on your continued way). Dalszy (farther) is the comparative form of the adjective daleki (far); see below. The angels decline: spędzimy noc na dworze (we shall spend the night in the court); the court (dwór) is to be taken here as referring to the open space of the city — a square.

dalekidalszynajdalszy
farfartherfarthest

Wersety 3-5

  • usilnie, insistently
  • prosić (impf.), to invite, to request
  • zgodzić się (pf.), to agree, to consent
  • przygotować (pf.), to prepare
  • wieczerza (f.), supper
  • upiec (pf.), to bake
  • przaśny, unleavened
  • posilić się (pf.), to eat
  • spoczynek (m.), rest, repose
  • otoczyć (pf.), to surround
  • wywołać (pf.), to call out
  • poswawolić (pf.), to frolic

Review: wejść (pf., to enter, to go in), dom (m., house), polecić (pf., to instruct), chleb (m., bread), zanim jeszcze (even before), udać się (pf., to go, to proceed), mieszkać (impf., to dwell), mężczyzna (m., man), młody (young), stary (old), strona (f., side), miasto (n., city, town), tu (here), człowiek (m., man; pl., ludzie), przyjść (pf., to arrive, to come), wieczór (m., evening), wyprowadzić (pf., to bring out).

Verse 3: Gdy on usilnie ich prosił: when he insisted with them (when he was inviting them insistently). Zgodzili się i weszli do jego domu: they consented and went into his house. Lot prepares food for them to eat: on zaś (as for him [Lot]) przygotował wieczerzę (he prepared supper), poleciwszy upiec chleba przaśnego (having instructed to bake unleavened bread; that is, having had unleavened bread be baked). I posilili się: and they ate.

Verse 4: Udać się na spoczynek is to be taken as meaning to retire for the night, to lie down to rest: zanim jeszcze udali się na spoczynek (even before they had retired for the night; even before they had lain down to rest). The men of Sodom gather round the house: mieszkający w Sodomie mężczyźni (the men dwelling in Sodom), młodzi i starzy (young and old), ze wszystkich stron miasta (from all over [all sides of] the city), otoczyli dom (surrounded the house). Młodzi and starzy are nominative, masculine personal forms of the plural.

Verse 5: Wywołali Lota: they called out to Lot. The Sodomites ask: gdzie tu są ci ludzie (where are those men [here]), którzy przyszli do ciebie tego wieczoru? (who came to you this evening?). They ask for them to be brought out: wyprowadź ich do nas (bring them out to us), abyśmy mogli z nimi poswawolić (that we may frolic with them).

Wersety 6-8

  • zaryglować (pf.), to bar, to bolt
  • byle, providing that, so long as
  • czynić (impf.), to make, to do

Review: wyjść (pf., to go [come] out), wejście (n., entrance), drzwi (pl., door), brat (m., brother), prosić (impf., to beg, to plead), dopuszczać się (impf., to commit), występek (m., offence, crime), córka (f., daughter), jeszcze (yet), żyć (impf., to lie with), mężczyzna (m., man), pozwolić (pf., to permit, to let), wyprowadzić (pf., to bring out), postąpić (pf., to behave, to act), podobać się (impf., to appeal, to be pleasing), człowiek (m., man; pl., ludzie), bo przecież (for, because, for after all), dach (m., roof).

Verse 6: Lot, który wyszedł do nich do wejścia (Lot, who went out to them to the entrance), zaryglowawszy za sobą drzwi (having barred the door behind him).

Verse 7: Bracia moi (my brothers), proszę was (I beg you), nie dopuszczajcie się tego występku (do not commit this offence).

