Exodus 10 in Friulian

In the matter of the plagues of Egypt (lis plais dal Egjit, in Friulian), the tenth chapter of the book of Exodus relates the eight and ninth of God’s punishments: i zupets (locusts); il scûr (darkness).

The first-time visitor to this site ought to begin his study of the Friulian language here.

Read Esodo 10

To read the Friulian text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Bibie par un popul and consult Esodo 10. An archived version of the text is found here.

Versets 1-7

Vocabulary: (to say), (to go), il faraon (pharaoh), indurî (to harden), il cûr (heart), il famei (servant), podê (to be able), (to make), il spieli (marvel), framieç di (amongst), in mût che ({in order} that), contâ (to recount), il fi (son), zuiâ (to play), un egjizian (Egyptian), la sorte (sort), savê (to know), un ebreu (Hebrew), cussì (so), fin cuant (until when), intindi (to intend), tignî (to keep), la teste (head), cuintri di (against), lassâ (to let), il popul (people), ufrî (to offer), il sacrifici (sacrifice), doman (tomorrow), mandâ (to send), il zupet (locust), la tiere (land), taponâ (to conceal), la face (face), rivâ a (to be able to), nancje (not even), viodi (to see), il teren (ground), raspâ (to despoil), chel pôc (that little), sparagnâ (to spare), la tampieste (hail), netâ vie (to clean away), un arbul (tree), cressi (to grow), la campagne (open country), jemplâ (to fill), la cjase (house), la robe (matter), il pari (father), un compagn (a like one), la dì (day), vignî (to come), il mont (world), fint a (until), vuê (today), voltâsi (to turn oneself), saltâ fûr (to come forth), ancjemò (yet), par trop (for long), il tramai (trap), la int (people), nancjemò no (not yet even), capî (to understand), finîle malamentri (to finish off in a bad way).

Verses 1-2: Il Signôr i disè a Mosè (the Lord said unto Moses): va dal faraon (go unto the pharaoh) parcè che o ài stât jo (for it was I) a indurî il so cûr (who hardened his heart) e il cûr dai siei fameis (and the heart of his servants) par podê fâ i miei spiei framieç di lôr (to be able to make my marvels amongst them), in mût che tu puedis contâi a to fi e al fi di to fi (that thou be able to recount unto thy son and unto the son of thy son) cemût che o ài zuiâts i egjizians (how I played the Egyptians) e ce sorte di spiei che o ài fat framieç di lôr (and what sort of marvels I made amongst them) e par che a sepin che jo o soi il Signôr (and that they know that I am the Lord).

Verse 3: Mosè e Aron a lerin dal faraon (Moses and Aaron went unto the pharaoh) e i diserin (and said unto him): il Signôr, Diu dai ebreus, al dîs cussì (the Lord, the God of the Hebrews, saith so): fin cuant intindistu di tignî teste cuintri di me? (until when intendest thou keep head against me?). Lasse che il gno popul al ledi a ufrîmi un sacrifici (let that my people may go offer me a sacrifice).

Verse 4: Se no tu lassis lâ il gno popul (if thou let not my people go), cun doman o mandarai i zupets sun dute la tiere (as of tomorrow I shall send locusts upon all the land).

Verse 5: A taponaran la face de tiere (they will conceal the face of the land) che no si rivarà nancje a viodi il teren (that one will not even be able to see the ground). A rasparan chel pôc che e à sparagnât la tampieste (they will despoil that little which the hail spared); a netaran vie ducj i arbui che a cressin te campagne (they will clean away all the trees which grow in the open country).

Verse 6: A jemplaran lis tôs cjasis (they will fill thy houses), lis cjasis di ducj i tiei fameis (the houses of all thy servants) e lis cjasis di ducj i egjizians (and the houses of all the Egyptians), robis che i tiei paris e i paris dai tiei paris no ’nd àn viodudis di compagnis (matters whereof thy fathers and the fathers of thy fathers have not seen like ones) de dì che a son vignûts in chest mont (from the day when they came into this world) fint a vuê (until today). Po si voltà (then he turned himself) e al saltà fûr de cjase dal faraon (and came forth from the pharaoh’s house).

