Friulian language series: Esodo 10, lis plais dal Egjit

In the telling of the plagues of Egypt (lis plais dal Egjit), the tenth chapter of the book of Exodus relates the eight and ninth of God’s punishments: i zupets (locusts); il scûr (darkness).

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Versets 1-7

Vocabulary: (to say), (to go), il faraon (pharaoh), indurî (to harden), il cûr (heart), il famei (servant), podê (may, can, to be able), (to do, to make), il spieli (wonder, sign), in mût che ({in order} that), contâ (to recount), il fi (son), zuiâ (to play), un egjizian (Egyptian), la sorte (sort, kind), framieç di (amongst, amidst), savê (to know), un ebreu (Hebrew), cussì (thus, so), fin cuant (how long), intindi (to intend, to mean), tignî (to hold, to keep), la teste (head), cuintri di (against), lassâ (to let), (to go), il popul (people), ufrî (to offer), il sacrifici (sacrifice), doman (tomorrow), mandâ (to send), il zupet (locust), la tiere (land), taponâ (to conceal), la face (face, surface), rivâ a (to be able to), viodi (to see), il teren (ground), raspâ (to devour), pôc (little, few), sparagnâ (to spare), la tampieste (hail), netâ vie (to clean away), un arbul (tree), cressi (to grow), la campagne (open country), jemplâ (to fill), la cjase (house), la robe (matter), un compagn (a like one), il pari (father), la dì (day), vignî (to come), il mont (world), fint a (until), vuê (today), voltâsi (to turn round), saltâ fûr (to come forth), ancjemò (yet), il tramai (trap, snare), la int (people), nancjemò no (not yet even), capî (to understand), lâ a finîle malamentri (to end up injuriously).

Verses 1-2: Il Signôr i disè a Mosè (the Lord said to Moses): va dal faraon (go to Pharaoh) parcè che o ài stât jo (for it was I) a indurî il so cûr (who hardened his heart) e il cûr dai siei fameis (and the heart of his servants) par podê fâ i miei spiei framieç di lôr (to be able to do my signs amongst them), in mût che tu puedis contâi a to fi e al fi di to fi (that you may recount to your son and to the son of your son) cemût che o ài zuiâts i egjizians (how I played the Egyptians) e ce sorte di spiei che o ài fat framieç di lôr (and what sort of signs I did amongst them) e par che a sepin che jo o soi il Signôr (and that they may know that I am the Lord). — Consider the following: a san; par che a sepin (they know; that they may know); tu puedis; in mût che tu puedis (you may; that you may).

Verse 3: Mosè e Aron a lerin dal faraon (Moses and Aaron went to Pharaoh) e i diserin (and said to him): il Signôr, Diu dai ebreus, al dîs cussì (the Lord, the God of the Hebrews, says thus): fin cuant intindistu di tignî teste cuintri di me? (how long do you intend to oppose [hold head against] me?). Lasse che il gno popul al ledi a ufrîmi un sacrifici: let that my people may go to offer a sacrifice to me.

Verse 4: Se no tu lassis lâ il gno popul (if you do not let my people go), cun doman o mandarai i zupets sun dute la tiere (as of tomorrow I will send locusts upon all the land).

Verse 5: A taponaran la face de tiere (they shall conceal the face of the earth) che no si rivarà nancje a viodi il teren (so that one will not even be able to see the ground). A rasparan chel pôc che e à sparagnât la tampieste (they shall devour what little the hail spared); a netaran vie ducj i arbui che a cressin te campagne (they shall clean away all the trees which grow in the open country).

Verse 6: A jemplaran lis tôs cjasis (they shall fill your houses), lis cjasis di ducj i tiei fameis (the houses of all your servants) e lis cjasis di ducj i egjizians (and the houses of all the Egyptians), robis che i tiei paris e i paris dai tiei paris no ’nd àn viodudis di compagnis (matters the likes whereof your fathers and the fathers of your fathers have not seen) de dì che a son vignûts in chest mont (from the day they came into this world) fint a vuê (until today). Po si voltà (then he turned round) e al saltà fûr de cjase dal faraon (and came forth from Pharaoh’s house).

