Polish language series: Rdz 14, Kedorlaomer

Of the fourteenth chapter of the book of Genesis, the subject is: wyprawa wojenna królów mezopotamskich (war expedition of the Mesopotamian kings). From this, learn the following: wyprawa (f., expedition); wojenny (martial, war); król (m., king); mezopotamski (Mesopotamian).

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Read Rdz 14

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Wersety 1-3

  • król (m.), king
  • wszcząć (pf.), to begin, to start
  • wojna (f.), war, warfare
  • ostatni, last(-mentioned)
  • sprzymierzyć się (pf.), to ally with
  • dziś, today
  • słony, salty

Review: czas (m., time), miasto (n., town, city), czyli (which is to say), dolina (f., valley), morze (n., sea).

Verses 1-2: Names of men and places, in their nominative form: Amrafel (Amraphel); Szinear (Shinar); Ariok (Arioch); Ellasar (Ellasar); Kedorlamer (Chedorlaomer); Elam (Elam); Tidal (Tidal); Goim (Goiim), Sodoma (Sodom), Bera (Bera), Gomora (Gomorrah), Birsza (Birsha), Adma (Admah), Szinab (Shinab), Seboim (Zeboiim), Szemeeber (Shemeber), Bela (Bela), Soar (Zoar). Wszcząć wojnę can be taken as meaning to make war, to unleash a war. You read: za czasów Amrafela, króla Szinearu (in the times of Amraphel, king of Shinar), i Arioka, króla Ellasaru (and of Arioch, king of Ellasar), Kedorlaomer, król Elamu (Chedorlaomer, king of Elam), i Tidal, król Goim (and Tidal, king of Goiim), wszczęli wojnę (made war) z królem Sodomy, Berą (on [with] Bera, king of Sodom), z królem Gomory, Birszą (on [with] Birsha, king of Gomorrah), z królem Admy, Szinabem (on [with] Shinab, king of Admah), z królem Seboim, Szemeeberem (on [with] Shemeber, king of Zeboiim), i z królem miasta Beli, czyli Soaru (and against [with] the king of the town of Bela, which is to say, of Zoar).

Verse 3: Ci ostatni królowie (these last-mentioned kings) sprzymierzyli się z sobą (allied with one another; joined forces with one another) w dolinie Siddim (in the Siddim Valley), gdzie dziś jest Morze Słone (where today the Salt Sea is). Morze Słone translates literally as Salty Sea. Related vocabulary: sól (m., salt); cukier (m., sugar).

Wersety 4-7

  • lennik (m.), vassal
  • zbuntować się (pf.), to revolt, to rebel
  • nadciągnąć (pf.), to come, to approach
  • pobić (pf.), to defeat, to beat
  • górzysty, mountainous, hilly
  • pogranicze (n.), borderland
  • pustynia (f.), desert
  • zawrócić (pf.), to turn back, to return
  • dotrzeć (pf.), to reach

Review: rok (m., year), dwanaście (twelve), trzynasty (thirteenth), toteż (and so, therefore), czternasty (fourteenth), wraz (together), wraz z (along with, together with), inny (other, another), król (m., king), równina (f., plain), kraj (m., land, country), aż do (unto, as far as), leżeć (impf., to lie), czyli (which is to say), cały (entire), ziemia (f., land, earth), także (also), mieszkać (impf., to dwell).

Verse 4: Review: How to count in Polish. You read: przez lat dwanaście (for twelve years) byli oni lennikami Kedorlaomera (they were vassals of Chedorlaomer), a w roku trzynastym (and in the thirteenth year) zbuntowali się (they rebelled). Lennikami is the instrumental plural of lennik.

Verse 5: Peoples mentioned, in nominative plural form: Refaici (Rephaim); Zuzyci (Zuzim); Emici (Emim). First sentence: toteż w czternastym roku (and so in the fourteenth year) nadciągnął Kedorlaomer (Chedorlaomer came) wraz z innymi królami (along with other kings). Second sentence: pobili oni Refaitów (they defeated the Rephaim) w Aszterot-Karnaim (at Ashteroth-Karnaim), Zuzytów w Ham (the Zuzim at Ham), Emitów na równinie Kiriataim (the Emim in the Kiriataim Plain).

Verse 6: The Polish for Horites in nominative plural form is Choryci. You read: i Chorytów (and the Horites) w ich górzystym kraju Seir (in their hill country of Seir [in their hilly country Seir]) aż do El (as far as El), które leżało (which lay) na pograniczu (along the perimeter [in the borderland]) pustyni Paran (of the Paran Desert). You find the accusative plural Chorytów in the text of this verse because it follows on from pobili oni (they defeated) in verse 5; that is: [pobili oni] Chorytów (they defeated the Horites).