Verse 8: Mam dwie córki: I have two daughters. The feminine form of dwa (two) is dwie; its form in the biernik (accusative) is also dwie: dwie córki (two daughters); mam dwie córki (I have two daughters). Które jeszcze nie żyły z mężczyzną: who have not yet lain (been lying) with man. Lot offers to bring out his daughters: pozwólcie, że je wyprowadzę do was (let me bring them out [permit that I shall bring them out] to you). He tells them that they can do as they please with his daughters: postąpicie z nimi (do with them [behave towards them; deal with them]), jak się wam podoba (as you please [as it is pleasing unto you]). Bylebyście tym ludziom niczego nie czynili: providing that you do nothing to these men; the second-person plural marker is contained in bylebyście rather than in czynili. Bo przecież są oni pod moim dachem: for they are under my roof; that is, for they have come under the shelter of my roof.

Wersety 9-11

  • krzyknąć (pf.), to shout, to yell
  • precz, away
  • śmieć (impf.), to dare, to venture
  • gorzej, worse
  • gwałtownie, violently, vehemently
  • przybliżyć się (pf.), to draw near
  • wyważyć (pf.), to force in
  • wsunąć (pf.), to put forth
  • przyciągnąć (pf.), to pull
  • wnętrze (n.), inside, interior
  • zaryglować (pf), to bar, to bolt
  • porazić (pf.), to strike
  • ślepota (f.), blindness
  • na próżno, in vain
  • usiłować (impf.), to attempt, to try
  • odnaleźć (pf.), to find (again)

Review: odejść (pf., to leave, to go), mówić (impf., to say), przybysz (m., sojourner, resident foreigner), rządzić (impf., to command, to govern), jeszcze (yet), móc (impf., can, to be able), postąpić (pf., to behave, to act), niż (than), rzucić się (pf., to throw oneself), mąż (m., man), inny (the other; inni, the others), ręka (f., hand), dom (m., house), mężczyzna (m., man), młody (young), stary (old), toteż (and so, therefore), wejście (n., entrance).

Verse 9: Ale oni krzyknęli: but they shouted. Odejdź precz: get away; back off. The Sodomites say to Lot: sam jest tu przybyszem (he himself is a foreigner here) i śmie nami rządzić (and he dares to order us about). They continue: jeszcze gorzej (even worse; worse yet) z tobą (towards [with] you) możemy postąpić (we may behave) niż z nimi (than with them). Gorzej (worse) is the comparative form of the adverb źle (badly); see below. I rzucili się gwałtownie na tego męża, na Lota: and they threw themselves violently against this man, against Lot. Lot is referred to here as mąż; you have met this noun before in the sense of husband, but it is used here in the sense of man. Inni zaś przybliżyli się, aby wyważyć drzwi: as for the others, they drew near so as to force in the door.

źlegorzejnajgorzej
badlyworseworst

Verse 10: Wtedy ci dwaj mężowie (then these two men), wsunąwszy ręce (having put forth their hands; having stretched out their hands), przyciągnęli Lota ku sobie do wnętrza domu (pulled Lot towards them[selves] into the house [into the inside of the house]) i zaryglowali drzwi (and barred the door). The men who extend their hands are Lot’s visitors — the angels — who are referred to as mężowie (this is the plural of mąż, the term by which Lot is also identified); compare this use of mąż to that of mężczyzna in the eleventh verse.

Verse 11: The angels strike the Sodomites with blindness: tych zaś mężczyzn u drzwi domu (as for the[se] men at the door of the house), młodych i starych (young and old) porazili ślepotą (they struck with blindness). The men of Sodom are referred to as mężczyźni (this is the plural of mężczyzna); in the text of these verses, the term mężczyzna is reserved for the Sodomites, whereas mąż is reserved for Lot and the angels. Toteż na próżno usiłowali oni odnaleźć wejście: and so in vain they attempted (were attempting) to find the entrance. The subject of the first sentence of this verse is ci dwaj mężowie (from verse 10); of the second sentence, it is oni (that is, mężczyźni: the Sodomites).