Verse 7: I fameis dal faraon i diserin (Pharaoh’s servants said to him): chel chi àial di jessi ancjemò par trop un tramai par nô? (has this one to be for long yet a snare to us?). Lasse lâ cheste int (let this people go), ch’e ledi a fâi un sacrifici al Signôr lôr Diu (that they may go to make a sacrifice to the Lord their God). No âstu nancjemò no capît (have you not yet even understood) che l’Egjit *al va* a finîle malamentri? (that Egypt is ending up injuriously?). — *Be sure not misinterpret al va as a future tense. Consider another example: al va a copâ chel om; this does not mean he is going to kill that man {at some point in the future}, but he is leaving just now to kill that man. Friulian uses the future tense for future time, and not the verb (to go) as is often the case in English. More examples: lu fasarai doman (I am going to do it tomorrow; I will do it tomorrow); o voi a fâlu (I am off just now to do it; I am leaving just now to do it).

Versets 8-14

Vocabulary: alore (so, then), (to make, to do), tornâ (to return, to go/come back), il faraon (pharaoh), (to say), (to go), un sacrifici (sacrifice), vê di (must, to have to), partî (to depart), rispuindi (to respond), menâ (to lead), il fi (son), la fie (daughter), il nemâl (animal), piçul (little), grant (great), la fieste (feast), dissal (he said), lassâ (to let), la femine (wife), i fruts (children), la tristerie (wickedness), (to have), no lafè (absolutely not), un om (man), domandâ (to ask {for}), parâ fûr (to drive forth), la presince (presence), alçâ (to lift), la man (hand), parsore di (over), vignî (to come), il zupet (locust), plombâ (to plummet down), la regjon (region), netâ (to clean {away}), di raspe (utterly), la jerbe (grass), la tampieste (hail), fiscâ (to destroy), il baston (staff), mandâ (to send), la tiere (land), un aiar (wind), la jevade (east), svintâ (to blow; of wind), il dì (day), la gnot (night), tal indoman (next day), a buinore (in the morning), menâ dongje (to lead alongside), poiâsi (to set oneself down), tant (so much), la disperazion (despair, affliction), viodi (to see), prime di (before), la volte (time), il flagjel (calamity, scourge), la sorte (sort).

Verse 8: Alore a faserin tornâ Mosè e Aron dal faraon (so Moses and Aaron were brought back [so they made Moses and Aaron return] to Pharaoh), che ur disè (who said to them): lait a fâi un sacrifici al Signôr vuestri Diu (go to make a sacrifice to the Lord your God), ma cui sono chei che a àn di partî? (but who are the ones who are to depart?).

Verse 9: I rispuindè Mosè (Moses responded to him): o menarìn cun nô (we will lead with us) i nestris fîs e lis nestris fiis (our sons and daughters), i nestris nemâi piçui e grancj ({and} our *little and great animals*). Par nô e je une fieste dal Signôr: for us it is a feast of the Lord. — *flocks and herds

Verse 10: Dissal il faraon (Pharaoh said): che il Signôr al sedi cun vualtris (may the Lord be with you) come che jo us lassi lâ (as I {mean to} let you go), vualtris, lis vuestris feminis e i vuestris fruts (you, your wives and your children). Viodêso (do you see) ce tante tristerie che o vês vualtris? (just how wicked you are [just how much wickedness you have]?).

Verse 11: No lafè: absolutely not. Lait dome vualtris oms (go but you menfolk) a fâi un sacrifici al Signôr (to make a sacrifice to the Lord), che al è ce che o domandais ancje vualtris (which is that which you yourselves ask for). E ju pararin fûr (and they were driven forth [and they drove them forth]) de presince dal faraon (from the presence of Pharaoh).

Verse 12: Il Signôr i disè a Mosè (the Lord said to Moses): alce la tô man parsore di dut l’Egjit (lift your hand over all Egypt): che a vegnin i zupets (let the locusts come), che a plombin su la regjon dal Egjit (let them plummet down upon the region of Egypt) e che a netin di raspe dute la jerbe (and let them utterly clean away all the grass), dut ce che la tampieste no à fiscât (all that which the hail did not destroy).

Verse 13: Mosè al alçà il so baston parsore dal Egjit (Moses lifted his staff over Egypt) e il Signôr al mandà su la tiere (and the Lord sent upon the earth) un aiar de jevade (a wind from the east) che al svintà dut il dì e dute la gnot (which blew all day and all night). Tal indoman a buinore (next morning) l’aiar de jevade al veve menât dongje i zupets (the wind from the east had led alongside the locusts).