Verse 7: Peoples mentioned, in nominative plural form: Amalekici (Amalekites), Amoryci (Amorites). You read: potem (then), zawróciwszy (having turned back), dotarli do En-Miszpat (they reached En-Mishpat), czyli Kadesz (which is to say, Kadesh), i pobili Amalekitów (and they defeated the Amalekites) na całej ziemi (in all their land), a także Amorytów (and also the Amorites) mieszkających w Chasason-Tamar (dwelling in Hazazon-Tamar). From the imperfective mieszkać comes the masculine singular mieszkający, meaning dwelling. In the text of this verse, you find mieszkających, which is masculine plural, personal and accusative in form. Consider: Amoryci mieszkający w Chasason-Tamar (Amorites dwelling in Hazazon-Tamar); pobili oni Amorytów mieszkających w Chasason-Tamar (they defeated the Amorites dwelling in Hazazon-Tamar).

Wersety 8-12

  • uszykować się (pf.), to prepare oneself
  • walka (f.), war, warfare, fight, battle
  • przeciwko (+ dat.), against
  • wiele, many, much
  • dół (m.), pit
  • wydobywać (impf.), to extract, to obtain
  • rzucić się (pf.), to throw oneself
  • ucieczka (f.), escape, flight (act of fleeing)
  • pozostali (pl.), the rest, the remaining (ones)
  • uciec (pf.), to run away, to flee
  • zwycięzca (m.), victor
  • mienie (n.), possessions, property, goods
  • zapas (m.), stockpile, reserve
  • żywność (f.), food
  • uprowadzić (pf.), to abduct, to take captive

Review: król (m., king), więc (so, therefore), wyruszyć (pf., to leave, to set out), dolina (f., valley), cztery (four), pięć (five), smoła (f., pitch, tar), skryć się (pf., to hide oneself), góra (f., mount, mountain), zabrać (pf., to take away), cały (all, entire), mieszkaniec (m., inhabitant), odejść (pf., to leave, to depart), również (also), bratanek (m., fraternal nephew), wraz (together), wraz z (along with, together with), dobytek (m., livestock, substance).

Verse 8: Królowie więc (so the kings) Sodomy, Gomory, Admy, Seboim (of Sodom, of Gomorrah, of Admah, of Zeboiim) i Beli, czyli Soaru (and of Bela, which is to say, of Zoar), wyruszyli (set out) i uszykowali się (and prepared themselves) w dolinie Siddim (in the Siddim Valley) do walki (for battle).

Verse 9:  The text of this verse continues on from that of verse 8: z Kedorlaomerem, królem Elamu (with Chedorlaomer, king of Elam), Tidalem, królem Goim ([with] Tidal, king of Goiim), Amrafelem, królem Szinearu ([with] Amraphel, king of Shinar), i Ariokiem, królem Ellasaru (and [with] Arioch, king of Ellasar)czterej królowie (four kings) przeciwko pięciu (against five). Czterej is the masculine personal form of cztery, and pięciu is the masculine personal form of pięć; in the text of this verse, czterej is in the nominative, whereas pięciu is in the genitive following przeciwko.

Verse 10: A w dolinie Siddim (now in the Siddim Valley) było wiele dołów (there were many pits), [z których wydobywano] smołę (from which tar was extracted [from which one extracted tar]). Królowie Sodomy i Gomory (the kings of Sodom and Gomorrah), rzuciwszy się do ucieczki (having fled [having thrown themselves into flight]), skryli się (hid themselves) w tych dołach (in these pits), a pozostali uciekli w góry (whereas the rest fled to the mountains).

Verse 11: Zwycięzcy (the victors), zabrawszy całe mienie (having seized [taken away] all the possessions) mieszkańcom (from [unto] the inhabitants) Sodomy i Gomory (of Sodom and Gomorrah) oraz wszystkie ich zapasy żywności (as well as all their reserves of food), odeszli (departed).

Verse 12: Uprowadzili również Lota (they also took Lot captive), bratanka Abrama (the fraternal nephew of Abram), wraz z dobytkiem (along with his substance)był on bowiem mieszkańcem Sodomy (for he was an inhabitant of Sodom). Related vocabulary: bratanek (m., fraternal nephew), bratanica (f., fraternal niece), siostrzeniec (m., sororal nephew), siostrzenica (f., sororal niece).

Wersety 13-14

  • zbieg (m.), fugitive
  • pobliże (n.), vicinity
  • sprzymierzeniec (m.), confederate, ally
  • usłyszeć (pf.), to hear
  • krewny (m.), relative, kinsman
  • niewola (f.), captivity
  • dobrać (pf.), to select, to choose
  • najbardziej, the most
  • doświadczony, experienced, trained
  • rozpocząć (pf.), to initiate
  • pościg (m.), pursuit, chase

Review: jeden (one), przybyć (pf., to arrive, to come), powiedzieć (pf., to say, to tell), Hebrajczyk (m., Hebrew), mieszkać (impf., to dwell), dąb (m., oak), pewien (a, one, a certain), imię (n., name), brat (m., brother), zostać (pf., to be left, to remain), uprowadzić (pf., to abduct, to take captive), trzysta osiemnaście (three hundred and eighteen), spośród (from amongst), służba (f., servants, domestic staff), dom (m., house), aż do (as far as).

