Friulian language series: Esodo 10, lis plais dal Egjit

In the telling of the plagues of Egypt (lis plais dal Egjit), the tenth chapter of the book of Exodus relates the eight and ninth of the ten chastisements: i zupets (locusts); il scûr (darkness).

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Versets 1-7

Vocabulary: (to say), (to go), il faraon (pharaoh), indurî (to harden), il cûr (heart), il famei (servant), podê (may, can, to be able), (to do, to make), il spieli (marvel, wonder, sign), in mût che (in order that), contâ (to tell, to relate), il fi (son), zuiâ (to play, to mock), un egjizian (Egyptian), ce sorte di (what sort of), framieç di (amongst), savê (to know), un ebreu (Hebrew), cussì (thus, so), fin cuant (until when, for how long), intindi (to mean, to intend), tignî teste (to resist, to hold out against), cuintri di (against), lassâ lâ (to allow to depart), il popul (people), ufrî (to offer), il sacrifici (sacrifice), doman (tomorrow), mandâ (to send), il zupet (locust), la tiere (land), taponâ (to cover), la face (face, surface), rivâ a (to be able to, to manage to), viodi (to see), il teren (ground, land), raspâ (to devour), pôc (little, few), sparagnâ (to spare), la tampieste (hail), netâ vie (to clear away), un arbul (tree), cressi (to grow), la campagne (open, fields), jemplâ (to fill), la cjase (house), la robe (matter, thing), compagn (identical), il pari (father), la dì (day), vignî (to come), il mont (world), fint a (up to), vuê (today), voltâsi (to turn around), saltâ fûr (to go/come out), ancjemò (yet, still), il tramai (trap, snare), la int (people), nancjemò no (not yet, still not), capî (to understand), malamentri (badly, pitifully), lâ a finîle malamentri (to end up in a pitiful state).

Verses 1-2: The Lord says to Moses: va dal faraon (go to Pharaoh) parcè che o ài stât jo (for it was I) a indurî il so cûr (who hardened his heart) e il cûr dai siei fameis (and the heart of his servants) par podê fâ (that I may perform [as to be able to do]) i miei spiei (my signs) framieç di lôr (amongst them), in mût che tu puedis (so that you may) contâi a to fi e al fi di to fi (relate to your son and to the son of your son) cemût che o ài zuiâts i egjizians (how I mocked the Egyptians) e ce sorte di spiei che o ài fat (and what signs I performed [and what sort of signs that I did]) framieç di lôr (amongst them) e par che a sepin (and so that they know) che jo o soi il Signôr (that I am the Lord). Consider the following: a san; par che a sepin (they know; so that they know); tu puedis; in mût che tu puedis (you can; so that you can).

Verse 3: Mosè e Aron a lerin dal faraon: Moses and Aaron went to Pharaoh. They say: il Signôr, Diu dai ebreus, al dîs cussì (thus says the Lord, the God of the Hebrews): fin cuant (how long [until when]) intindistu (do you mean) di tignî teste cuintri di me? (to hold out against me [hold head against me])?). Lasse che il gno popul al ledi a ufrîmi un sacrifici: let my people go that they may offer a sacrifice to me (let that my people go to offer a sacrifice to me).

Verse 4: Se no tu lassis lâ il gno popul (if you do not allow my people to depart), cun doman o mandarai i zupets sun dute la tiere (as of tomorrow I will bring [will send] locusts upon all the land).

Verse 5: A taponaran la face de tiere (they shall cover the face of the earth) che no si rivarà nancje a viodi il teren (so that it will be impossible to even see the ground [that one will not even be able to see the ground]). A rasparan chel pôc che e à sparagnât la tampieste: they shall devour what little the hail spared. A netaran vie ducj i arbui che a cressin te campagne: they shall eat away (clear away) all the trees that grow in the open.

Verse 6: A jemplaran lis tôs cjasis (they shall fill your houses), lis cjasis di ducj i tiei fameis (the houses of all your servants) e lis cjasis di ducj i egjizians (and the houses of all the Egyptians), robis che i tiei paris e i paris dai tiei paris no ’nd àn viodudis di compagnis (the likes whereof your fathers and the fathers of your fathers have not seen) de dì che a son vignûts in chest mont (from the day they came into this world) fint a vuê (until today). Po si voltà e al saltà fûr de cjase dal faraon: then he turned round and left (went out of) Pharaoh’s house.