Wersety 12-14

  • zięć (m.), son-in-law
  • bliski (m.), relative, close friend
  • zamiar (m.), intention
  • wzmóc się (pf.), to intensify, to increase
  • posłać (pf.), to send
  • żartować (impf.), to jest, to joke

Review: potem (then), mąż (m., man), rzec (pf., to say), ktokolwiek (anybody, whoever), jeszcze (yet), miasto (n., city, town), syn (m., son), córka (f., daughter), oraz (as well as), wyprowadzić (pf., to bring out), bowiem (for, because), stąd (from here), zniszczyć (pf., to destroy), ponieważ (given that, because), oskarżenie (n., accusation, charge), przeciw (+ dat., against), wyjść (pf., to go [come] out), więc (so, therefore), powiedzieć (pf., to say), przyszły (future), wziąć (pf., to take), żona (f., wife), chodzić (impf., to walk, to go), jednak (however), myśleć (impf., to think).

Verse 12: A potem ci dwaj mężowie rzekli do Lota: and then the[se] two men said to Lot. In the following, mieście is the locative form of miasto (city): kogokolwiek jeszcze masz w tym mieście (whomever else you have in this city), zięcia (son-in-law), synów i córki (sons and daughters) oraz wszystkich bliskich (as well as all those near and dear; as well as all relatives and friends), wyprowadź stąd (bring them out of here). Kogokolwiek (whomever) is in accusative position, from its nominative ktokolwiek (whoever).

Verse 13: Mieć zamiar is to be taken as meaning to intend: mamy bowiem zamiar (for we intend [for we have the intention]) zniszczyć to miasto (to destroy this city), ponieważ oskarżenie (because the accusation) przeciw niemu (against it) do Pana (before [unto] the Lord) tak się wzmogło (has become so great [has so intensified]), że Pan posłał nas (that the Lord has sent us), aby je zniszczyć (to destroy it).

Verse 14: Wyszedł więc Lot (so Lot went out), aby powiedzieć tym (to tell [unto] those), którzy jako [przyszli] zięciowie (who, as future sons-in-law) mieli wziąć jego córki za żony (were to take his daughters as wives). Lot says: chodźcie (up; off you go; get to), wyjdźcie z tego miasta (get out of this city), bo Pan ma je zniszczyć (for the Lord is to destroy it). Chodźcie is the second-person plural imperative of the imperfective chodzić. In both mieli wziąć (were to take) and ma zniszczyć (is to destroy), you are dealing with the imperfective mieć followed by an infinitive, where the sense is one of to be (due) to + infinitive. Oni jednak myśleli, że on żartuje: but they thought (were thinking) that he was jesting (jests).

Wersety 15-17

  • zaczynać (impf.), to start, to begin
  • świtać (impf.), to dawn
  • przynaglać (impf.), to urge on, to hasten
  • prędzej, hurry up, make haste
  • wina (f.), guilt, fault, sin
  • zwlekać (impf.), to linger, to delay
  • chwycić (pf.), to seize, to grasp
  • litować się (impf.), to have mercy
  • wyciągnąć (pf.), to pull out, to draw out
  • uchodzić (impf.), to escape, to flee
  • ocalić (pf.), to save, to rescue
  • oglądać się (impf.), to look round
  • zatrzymywać się (impf.), to stop, to linger
  • nigdzie, nowhere, not anywhere
  • szukać (impf.), to look for, to seek
  • schronienie (n.), refuge, shelter
  • inaczej, otherwise

Review: anioł (m., angel), mówić (impf., to say), wziąć (pf., to take), żona (f., wife), córka (f., daughter), zginąć (pf., to perish), miasto (n., city, town), mąż (m., man), ręka (f., hand), wyprowadzić (pf., to bring out), poza (+ acc., out of, beyond), jeden (one), życie (n., life), okolica (f., surroundings), góra (f., mount, mountain).