Verse 7: I fameis dal faraon i diserin (the pharaoh’s servants said unto him): chel chi àial di jessi ancjemò par trop un tramai par nô? (hath that one here to be yet for long a trap for us?). Lasse lâ cheste int (let this people go), ch’e ledi a fâi un sacrifici al Signôr lôr Diu (that they may go make a sacrifice unto the Lord their God). No âstu nancjemò no capît (hast thou not yet even understood) che l’Egjit *al va* a finîle malamentri? (that Egypt is finishing off in a bad way?). — *Al va a (+ infinitive) in Friulian is not future time. L’Egjit al va a finîle malamentri does not mean Egypt is going to finish off in a bad way, but rather Egypt is {in the course of} finishing off in a bad way. Although al va indeed mean is going, it is to be understood as meaning is going {just now}. Consider another instance: al va a copâ chel om does not mean he is going to kill that man {at some point in the future}, but he is going {just now} to kill that man, which is to say that he is leaving at the very moment of speaking to commit the deed. Friulian employs the future tense for future time, and not the verb (to go), as is so often the case in English. The Friulian for the future-time English constructions he is going to kill that man or he will kill that man is al coparà chel om.

Versets 8-14

Vocabulary: alore (then), (to make), tornâ (to return), il faraon (pharaoh), (to say), (to go), il sacrifici (sacrifice), vê di (to have to), partî (to depart), rispuindi (to respond), menâ (to lead), il fi (son), la fie (daughter), il nemâl (animal), piçul (little), grant (great), la fieste (feast), dissal (he said), lassâ (to let), la femine (wife), i fruts (children), ce tant che (just how much), la tristerie (wickedness), (to have), no lafè (not in the least), dome (but), un om (man), domandâ (to ask {for}), parâ fûr (to drive forth), la presince (presence), alçâ (to lift), la man (hand), parsore di (over), vignî (to come), il zupet (locust), plombâ (to plummet down), la regjon (region), netâ (to clean {away}), di raspe (utterly), la jerbe (grass), la tampieste (hail), fiscâ (to destroy), il baston (staff), mandâ (to send), la tiere (land), un aiar (wind), la jevade (east), svintâ (to blow), il dì (day), la gnot (night), tal indoman (next day), a buinore (in the morning), menâ dongje (to lead alongside), poiâsi (to set oneself down), tant (so much), la disperazion (desperation), viodi (to see), prime di (before), une volte (one time), nancje (not even), dopo (afterwards), il flagjel (scourge), la sorte (sort).

Verse 8: Alore a faserin tornâ Mosè e Aron dal faraon (then they made Moses and Aaron return unto the pharaoh), che ur disè (who said unto them): lait a fâi un sacrifici al Signôr vuestri Diu (go ye make a sacrifice unto the Lord your God), ma cui sono chei che a àn di partî? (but who are those who are to depart?).

Verse 9: I rispuindè Mosè (Moses responded unto him): o menarìn cun nô (we shall lead with us) i nestris fîs e lis nestris fiis (our sons and our daughters), i nestris nemâi piçui e grancj (our animals little and great). Par nô e je une fieste dal Signôr: for us it is a feast of the Lord.

Verse 10: Dissal il faraon (the pharaoh said): che il Signôr al sedi cun vualtris (the Lord be with you) come che jo us lassi lâ (as I let you go), vualtris, lis vuestris feminis e i vuestris fruts (you, your wives and your children). Viodêso ce tante tristerie che o vês vualtris?: see ye just how much wickedness ye have?

Verse 11: No lafè: not in the least. Lait dome vualtris oms (go but ye men) a fâi un sacrifici al Signôr (to make a sacrifice unto the Lord), che al è ce che o domandais ancje vualtris (which is that which even ye ask for). E ju pararin fûr (and they drove them forth) de presince dal faraon (from the presence of the pharaoh).

Verse 12: Il Signôr i disè a Mosè (the Lord said unto Moses): alce la tô man parsore di dut l’Egjit (lift thy hand over all Egypt): che a vegnin i zupets (let the locusts come), che a plombin su la regjon dal Egjit (let them plummet down upon the region of Egypt) e che a netin di raspe dute la jerbe (and let them clean away utterly all the grass), dut ce che la tampieste no à fiscât (all that which the hail hath not destroyed).

Verse 13: Mosè al alçà il so baston parsore dal Egjit (Moses lifted his staff over Egypt) e il Signôr al mandà su la tiere (and the Lord sent upon the earth) un aiar de jevade (a wind from the east) che al svintà dut il dì e dute la gnot (which blew all day and all night). Tal indoman a buinore (next morning) l’aiar de jevade al veve menât dongje i zupets (the wind from the east had led alongside the locusts).