Verse 7: Pharaoh’s servants lament: chel chi àial di jessi (has this one [that {one} here] to be) ancjemò par trop (yet for much) un tramai par nô? (a snare for us?); for clarity: must this one be a snare to us for much longer? Lasse lâ cheste int, ch’e ledi a fâi un sacrifici al Signôr lôr Diu: let these people depart, that they may go to make a sacrifice to the Lord their God. They ask Pharaoh: no âstu nancjemò no capît (have you not yet understood) che l’Egjit al va a finîle malamentri? (that Egypt is ending up in a pitiful state [is now ending up pitifully]?). Do not misinterpret al va as a future tense; al va a finîle does not mean is going to end up in the English future-time sense, but is in the process of ending up. Al va does indeed mean goes, is going, but in the sense of going just now, underway at this very moment. Another example: al va a visâ il faraon; this does not mean he is going (in a moment from now) to inform Pharaoh, but he is going (at this very moment) to inform Pharaoh (that is, he is walking off just now).

Versets 8-14

Vocabulary: alore (so, then), (to make, to do), tornâ (to return, to go/come back), il faraon (pharaoh), (to say), (to go), un sacrifici (sacrifice), vê di (must, to have to), partî (to leave, to depart), rispuindi (to respond), menâ (to take, to bring), il fi (son), la fie (daughter), il nemâl (animal), piçul (small, little), grant (great, big, large), la fieste (feast, festival), dissal (he said), lassâ lâ (to allow to depart), la femine (wife), il frut (child), la tristerie (wickedness, iniquity), (to have), no lafè (absolutely not), un om (man), domandâ (to ask), parâ fûr (to drive away), la presince (presence), alçâ (to raise, to lift), la man (hand), parsore di (over, above), vignî (to come), il zupet (locust), plombâ (to precipitate, to rush down), la regjon (region), netâ di raspe (to devour altogether), la jerbe (grass), la tampieste (hail), fiscâ (to ravage), il baston (rod, staff), mandâ (to send), la tiere (land), un aiar (wind), la jevade (east), svintâ (to blow; of wind), il dì (day), la gnot (night), tal indoman (the next day), a buinore (in the morning), menâ dongje (to bring along), poiâsi (to set oneself down), tant (so much), la disperazion (despair, affliction), viodi (to see), prime di (before), la volte (time), il flagjel (calamity, scourge), la sorte (sort).

Verse 8: Alore a faserin tornâ Mosè e Aron dal faraon (so Moses and Aaron were brought back to Pharaoh [so they made Moses and Aaron return to the pharaoh]), che ur disè (who said to them): lait a fâi un sacrifici al Signôr vuestri Diu (go make a sacrifice to the Lord your God), ma cui sono chei che a àn di partî? (but who are those who are to leave?).

Verse 9: Moses says: o menarìn cun nô (we will bring with us) i nestris fîs e lis nestris fiis (our sons and daughters), i nestris nemâi piçui e grancj (our flocks and herds [our small and large animals]). Par nô e je une fieste dal Signôr: it is for us a feast of the Lord.

Verse 10: Pharaoh responds scornfully: che il Signôr al sedi cun vualtris (may the Lord be with you) come che jo us lassi lâ (as I will let you go [as I let you go]), vualtris, lis vuestris feminis e i vuestris fruts (you, your wives and your children). The sense here is one of: may the Lord protect you just as assuredly as I mean to let you go — not at all. Viodêso ce tante tristerie che o vês vualtris?: do you see how wicked you are (do you see how much wickedness you have)?

Verse 11: Pharaoh denies the request: no lafè (absolutely not). He says: lait dome vualtris oms (only you men go) a fâi un sacrifici al Signôr (to make a sacrifice to the Lord), che al è ce che o domandais ancje vualtris (which is what you yourselves ask for). E ju pararin fûr de presince dal faraon: and they were driven out of Pharaoh’s presence (and they drove them out of the presence of the pharaoh).

Verse 12: The Lord instructs Moses: alce la tô man parsore di dut l’Egjit (raise your hand over all of Egypt): che a vegnin i zupets (let the locusts come), che a plombin su la regjon dal Egjit (let them swarm down upon the region of Egypt) e che a netin di raspe dute la jerbe (and let them wholly devour all the grass), dut ce che la tampieste no à fiscât (all that the hail did not ravage).

Verse 13: Mosè al alçà il so baston parsore dal Egjit (Moses raised his rod over Egypt) e il Signôr al mandà su la tiere (and the Lord sent upon the earth) un aiar de jevade (an east wind [a wind from the east]) che al svintà dut il dì e dute la gnot (which blew all day and all night). Tal indoman a buinore l’aiar de jevade al veve menât dongje i zupets: the next morning (the next day in the morning) the east wind (the wind of the east) had brought with it (had brought along) the locusts.