Verse 13: The nominative singular of the Polish for Amorite is Amoryta. Eszkol: Eshkol. Aner: Aner. You read: jeden ze zbiegów przybył (one of the fugitives came), aby powiedzieć (so as to tell) o tym (about this) Abramowi Hebrajczykowi (unto Abram the Hebrew), który mieszkał (who was dwelling) w pobliżu (in the vicinity) dębów (of the oaks) pewnego Amoryty (of a certain Amorite), imieniem Mamre (by the name of Mamre), brata Eszkola i Anera (brother of Eshkol and Aner), sprzymierzeńców Abrama (allies of Abram). For clarity: one of the fugitives brought news of this to Abram the Hebrew, who was dwelling by the oaks of a certain Amorite named Mamre, who was the brother of Eshkol and Aner, the latter being allies of Abram.

Verse 14: Uprowadzić w niewolę is to be taken as meaning to take captive, to take as prisoner. Rozpocząć pościg is to be taken as to give chase, to go into pursuit. You read: Abram (Abram), usłyszawszy (having heard), że jego krewny (that his kinsman) został uprowadzony w niewolę (had been taken captive [got taken into captivity]), dobrał sobie (chose for himself) trzystu osiemnastu (three hundred and eighteen) najbardziej doświadczonych (of the most experienced {men}) spośród służby (from amongst the servants) swego domu (of his house) i rozpoczął pościg (and gave chase) aż do Dan (as far as Dan). Trzystu osiemnastu, as used in the text of this verse, is the masculine personal form of the accusative.

Wersety 15-16

  • oddział (m.), squad, band, branch
  • napaść (pf.), to attack, to raid
  • nieprzyjaciel (m.), enemy, foe
  • zadać (pf.), to inflict, to deliver
  • klęska (f.), defeat
  • ścigać (impf.), to pursue, to chase
  • odzyskać (pf.), to regain, to recover
  • powrót (m.), return

Review: podzielić (pf., to divide), ludzie (pl., people, men), noc (f., night), wraz z (along with), potem (then), aż do (as far as), leżeć (impf., to lie), zachód (m., west), sposób (m., manner, way), cały (all, entire), mienie (n., possessions, property, goods), także (also), sprowadzić (pf., to bring), dobytek (m., livestock, substance), kobieta (f., woman), sługa (m., servant).

Verse 15: Podzieliwszy swych ludzi (having divided his men) na oddziały (into bands), nocą (by night) napadł (he attacked) wraz z nimi (along with them) na nieprzyjaciół ([against] his foes) i zadał (and inflicted) im (unto them) klęskę (defeat). For clarity: he divided his men into bands; with them, he led a night attack against his foes and defeated them. The nominative form of the Polish for Hobah is Choba; for Damascus, it is Damaszek: a potem ścigał ich (and then he pursued [was pursuing] them) aż do Choby (as far as Hobah), która leży (which lies) na zachód od Damaszku (to the west of Damascus).

Verse 16: Sprowadzić na powrót is to be taken as meaning to bring back. You read: w ten sposób (in this manner; thus) odzyskał całe mienie (he recovered all the possessions), a także sprowadził na powrót Lota (and he also brought back Lot) wraz z jego dobytkiem (along with his substance), kobietami (the women) i sługami (and the servants). The plural kobietami and sługami are in instrumental form; they follow on from wraz z, which requires the application of this case.

Wersety 17-21

  • zwycięstwo (n.), victory
  • odnieść (pf.), to gain, to achieve
  • spotkanie (n.), meeting
  • królewski, king’s, kingly
  • wynieść (pf.), to bring out, to carry out
  • chleb (m.), bread
  • kapłan (m.), priest
  • najwyższy, highest, most high
  • stwórca (m.), creator
  • wróg (m.), enemy, foe
  • część (f.), part, share, portion

Review: wracać (impf., to come back, to return), król (m., king), wyjść (pf., to go out, to exit), dolina (f., valley), czyli (which is to say), zaś (whereas, as for), wino (n., wine), ponieważ (because, given that), błogosławić (impf., to bless), mówić (impf., to say), niech (let, may), błogosławiony (blessed), niebo (n., heaven, sky), ziemia (f., earth), ręka (f., hand), wydać (pf., to bring forth, to deliver), dać (pf., to give), dziesiąty (tenth), oddać (pf., to grant, to yield), wszystek (all, everything), rzec (pf., to say), oddać (pf., to yield, to turn over), mienie (n., possessions, property, goods), wziąć (pf., to take).