Verse 14: I zupets a plombarin sun dute la regjon dal Egjit (the locusts plummeted down upon all the region of Egypt) e si poiarin sun dute la tiere dal Egjit (and set themselves down upon all the land of Egypt); and jere tancj (there were so many thereof) ch’e jere une disperazion (that it was a desperation). No si ’nd jere viodûts tancj zupets (so many locusts had not been seen) prime d’in chê volte (before that time) e nancje dopo no si à plui viodût un flagjel di chê sorte (and even afterwards a scourge of that sort was seen no more).

Versets 15-20

Vocabulary: taponâ (to conceal), la face (face), la tiere (land), (to make), il fisc (destruction), la regjon (region), netâ (to clean {away}), di raspe (utterly), la jerbe (grass), la pome (fruit), un arbul (tree), sparagnâ (to spare), la tampieste (hail), il teritori (territory), restâ (to remain), une cuarte di (a span of), il vert (green), il cjamp (field), il faraon (pharaoh), spesseâ (to hurry along), clamâ (to call), (to say), pecjâ (to sin), cuintri di (against), perdonâ (to pardon), il fal (error), sconzurâ (to implore), almancul (at least), une volte (one time), preâ (to pray), slontanâ (to part), il flagjel (scourge), copâ (to kill), saltâ fûr (to come forth), la cjase (house), tramudâ in (to turn into), un aiar (wind), la jevade (east), un aiaron (heavy wind), l’amont (west), puartâ vie (to bear away), il zupet (locust), sgurlâ (to hurl), il mâr (sea), la cjanusse (reed), la semence (seed), indurî (to harden), il cûr (heart), volê (to will), no… lafè (not in the least), lassâ (to let), (to go), un israelit (Israelite).

Verse 15: A taponarin la face de tiere (they concealed the face of the land) e a faserin il fisc in dute la regjon (and made destruction in all the region). A netarin di raspe dute la jerbe de tiere (they cleaned away utterly all the grass of the land) e dutis lis pomis dai arbui che lis veve sparagnadis la tampieste (and all the fruits of the trees which the hail had spared). In dut il teritori dal Egjit (in all the territory of Egypt) no restà une cuarte di vert (not a span of green remained) ni sui arbui ni te jerbe dai cjamps (either on the trees or in the grass of the fields).

Verse 16: Il faraon al spesseà a clamâ Mosè e Aron par dî (the pharaoh hurried along to call Moses and Aaron to say): o ài pecjât (I have sinned) cuintri dal Signôr vuestri Diu (against the Lord your God) e cuintri di vualtris (and against you).

Verse 17: Perdonimi il gno fal (pardon thou me mine error), ti sconzuri (I implore thee), almancul cheste volte (at least this time), e preait il Signôr vuestri Diu (and pray ye the Lord your God) che al slontani di me chest flagjel (that he may part from me this scourge) che mi cope (which is killing me).

Verse 18: Mosè al saltà fûr de cjase dal faraon (Moses came forth from the pharaoh’s house) e al preà il Signôr (and prayed the Lord).

Verse 19: Il Signôr al tramudà l’aiar de jevade (the Lord turned the wind from the east) intun aiaron* dal amont (into a heavy wind from the west) che al puartà vie ducj i zupets (which bore away all the locusts) e ju sgurlà tal mâr des Cjanussis (and hurled them into the Sea of Reeds). Nol restà un zupet di semence (not one locust of the number+ remained) in dut il teritori dal Egjit (in all the territory of Egypt). — *Aiaron is the augmentative of aiar (wind). +literally, seed

Verse 20: Mal* Signôr al indurì il cûr dal faraon (but the Lord hardened the heart of the pharaoh), che nol volè lafè no lassâ lâ i israelits (who willed not in the least let the Israelites go). — *Mal is the contraction of ma il.