Verse 14: I zupets a plombarin sun dute la regjon dal Egjit (the locusts swarmed down upon all the region of Egypt) e si poiarin sun dute la tiere dal Egjit (and settled on all the land of Egypt); and jere tancj ch’e jere une disperazion (there were so many of them that it was an affliction). No si ’nd jere viodûts tancj zupets (so many locusts had not been seen) prime d’in chê volte (before that time) e nancje dopo no si à plui viodût un flagjel di chê sorte (and even afterwards a scourge of the sort [of that sort] has been seen no more).

Versets 15-20

Vocabulary: taponâ (to cover), la face (face, surface), la tiere (earth, land), (to make, to do), il fisc (devastation), la regjon (region), netâ di raspe (to devour altogether), la jerbe (grass), la pome (fruit), un arbul (tree), sparagnâ (to spare), la tampieste (hail), restâ (to remain, to be left), une cuarte di (a span of), il vert (green, plantlife), il cjamp (field), il faraon (pharaoh), spesseâ (to hurry, to hasten), clamâ (to call, to summon), (to say), pecjâ (to sin), cuintri di (against), perdonâ (to forgive, to pardon), il fal (transgression, offence, error), sconzurâ (to implore, to beg), almancul (at least), preâ (to pray, to entreat), slontanâ (to distance, to remove), il flagjel (scourge, calamity), copâ (to kill), saltâ fûr (to come/go out), la cjase (house), tramudâ (to transform), un aiar (wind), la jevade (east), un aiaron (strong wind), l’amont (west), puartâ vie (to carry away), il zupet (locust), sgurlâ (to hurl, to fling), il mâr (sea), la cjanusse (reed), la semence (seed), il teritori (territory), indurî (to harden), il cûr (heart), volê (to want), lassâ lâ (to allow to depart), no… lafè (not in the least).

Verse 15: A taponarin la face de tiere (they covered the face of the earth) e a faserin il fisc in dute la regjon (and devasted the entire region). A netarin di raspe dute la jerbe de tiere e dutis lis pomis dai arbui che lis veve sparagnadis la tampieste: they wholly devoured all the grass of the earth and all the fruits of the trees that the hail had spared. In dut il teritori dal Egjit no restà une cuarte di vert ni sui arbui ni te jerbe dai cjamps: in the entire territory of Egypt not a span of green remained, either on the trees or in the grass of the fields.

Verse 16: Il faraon al spesseà a clamâ Mosè e Aron par dî (Pharaoh hastened to summon Moses and Aaron as to say): o ài pecjât (I have sinned) cuintri dal Signôr vuestri Diu (against the Lord your God) e cuintri di vualtris (and against you).

Verse 17: Perdonimi il gno fal (forgive me my offence), ti sconzuri (I beg you), almancul cheste volte (just this once [at least this time]), e preait il Signôr vuestri Diu (and entreat the Lord your God) che al slontani di me chest flagjel (that he remove this scourge from me) che mi cope (which is killing me). Observe: perdonâ (to forgive); perdone (forgive; second-person singular imperative); perdonimi (forgive me; second-person singular imperative, where the final e of perdone has changed to i with the addition of mi).

Verse 18: Mosè al saltà fûr de cjase dal faraon e al preà il Signôr: Moses left (went out of) the house of Pharaoh and entreated the Lord.

Verse 19: Il Signôr al tramudà (the Lord transformed) l’aiar de jevade (the east wind [the wind of the east]) intun aiaron dal amont (into a great west wind [into a great wind of the west]) che al puartà vie ducj i zupets (which carried away all the locusts) e ju sgurlà tal mâr des Cjanussis (and hurled them into the Sea of Reeds). Aiaron (strong wind, great wind) is the augmentative form of aiar (wind). Nol restà un zupet di semence in dut il teritori dal Egjit: not a trace (seed) of locust remained in all the territory of Egypt.

Verse 20: Mal Signôr al indurì il cûr dal faraon (but the Lord hardened Pharaoh’s heart), che nol volè lafè no lassâ lâ i israelits (who altogether refused to let the Israelites depart). Note the use of the contraction mal: mal Signôr al indurì = ma il Signôr al indurì.