Verse 14: I zupets a plombarin sun dute la regjon dal Egjit (the locusts plummetted down upon all the region of Egypt) e si poiarin sun dute la tiere dal Egjit (and settled on all the land of Egypt); and jere tancj ch’e jere une disperazion (there were so many of them that it was an affliction). No si ’nd jere viodûts tancj zupets (so many locusts had not been seen) prime d’in chê volte (before that time) e nancje dopo no si à plui viodût un flagjel di chê sorte (and even afterwards a scourge of that sort has been seen no more).

Versets 15-20

Vocabulary: taponâ (to conceal), la face (face, surface), la tiere (earth), (to make, to do), il fisc (destruction), la regjon (region), netâ (to clean {away}), di raspe (utterly), la jerbe (grass), la pome (fruit), un arbul (tree), sparagnâ (to spare), la tampieste (hail), restâ (to remain, to be left), une cuarte di (a span of), il vert (green{ery}, plantlife), il cjamp (field), il faraon (pharaoh), spesseâ (to hurry along), clamâ (to call), (to say), pecjâ (to sin), cuintri di (against), perdonâ (to forgive, to pardon), il fal (transgression, offence, error), sconzurâ (to implore, to beg), almancul (at least), preâ (to pray, to entreat), slontanâ (to make part), il flagjel (scourge, calamity), copâ (to kill), saltâ fûr (to come forth), la cjase (house), tramudâ in (to turn into), un aiar (wind), la jevade (east), un aiaron (great wind), l’amont (west), puartâ vie (to bear away), il zupet (locust), sgurlâ (to hurl, to fling), il mâr (sea), la cjanusse (reed), la semence (seed), il teritori (territory), indurî (to harden), il cûr (heart), volê (to will), lassâ (to let), (to go), no… lafè (not in the least).

Verse 15: A taponarin la face de tiere (they concealed the face of the earth) e a faserin il fisc in dute la regjon (and caused destruction in the entire region). A netarin di raspe dute la jerbe de tiere (they utterly cleaned away all the grass of the earth) e dutis lis pomis dai arbui che lis veve sparagnadis la tampieste (and all the fruits of the trees which the hail had spared). In dut il teritori dal Egjit (in the entire territory of Egypt) no restà une cuarte di vert (not a span of green remained) ni sui arbui ni te jerbe dai cjamps (either on the trees or in the grass of the fields).

Verse 16: Il faraon al spesseà a clamâ Mosè e Aron par dî (Pharaoh hurried along to call Moses and Aaron to say): o ài pecjât (I have sinned) cuintri dal Signôr vuestri Diu (against the Lord your God) e cuintri di vualtris (and against you).

Verse 17: Perdonimi* il gno fal (pardon me my offence), ti sconzuri (I implore you), almancul cheste volte (at least this once), e preait il Signôr vuestri Diu (and entreat the Lord your God) che al slontani di me chest flagjel (that he may make this scourge part from me) che mi cope (which is killing me). — *Observe: perdonâ (to pardon); perdone (pardon; second-person singular imperative); perdonimi (pardon unto me; second-person singular imperative, where the final e of perdone changes to i with the addition of mi). For il gno fal is direct object, mi is then necessarily indirect object: perdonimi (pardon unto me) il gno fal (my offence).

Verse 18: Mosè al saltà fûr de cjase dal faraon (Moses came forth from Pharaoh’s house) e al preà il Signôr (and entreated the Lord).

Verse 19: Il Signôr al tramudà l’aiar de jevade (the Lord turned the wind from the east) intun aiaron* dal amont (into a great wind from the west) che al puartà vie ducj i zupets (which bore away all the locusts) e ju sgurlà tal mâr des Cjanussis (and hurled them into the Sea of Reeds). Nol restà un zupet di semence (not one locust of their number [seed] remained) in dut il teritori dal Egjit (in all the territory of Egypt). — *Aiaron: augmentative of aiar.

Verse 20: Mal* Signôr al indurì il cûr dal faraon (but the Lord hardened the heart of Pharaoh), che nol volè lafè no lassâ lâ i israelits (who would not in the least let the Israelites go). — *Mal: contraction of ma il.