Verse 17: Gdy Abram wracał (when Abram came back) po zwycięstwie (following the victory) odniesionym (gained) nad Kedorlaomerem (over Chedorlaomer) i królami (and [over] the kings), którzy z nim byli (who were with him [who with him were]), wyszedł mu na spotkanie ({the king of Sodom} went out to meet him [went out in meeting unto him]) do doliny Szawe (into the Shaveh Valley), czyli Królewskiej (which is to say, the King’s Valley [(into) the Kingly {Valley}]), król Sodomy (the king of Sodom). For clarity: when Abram returned from the victory gained over Chedorlaomer and the kings with him, the king of Sodom went out to meet him in the Shaveh Valley, which is to say, the King’s Valley. From the perfective odnieść comes odniesiony, meaning gained, acheived; it is found here in locative form as odniesionym to agree with the locative zwycięstwie, following the preposition po. Królewskiej (adjective in the feminine singular of the genitive) has taken this form to agree with doliny (feminine noun in genitive singular position), following the preposition do.

Verse 18: The nominative form of the Polish for Salem is Szalem. Bóg Najwyższy: God Most High. You read: Melchizedek zaś (as for Melchizedek), król Szalemu (king of Salem), wyniósł chleb i wino (he brought out bread and wine); a [ponieważ] był on kapłanem Boga Najwyższego (and because he was a priest of God Most High). Observe the following:

wysokiwyższynajwyższy
highhigherhighest

Verse 19: Błogosławił Abrama, mówiąc: he blessed Abram, saying. Following przez (by, via, through), you find the accusative: niech będzie błogosławiony Abram (blessed be Abram [may Abram be blessed]) przez Boga Najwyższego (by God Most High), Stwórcę nieba i ziemi (Creator of heaven and earth).

Verse 20: Niech będzie błogosławiony Bóg Najwyższy (blessed be God Most High), który (who) w twe ręce (into your hands) wydał (has delivered [brought forth]) twoich wrogów (your enemies). Abram dał mu dziesiątą część ze wszystkiego: Abram gave him a tenth of everything (Abram gave unto him the tenth part of all).

Verse 21: Król Sodomy rzekł do Abrama: the king of Sodom said to Abram. Oddaj mi tylko ludzi, a mienie weź sobie: turn only the men over to me, and keep the possessions for yourself (take unto yourself the possessions).

Wersety 22-24

  • przysięgać (impf.), to swear, to take an oath
  • nitka (f.), thread
  • rzemyk (m.), leather strap
  • sandał (m.), sandal
  • należeć (impf.), to belong
  • wzbogacić (pf.), to enrich, to make rich
  • żądać (impf.), to demand
  • poza (+ instr.), except
  • wyżywienie (n.), food
  • oprócz (+ gen.), except
  • zdobyć (pf.), to acquire, to capture
  • towarzyszyć (impf.), to accompany
  • przypadać (impf.), to fall

Review: odpowiedzieć (pf., to respond), król (m., king), najwyższy (highest, most high), stwórca (m., creator), niebo (n., heaven, sky), ziemia (f., earth), ani (neither, nor), nic (nothing), wziąć (pf., to take), żeby (in order that), potem (then), mówić (impf., to say), pójść (pf., to go, to lend oneself, to serve), człowiek (m., man; pl., ludzie), część (f., part, share, portion), mienie (n., possessions, property, goods), niechaj (let, may), otrzymać (pf., to receive).

Verses 22-23: ale Abram odpowiedział królowi Sodomy (but Abram responded to the king of Sodom): przysięgam na Pana (I swear to the Lord), Boga Najwyższego (God Most High), Stwórcę nieba i ziemi (Creator of heaven and earth), że ani nitki (that neither thread), ani rzemyka od sandała (nor sandal strap [strap from a sandal]), ani niczego (nor anything) nie wezmę z tego, co (will I take from that which) do ciebie należy (unto you belongs), żebyś potem nie mówił (in order that you then not say): to ja wzbogaciłem Abrama (it was I who enriched Abram). 

Verse 24: Nie żądam niczego (I do not demand anything) poza tym, co (except for that which) poszło na wyżywienie (served [went] as food) moich ludzi (unto my men), i oprócz części zdobytego mienia (and except for the portion of goods acquired) dla tych, którzy mi towarzyszyli (belonging to those who accompanied me [for those who were accompanying me])dla Anera, Eszkola i Mamrego ([belonging to (for)] Aner, Eshkol and Mamre); ci niechaj otrzymają część, która im przypada (let them [these ones] receive the portion which is owing [falling] to them).