Verse 15: Gdy już zaczynało świtać: as it was beginning to dawn; that is, as dawn was breaking. Aniołowie przynaglali Lota: the angels urged Lot on (were urging Lot on). The angels say: prędzej (make haste), weź żonę i córki (take your wife and daughters), które są przy tobie (who are with you), abyś nie zginął z winy tego miasta (in order that you not perish from the sin of this city; lest you perish from the sin of this city).

Verse 16: Kiedy zaś on zwlekał (but when he delayed [was delaying]), mężowie ci chwycili go, jego żonę i dwie córki za ręce (the[se] men seized him, his wife and his two daughters by the hand)Pan bowiem litował się nad nim (for the Lord had [was having] mercy on him)i wyciągnęli ich (and they drew them out), i wyprowadzili poza miasto (and brought [them] out beyond the city).

Verse 17: Jeden z nich: one of them; that is, one of the angels: a gdy ich już wyprowadzili z miasta (and when they had brought them out of the city), rzekł jeden z nich (one of them said). The angel says: uchodź (flee), abyś ocalił swe życie (that you may save your life). He continues: nie oglądaj się za siebie (do not look round behind you) i nie zatrzymuj się nigdzie w tej okolicy (and do not stop anywhere in this area), ale szukaj schronienia w górach (but seek refuge in the mountains), bo inaczej zginiesz (for otherwise you shall perish).

Wersety 18-19

  • łaska (f.), grace, mercy
  • wyświadczyć (pf.), to bestow, to show
  • ratować (impf.), to rescue, to save
  • dosięgnąć (pf.), to reach, to overtake
  • nieszczęście (n.), calamity, misfortune

Review: pan (m., lord), jeśli (if), darzyć (impf., to bestow, to show), sługa (m., servant), życzliwość (f., kindness, favour), uczynić (pf., to make, to do), większy (larger), niż (than), życie (n., life), móc (impf., can, to be able), szukać (impf., to look for, to seek), schronienie (n., refuge, shelter), góra (f., mount, mountain), tam (there), zginąć (pf., to perish).

Verse 18: Do nich: to them. Nie, panie mój: no, my lord.

Verse 19: Jeśli darzysz twego sługę życzliwością (if you bestow your servant with kindness), uczyń większą łaskę (show [do] greater mercy) niż ta, którą mi wyświadczyłeś (than that which you have shown [to] me), ratując mi życie (by saving my life [saving the life unto me]): bo ja nie mogę szukać schronienia (for I cannot seek refuge) w górach (in the mountains), aby tam nie dosięgło mnie nieszczęście (in order that the calamity not overtake me there) i abym nie zginął (and in order that I not perish). Learn the comparative and superlative forms of wielki:

wielki większynajwiększy
largelargerlargest

Wersety 20-22

  • przychylać się (impf.), to grant, to accord
  • prośba (f.), request
  • schronić się (pf.), to take refuge

Review: oto ([t]here is), w pobliżu (in the vicinity of, near), miasto (n., town, city), móc (impf., can, to be able), uciec (pf., to flee), choć (although), mały (small, little), znaleźć (pf., to find), schronienie (n., refuge, shelter), ocalić (pf., to save, to rescue), życie (n., life), odpowiedzieć (pf., to respond), zniszczyć (pf., to destroy), więc (therefore), mówić (impf., to speak), szybko (quickly, hurriedly), zatem (therefore), dokonać (pf., to execute, to carry out), zniszczenie (n., destruction), dopóki (until), wejść (pf., to enter, to go in), dlatego (henche, for this reason), dać (pf., to give), nazwa (f., name).

Verse 20: Oto jest tu w pobliżu miasto (there is this town nearby), do którego mógłbym uciec (to which I can flee). The neuter pobliże means vicinity; w pobliżu can be taken as nearby, close by, in the vicinity. Taken literally, oto / jest tu / w pobliżu / miasto translates as behold; see / is here / in (the) vicinity / (a) town. Lot continues: a choć jest ono małe (and although it is small), w nim znajdę schronienie (I shall find refuge in it). Miasto can be taken as either city or town; because the place of which Lot speaks is described as small, it is better rendered as town here. Czyż nie jest ono małe?: is it not small indeed? Ja zaś będę mógł ocalić życie: as for me, I shall be able to save my life.