Versets 21-29

Vocabulary: (to say), alçâ (to lift), la man (hand), viers di (unto), il cîl (heaven), il scûr (darkness), palpâ (to touch), cuviergi (to cover), trê (three), il dì (day), vignî jù (to come down), sore (over), la tiere (land), la scuritât (darkness), viodi (to see), tant (so very), penç (thick, dense, dark), la int (people), la muse (face), un cul altri (one another), podê (may, can, to be able), movisi (to move about), di file (in a row), un israelit (Israelite), invezit (whereas, on the other hand), il lusôr (light), la cjase (house), il faraon (pharaoh), clamâ (to call), il sacrifici (sacrifice), il besteam (livestock), tant … che (… and … alike), la robe (matter), minût (little), grant (great), vê di (must, to have to), restâ (to remain), culì (here), la femine (wife), i fruts (children), partî (to depart), meti a disposizion (to put at one’s disposition), il nemâl (animal), sacrificâ (to sacrifice), brusâ (to burn), ufrî (to offer), la mandrie (herd, flock), menâ (to lead), daûr (behind, after), il cjâf (head), coventâ (to be needed), savê (to know), nancje (not even), fintremai che (until), là vie (there), indurî (to harden), il cûr (heart), no… gran (not in the least), vuardâ (to guard), tignîsi vuardât (to keep oneself guarded), presentâsi (to present oneself), denant di (before), il voli (eye), la dì (day), finît (finished, over), volê (to will), no… altri (no more, not again).

Verse 21: Il Signôr i disè a Mosè (the Lord said to Moses): alce la tô man viers dal cîl (lift your hand unto the heaven) e che un scûr di palpâlu al cuviergi l’Egjit (and let a darkness which can be touched cover Egypt).

Verse 22: Mosè al alçà la man viers dal cîl (Moses lifted his hand unto the heaven) e par trê dîs (and for three days) e vignì jù sore la tiere dal Egjit une scuritât mai viodude une tant penge* (a darkness so thick, as had never before been seen, came down over the land of Egypt). — *Penç is the Friulian for thick, dense, dark; its feminine form is penze, found in the text of this verse by the variant spelling penge.

Verse 23: La int no rivavin a viodisi in muse un cul altri (the people were unable to see one another in the face) e nissun nol podè movisi di li che al jere (and nobody could move about whence he was) par trê dîs di file (for three days in a row); i israelits, invezit (the Israelites, on the other hand), a vevin lusôr tes lôr cjasis (had light in their houses).

Verse 24: Il faraon al clamà Mosè e i disè (Pharaoh called Moses and said to him): vualtris o podês lâ a fâi un sacrifici al Signôr (you may go to make a sacrifice to the Lord) ma il vuestri besteam (but your livestock), tant la robe minude che chê grande (*as much the little livestock [matter] as that great*), e à di restâ culì (is to remain here). Ancje lis vuestris feminis e i vuestris fruts (even your wives and children) a podaran partî cun vualtris (shall be able to depart with you). — *the flocks and herds alike

Verse 25: Dissal Mosè (Moses said): *tu âs tu di* metinus a disposizion i nemâi (it is you who must put at our disposition the animals) che o vin di sacrificâju e di brusâju (which we are to sacrifice and burn) par ufrîjai+ al Signôr nestri Diu (to offer them to the Lord our God). — *Consider: tu tu âs di (you are to); tu âs tu di (it is you who are to). +Ufrîjai, to offer them to him, is a contraction of ufrî + i + ju (to offer + unto him + them).

Verse 26: Lis nestris mandriis ses* menarìn daûrsi (we will lead our stocks along with us) e nol restarà un cjâf (and not a head shall remain {behind}), parcè che nus coventin (for we need them [for unto us they are needed]) par fâi i sacrificis al Signôr nestri Diu (to make the sacrifices to the Lord our God). No savìn nancje nô (we ourselves will not [do not] even know) cemût che o varìn di fâ i sacrificis al Signôr (how we are to make the sacrifices to the Lord) fintremai che no sarìn rivâts là vie (until we have arrived [will have arrived] there). — *Ses is a contraction of si + lis. Consider: lis nestris mandriis (our stocks) ses (unto us + them) menarìn (we will lead) daûrsi (behind us).

Verse 27: Ma il Signôr al indurì il cûr dal faraon (but the Lord hardened the heart of Pharaoh), che no ju lassà partî gran (who did not let them depart in the least).

Verse 28: Il faraon i disè a Mosè (Pharaoh said to Moses): fûr di chi (forth hence). Tegniti vuardât di me (keep yourself guarded from me) e no sta presentâti denant dai miei vôi (and do not present yourself before my eyes) parcè che la dì che tu mi rivis denant (for the day when you arrive before me), par te e je finide (it is over for you).

Verse 29: Dissal Mosè (Moses said): cemût che tu vûs (as you will). No tu mi viodarâs altri denant di te: you shall not see me again before you.