Versets 21-29

Vocabulary: (to say), alçâ (to lift), la man (hand), viers di (unto), il cîl (heaven), il scûr (darkness), palpâ (to feel), cuviergi (to cover), trê (three), il dì; la dì (day), vignî jù (to come down), sore (over), la tiere (land), la scuritât (obscurity), viodi (to see), tant (so), penç (thick), la int (people), rivâ a (to be able), la muse (face), viodisi un cul altri (to see one another), nissun (not a one), podê (can, may, to be able), movisi (to move oneself), di li (whence), di file (in a row), un israelit (Israelite), invezit (as for), il lusôr (light), la cjase (house), il faraon (pharaoh), clamâ (to call), (to go), il sacrifici (sacrifice), il besteam (cattle), la robe (matter), minût (little), grant (great), vê di (to have to), restâ (to remain), culì (here), la femine (wife), i fruts (children), partî (to depart), meti (to put), la disposizion (disposition), il nemâl (animal), sacrificâ (to sacrifice), brusâ (to burn), ufrî (to offer), lis mandriis (stocks), menâ (to lead), daûr (behind), il cjâf (head), coventâ (to be necessary), savê (to know), nancje (not even), fintremai che (until), là vie (thither), indurî (to harden), il cûr (heart), no… gran (not in the least), fûr (forth), di chi (hence), tignîsi vuardât (to keep oneself guarded), presentâsi (to present oneself), denant di (before), il voli (eye), rivâ (to arrive), finît (finished), volê (to will), no… altri (no more).

Verse 21: Il Signôr i disè a Mosè (the Lord said unto Moses): alce la tô man viers dal cîl (lift thy hand unto the heaven) e che un scûr di palpâlu al cuviergi l’Egjit (and let a feelable darkness cover Egypt).

Verse 22: Mosè al alçà la man viers dal cîl (Moses lifted his hand unto the heaven) e par trê dîs* (and for three days) e vignì jù sore la tiere dal Egjit (did come down over the land of Egypt) une scuritât mai viodude une tant penge+ (an obscurity whereof so thick a one had not ever been seen). — *Here  is masculine for it is employed with the cardinal trê, whereas it is feminine in verse 28. +Penge (or the standardised penze) is the feminine form of penç.

Verse 23: La int no rivavin a viodisi in muse un cul altri (the people were not able to see one another in the face) e nissun nol podè movisi di li che al jere (and not a one could move himself whence he was) par trê dîs di file (for three days in a row); i israelits, invezit (as for the Israelites), a vevin lusôr tes lôr cjasis (they had light in their houses).

Verse 24: Il faraon al clamà Mosè e i disè (the pharaoh called Moses and said unto him): vualtris o podês lâ a fâi un sacrifici al Signôr (ye may go make a sacrifice unto the Lord) ma il vuestri besteam (but your cattle), tant la robe minude che chê grande (as much the little matter as that great), e à di restâ culì (is to remain here). Ancje lis vuestris feminis e i vuestris fruts (also your wives and your children) a podaran partî cun vualtris (will be able to depart with you).

Verse 25: Dissal Mosè (Moses said): tu âs tu di metinus a disposizion i nemâi (thou thyself art to put at our disposition the animals) che o vin di sacrificâju e di brusâju (which we are to sacrifice and to burn) par ufrîjai* al Signôr nestri Diu (to offer them unto the Lord our God). — *Ufrîjai is the contraction of ufrî + i + ju (to offer + unto him + them).

Verse 26: Lis nestris mandriis ses* menarìn daûrsi (we shall lead our stocks behind ourselves) e nol restarà un cjâf (and not a head will remain), parcè che nus coventin (for unto us are they necessary) par fâi i sacrificis al Signôr nestri Diu (to make the sacrifices unto the Lord our God). No savìn nancje nô (not even we ourselves know) cemût che o varìn di fâ i sacrificis al Signôr (how we are to make the sacrifices unto the Lord) fintremai che no sarìn rivâts là vie (until we shall be arrived thither). — *Ses is the contraction of si + lis.

Verse 27: Ma il Signôr al indurì il cûr dal faraon (but the Lord hardened the heart of the pharaoh), che no ju lassà partî gran (who let them not depart in the least).

Verse 28: Il faraon i disè a Mosè (the pharaoh said unto Moses): fûr di chi (forth hence). Tegniti vuardât di me (keep thyself guarded from me) e no sta presentâti denant dai miei vôi (and present not thyself before mine eyes) parcè che la dì che tu mi rivis denant (for the day when thou arrivest before me), par te e je finide (for thee it is finished).

Verse 29: Dissal Mosè (Moses said): cemût che tu vûs (as thou wilt). No tu mi viodarâs altri denant di te: thou shalt see me no more before thee.