Verse 21: The angel responds: przychylam się i do tej twojej prośby (I grant also your request; I accord with this your request too); nie zniszczę więc miasta, o którym mówisz (I shall therefore not destroy the town of which you speak).

Verse 22: Szybko zatem schroń się w nim (take refuge in it in haste then [quickly therefore take refuge in it]), bo nie mogę dokonać zniszczenia (for I cannot carry out the destruction), dopóki tam nie wejdziesz (until you arrive [will go in] there). Dano is the impersonal past, from the perfective dać: dlatego dano temu miastu nazwę Soar (hence the town was named Zoar [hence one gave unto this town the name Zoar]).

Wersety 23-26

  • wzejść (pf.), to rise
  • siarka (f.), sulphur, brimstone
  • roślinność (f.), vegetation
  • obejrzeć się (pf.), to look round
  • słup (m.), pillar

Review: słońce (n., sun), ziemia (f., earth, land), przybyć (pf., to arrive, to come), wtedy (then), spuścić (pf., to release, to unleash), deszcz (m., rain), ogień (m., fire), zniszczyć (pf., to destroy), miasto (n., city, town), cały (entire), okolica (f., surroundings), wraz z (along with, together with), wszystek (every, all), mieszkaniec (m., inhabitant), także (also, too), żona (f., wife), iść (impf., to go, to walk), stać się (pf., to become), sól (m., salt).

Verse 23: Słońce wzeszło już nad ziemią (the sun had already risen above the earth), gdy Lot przybył do Soaru (when Lot arrived in Zoar). Note the neuter ending of wzeszło (from the perfective wzejść), to agree with the neuter słońce.

Verse 24: A wtedy (and then) Pan spuścił na Sodomę i Gomorę (the Lord unleashed upon Sodom and Gomorrah) deszcz siarki i ognia (rain of sulphur and [of] fire) od Pana (from the Lord). Following deszcz, both siarka (sulphur) and ogień (fire) are in genitive position as siarki and ognia.

Verse 25: I tak (and thus) zniszczył te miasta (he destroyed these cities) oraz całą okolicę (and the entire surrounding area) wraz ze wszystkimi mieszkańcami miast (along with all the inhabitants of the cities), a także roślinność (and also the vegetation). Te miasta is in accusative plural form; observe: to miasto (nom., this city); te miasta (nom., these cities); zniszczył to miasto (acc., he destroyed this city); zniszczył te miasta (acc., he destroyed these cities). As for miast, this is in genitive plural form; observe: mieszkaniec miasta (inhabitant of the city); mieszkańcy miast (inhabitants of the city); wraz z mieszkańcami miast (along with the inhabitants of the cities).

Verse 26: Żona Lota (the wife of Lot), która szła za nim (who was walking behind him), obejrzała się (looked round) i stała się słupem soli (and she turned into [became] a pillar of salt). Observe: słup (m., pillar); sól (m., salt); słup soli (a pillar of salt); słupem soli ([as] a pillar of salt); stała się słupem soli (she became [as] a pillar of salt; that is, she turned into a pillar of salt).

Wersety 27-29

  • dokoła, all round, round about
  • gęsty, thick, dense
  • topić (impf.), to smelt, to melt
  • metal (m.), metal
  • niszczyć (impf.), to destroy
  • okoliczny, of the place, of those parts
  • ulec (pf.), to succumb, to undergo

Review: wstać (pf., to arise, to get up), rano (in the morning), udać się (pf., to go, to proceed), miejsce (n., place), przedtem (before, previously), stać (impf., to stand), spojrzeć (pf., to look), w stronę (towards), cały (entire), obszar (m., area), zobaczyć (pf., to see), unosić się (impf., to waft, to rise into the air), ziemia (f., earth, land), dym (m., smoke), piec (m., furnace, kiln), przez wzgląd na (on account of), ocalić (pf., to save, to rescue), zagłada (f., annihilation), mieszkać (impf., to dwell).