Versets 21-29

Vocabulary: (to say), alçâ la man (to raise one’s hand), viers di (towards), il cîl (heaven, sky), il scûr (darkness), palpâ (to touch), cuviergi (to cover; also cuvierzi), trê (three), il dì (day), vignî jù (to come down), sore (upon), la tiere (land), la scuritât (darkness), viodi (to see), tant (so very), penç (thick, dense, dark), la int (people), la muse (face), un cul altri (one another), podê (may, can, to be able), movisi (to move oneself), di file (in a row), un israelit (Israelite), invezit (whereas, on the other hand), il lusôr (light), la cjase (house), il faraon (pharaoh), clamâ (to call, to summon), il sacrifici (sacrifice), il besteam (livestock), tant … che (… and … alike), la robe minude (small livestock), la robe grande (large livestock), vê di (must, to have to), restâ (to remain), culì (here), la femine (wife), il frut (child), partî (to leave, to depart), meti a disposizion (to provide), il nemâl (animal), sacrificâ (to sacrifice), brusâ (to burn), ufrî (to offer), la mandrie (herd, flock), menâ daûrsi (to bring along), il cjâf (head), coventâ (to be needed), savê (to know), nancje (not even), fintremai che (until), là vie (there), indurî (to harden), il cûr (heart), no… gran (not in the least), vuardâ (to guard), tignîsi vuardât (to protect oneself), presentâsi (to present oneself), denant di (before), il voli (eye), la dì (day), finît (finished, over), volê (to want), no… altri (no more, not again).

Verse 21: The Lord instructs Moses: alce la tô man viers dal cîl (raise your hand towards the heaven) e che un scûr di palpâlu al cuviergi l’Egjit (and may a darkness that can be touched cover Egypt).

Verse 22: Mosè al alçà la man viers dal cîl (Moses raised his hand towards the heaven) e par trê dîs (and for three days) e vignì jù sore la tiere dal Egjit une scuritât mai viodude une tant penge (a darkness never before seen so thick descended upon the land of Egypt). Penç is the Friulian for thick, dense, dark; its feminine form is penze, found in the text of this verse as the variant spelling penge. Taken literally: e vignì jù (came down) sore la tiere dal Egjit (upon the land of Egypt) une scuritât (a darkness) mai viodude (never seen) une tant penge (one so thick).

Verse 23: La int no rivavin a viodisi in muse un cul altri (the people could not see one another [were not coming to see one another in the face]) e nissun nol podè movisi di li che al jere (and nobody could move from where he was) par trê dîs di file (for three days in a row); i israelits, invezit (the Israelites, on the other hand), a vevin lusôr tes lôr cjasis (they had [were having] light in their houses).

Verse 24: Pharaoh, having summoned Moses, says: vualtris o podês lâ a fâi un sacrifici al Signôr (you may go make a sacrifice to the Lord) ma il vuestri besteam (but your livestock), tant la robe minude che chê grande (flocks and herds alike [as much the small livestock as that large]), e à di restâ culì (is to remain here). Ancje lis vuestris feminis e i vuestris fruts a podaran partî cun vualtris: even your wives and children may leave with you.

Verse 25: Moses responds: tu âs tu di metinus a disposizion i nemâi (it is you who must provide us with the animals [put the animals at our disposition]) che o vin di sacrificâju e di brusâju (which we are to sacrifice and burn) par ufrîjai al Signôr nestri Diu (that we may offer them [as to offer them] to the Lord our God). Consider: tu tu âs di (you have to; you must); tu âs tu di (it is you who has to; it is you who must). Ufrîjai (to offer them to him) = ufrî + i + ju (to offer + unto him + them).

Verse 26: Lis nestris mandriis ses menarìn daûrsi (we will bring our stocks along [behind us]) e nol restarà un cjâf (and not a head shall remain behind), parcè che nus coventin (for we need them [for unto us are they needed]) par fâi i sacrificis al Signôr nestri Diu (that we may make our sacrifices [as to make the sacrifices] to the Lord our God). Ses is a contraction of si + lis. Moses continues: no savìn nancje nô (even we ourselves will not know [even we do not know]) cemût che o varìn di fâ i sacrificis al Signôr (how we are to perform our sacrifices [how we will have to make the sacrifices] to the Lord) fintremai che no sarìn rivâts là vie (until we arrive [will arrive] there).

Verse 27: Ma il Signôr al indurì il cûr dal faraon (but the Lord hardened the heart of Pharaoh), che no ju lassà partî gran (who altogether refused to let them depart [who did not let them depart in the least]).

Verse 28: Pharaoh says: fûr di chi (be gone [out of here]). He continues: tegniti vuardât di me (protect yourself [keep yourself guarded] from me) e no sta presentâti denant dai miei vôi (and do not present yourself before my eyes) parcè che la dì che tu mi rivis denant (for so soon as [for the day that] you come before me), par te e je finide (you shall die [for you it is over]).

Verse 29: Moses responds straightforwardly: cemût che tu vûs (as you wish [how you want]). No tu mi viodarâs altri denant di te: you shall not see me again before you.