Verse 27: Wstawszy rano: having arisen in the morning. Udał się na to miejsce, na którym: he went to the place in which. Na którym przedtem stał przed Panem: in which previously he had stood (was standing) before the Lord.

Verse 28: The feminine strona means side; w stronę can be taken as in the direction of, towards: i gdy spojrzał w stronę Sodomy i Gomory (and when he looked towards Sodom and Gomorrah) i na cały obszar dokoła (and upon the entire surrounding area; and upon the entire area round about), zobaczył (he saw) unoszący się nad ziemią (rising over the earth) gęsty dym (thick smoke), jak gdyby z pieca (as though from a kiln), w którym topią metal (in which metal is smelted [in which they smelt metal]). W którym topią metal translates literally as in which they smelt metal; this can be taken as meaning in which one smelts metal, and better yet as in which metal is smelted. Sodomy and Gomory are the genitive forms of Sodoma and Gomora: w stronę Sodomy i Gomory (towards [in the direction (side) of] Sodom and Gomorrah).

Verse 29: Tak więc Bóg (and so God), niszcząc okoliczne miasta (destroying the cities of the place), przez wzgląd na Abrahama (on account of Abraham) ocalił Lota od zagłady (saved Lot from the annihilation), jakiej uległy te miasta (to which had succumbed these cities), w których Lot przedtem mieszkał (in which Lot had previously dwelt [was dwelling]).

Wersety 30-31

  • pieczara (f.), cave, cavern
  • wprawdzie, indeed, to be sure
  • właściwy, appropriate, proper

Review: wyjść (pf., to go [come] out), zamieszkać (pf., to settle), wraz z (along with, together with), córka (f., daughter), góra (f., mount, mountain), bać się (impf., to be afraid, to fear), pozostawać (impf., to remain, to stay), miasto (n., town, city), mieszkać (impf., to dwell), stary (old), młody (young), ojciec (m., father), okolica (f., surroundings), mężczyzna (m., man), przyjść (pf., to arrive, to come), sposób (m., manner), wszystek (every, all).

Verse 30: Lot wyszedł z Soaru: Lot went out of Zoar; Lot went up from Zoar. Zamieszkał wraz z dwiema swymi córkami w górach: he settled along with his two daughters in the mountains. Gdyż bał się pozostawać w tym mieście: for he was afraid to remain in that town; mieście is the locative form of miasto. A gdy mieszkał z dwiema swymi córkami w pieczarze: and when he dwelt (was dwelling) with his two daughters in a cave; pieczarze is the locative form of pieczara.

Verse 31: The elder daughter addresses the younger: rzekła starsza do młodszej (the elder said to the younger). You are dealing here with feminine comparative forms used as nouns, the masculine equivalents of which are starszy (older, elder) and młodszy (younger), ultimately from stary (old) and młody (young); see below. Starsza can be taken in the context of this verse as meaning elder daughter, and młodsza as younger daughter. In rzekła starsza do młodszej, the subject is starsza and therefore nominative in form; młodszej is genitive in form because it follows do. The elder says: ojciec nasz wprawdzie już stary (our father [is] now old indeed), ale nie ma (and [but] there is not) w tej okolicy (in this area) mężczyzny (any man), który by przyszedł do nas (who might come unto us) na sposób (in the manner) wszystkim właściwy (proper to all); that is, there is no man with whom they might have intercourse.

starystarszynajstarszy
starastarszanajstarsza
oldolderoldest

młodymłodszynajmłodszy
młodamłodszanajmłodsza
youngyoungeryoungest

Wersety 32-33

  • upoić (pf.), to intoxicate
  • położyć się (pf.), to lie (down)
  • kłaść się (pf.), to lie (down)

Review: chodzić (impf., to walk, to go), ojciec (m., father), wino (n., wine), potomstwo (n., offspring), noc (f., night), starsza (f., elder [daughter]), pójść (pf., to go), nawet (even), wiedzieć (impf., to know), ani (neither, nor), wstać (pf., to arise, to get up).

Verse 32: Chodź więc: come then; up then; go to then; chodź is the second-person singular equivalent of chodźcie (second-person plural) encountered in verse 14. Upoimy ojca naszego winem: we shall intoxicate our father with wine. Położymy się z nim: we shall lie with him. A tak będziemy miały potomstwo z ojca naszego: and in this way we shall offspring by (from) our father.

Verse 33: Tej samej nocy: on that same night. Upoiły więc swego ojca winem tej samej nocy: they therefore intoxicated their father with wine that same night. Wtedy starsza poszła i położyła się przy ojcu swoim: then the elder went and lay with (by) her father. Lot was oblivious to the deed: on zaś (as for him) nawet (even) nie wiedział (he did not know [was not knowing]) ani kiedy się kładła ([n]either when she lay down), ani kiedy wstała ([n]or when she arose); that is, as for him, he knew neither when she lay down nor when she arose.

Wersety 34-38

  • nazajutrz, the following day
  • ostatni, last
  • sprawa (f.), matter, question
  • dzisiejszy, present-day

Review: rzec (pf., to say), starsza (f., elder [daughter]), młodsza (f., younger [daughter]), noc (f., night), spać (impf., to sleep), ojciec (m., father), upoić (pf., to intoxicate), wino (n., wine), także (also, too), iść (impf., to go, to walk), oba (both; obie, the two of them, both of them [f.pl.]), potomostwo (n., offspring), pójść (pf., to go), położyć się (pf., to lie [down]), nawet (even), wiedzieć (impf., to know), kłaść się (pf., to lie [down]), ani (neither, nor), wstać (pf., to arise, to get up), córka (f., daughter), stać się (pf., to become), brzemienny (pregnant), urodzić (pf., to bear), potem (then), syn (m., son), dać (pf., to give), imię (n., name), praojciec (m., forefather), również (also, too), nazwać (pf., to call).

Verse 34: Ostatniej nocy: last night. Tej nocy: tonight, on this night. Oto ostatniej nocy ja spałam z ojcem: thus it is that last night I slept with our father. Upójmy go winem także tej nocy: let us intoxicate our father with wine tonight also. I idź ty: and you go; the sense here is: and this time you go. Śpij z nim: sleep with him. Obie: both of us; the two of us (feminine plural). Abyśmy obie miały potomstwo z ojca naszego: that we may both have offspring by (from) our father; in order that the two of us may have offspring by (from) our father.

Verse 35: Upoiły więc (so they intoxicated) i tej nocy (that night also) ojca swego winem (their father with wine) i poszła młodsza i położyła się przy nim (and the younger went and lay with [by] him). Remainder of verse: see the notes at verse 33, where the language is similar.

Verse 36: Za sprawą means at the instance of; it can also be taken more simply as by: i tak obie córki Lota (and so both daughters of Lot) stały się brzemienne (became pregnant) za sprawą swego ojca (by [at the instance of] their father).

Verse 37: Starsza (the elder), urodziwszy potem syna (having then borne a son), dała mu imię Moab (named him [gave him the name] Moab). Moabita (m.): Moabite; ten był praojcem dzisiejszych Moabitów (he [this one] was the forefather of the present-day Moabites).

Verse 38: Młodsza również urodziła syna (the younger also bore a son) i nazwała go Ben-Ammi (and she named him Ben-Ammi). Ammonita (m.): Ammonite; ten zaś (he [this one], on the other hand) stał się praojcem dzisiejszych Ammonitów (became the forefather of the present-day Ammonites).