Friulian language series: Esodo 9, lis plais dal Egjit

In Esodo 9, or the ninth chapter of the book of Exodus, you continue to read about lis plais dal Egjit (the plagues of Egypt). You now also read about the fifth, sixth and seventh plagues, which are la muart dal besteam (the death of livestock), i acès (abscesses) and la tampieste (hail).

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Read Esodo 9

To read the Friulian text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Bibie par un popul and consult Esodo 9. An archived version of the text can be found here.

Versets 1-7

Vocabulary: fâ un sacrifici (to make a sacrifice), stratignî (to restrain, to hold back), netâ vie (to eliminate), la mandrie (herd), il cjaval (horse), il mus (donkey), il camêl (camel), il bo (ox; plural form is i bûs), la minuçarìe (flock [of sheep]), la pidemie (epidemic, pestilence; also epidemie), dividi (to divide), crepâ (to die), il cjâf (head), distinâ (to determine; also destinâ), la ore (hour, time), doman (tomorrow), la opare (action, deed), tal indoman (the following day), la bestie (animal, beast), sancirâsi su cemût che (to ascertain how), mancjâ (to lack, to be missing), il cûr (heart), indurîsi (to harden).

You now read about the fifth plague: la muart dal besteam (the death of livestock). In verse 2, you read: cuntune pidemie che no ’nd è stadis compagnis (with a pestilence the likes of which have not [ever] been seen; literally, with an epidemic of which there has not been an identical one [of them]). There are more examples of this type of wording throughout the chapter; I shall draw your attention to each instance of them so that you may consider their structure.

In verse 4, you read: di ce che al è dai ebreus no ’nt creparà un cjâf (from amongst that which belongs to the Hebrews nothing shall die). Translated literally, you obtain: from that which is of the Hebrews not a head of them shall die; from not a head of them you will understand not one of the animals.

In verse 7, you read: il faraon al volè sancirâsi su cemût ch’e jere lade la robe (the Pharaoh wanted to ascertain how this had occurred) e ve che des mandriis di Israel (and there it was that of the herds of Israel) nol jere stât mancjât un nemâl di numar (not a single animal had gone missing).

Versets 8-12

Vocabulary: cjoli (to take), une zumiele di (a handful of), il cjalin (soot), il fornâs (furnace), butâ par aiar (to throw in the air), in presince di (before, in front of), tramudâsi in (to turn into), il pulvin (dust), fin (fine), la int (people), plen di (full of, a lot of), un acès (abscess; also assès), butâsi in (to turn into, to break forth in), il farongli (pustule, furuncle; also faroncli), fodrâ (to cover), il strolic (magician), par vie di (due to, because of), une cjame di (a load of), scoltâ (to listen).

You now read about the sixth plague: i acès (abscesses). From verse 9, take note of fin fin; the repetition of the adjective adds emphasis.

In verse 11, you read that even the magicians were afflicted with pustulous abscesses: ancje i strolics int vevin une cjame (the magicians also had a load of them) compagn di ducj chei altris egjizians (just like all the other Egyptians). The expression a load of is rather colloquial in English, but this is very much the sense of une cjame di, for the feminine noun cjame means load, charge.

Versets 13-19

Vocabulary: jevâ (to arise, to get up), denant dì (in the early morning), spiticâsi (to satisfy oneself), il flagjel (calamity, curse), slungjâ la man (to extend one’s hand), fruçâ (to destroy), la peste (plague), cancelâ (to eliminate), la face de tiere (face of the earth), palpâ (to feel, to perceive), fuart (strong, mighty), cognossi (to know), par dut il mont (the whole world over), inrochîsi cuintri (to rise up against), doman come cumò (tomorrow at this time), la tampieste (hail), sgrisulâsi (to become frightened), di sgrisulâsi (terrifying, frightening), fin cumò (up until now), spesseâ (to hurry, to make haste), meti a salvament (to shelter, to put away [so as to protect]), intivâsi (to come across, to be found), menâ dentri (to bring inside), plombâ intor (to strike, to crash down upon), copâ (to kill).

You now read about the seventh plague: la tampieste (hail). From verse 14, par che tu sepis che no ’nd è un compagn di me in dute la tiere translates literally as so that you know that there is not any one of them like me in all the earth; that is, so that you know that there is none like me in all the earth. Farther along, in verse 16, you read: par fâti palpâ trop fuart che o soi jo (in order to make you perceive how mighty I am).

From verse 18, you will understand une tampieste di sgrisulâsi as meaning frightening hail(storm). Di sgrisulâsi is used here in the same way that you have seen di fâ pôre used in previous readings. In this same verse, che no s’ind à viodudis di compagnis di cuant che al è stât fat l’Egjit fin cumò is to be understood as meaning the likes of which have not (ever) been seen since the time when Egypt was formed up until now; literally, which identical ones of them have not been seen from when Egypt was made until now.

From verse 19, dut ce che (…) nol varà podût jessi menât dentri means all that which will have been unable to be brought inside.

Versets 20-26

Vocabulary: vê teme di (to fear), la peraule (word), di buride (quickly), menâ a sotet (to bring to safety), cjapâ par une sflocje (to take for a tale; that is, to disbelieve), lassâ fûr (to leave outside), tampiestâ (to hail down), la plante (plant), il baston (rod, staff), viers (towards), cresolâ (to thunder), il folc (lightning), trai su la tiere (to run along the ground), molâ jù (to release, to send down), la tampiestade (hailstorm), trement (terrible, horrendous), il fûc (fire), sflameâ (to flame; also sflamiâ), esisti (to exist), netâ vie di raspe (to scrape away, to tear away), screvaçâ (to crack, to break, to split), un arbul (tree), sistemâsi (to settle), colâ (to fall), un asin di tampieste (hailstone).

In verse 22, you read: slungje la man viers il cîl (extend your hand towards the heaven) e che al tampiesti par dut l’Egjit (and let it hail down in all of Egypt). Al tampiesti is the masculine third-person singular of the coniuntîf presint.

As you read in verse 24, a terrible hailstorm occurred: e capità une tampiestade tremende. The fire burned amongst the hail: il fûc al sflameave framieç de tampieste. In the remainder of the verse, you read: une tampieste di sgrisulâsi ([a] terrifying hail), che no ’nt vevin viodude une compagne (the likes of which had not [ever] been seen; literally, which they had not seen an identical one of them) di cuant che a esistevin come popul (ever since they existed as a people).

In Goshen, where the Israelites were, not a single stone of hail fell: nol colà un asin di tampieste (verse 26). This is not the first time that you are encountering the masculine noun asin; you will perhaps remember it from Gjenesi 40:10, on the subject of grapes.

Versets 27-35

Vocabulary: falâ (to sin), jessi in reson (to be righteous), jessi de bande dal tuart (to be in the wrong; literally, to be on the side of wrongdoing), preâ (to pray), la cresolade (thunder), il ton (thunder), cessâ (to cease), ni… ni (neither… nor), savê benon (to know very well), il lin (flax), il vuardi (barley), jessi in spî (to be in the ear), jessi in flôr (to be in blossom), il forment (wheat, grain), la blave (corn), ripiâsi (to grow back), sglavinâ (to hail down, to pour down), la ploe (rain; also ploie), lâ fûr di strade (to sin; literally, to go off the path), par bocje di (by way of; literally, by the mouth of).

From verse 27, il Signôr sì che al è in reson is to be understood as meaning the Lord is indeed righteous. Farther along, in verse 28, you read: and è stadis masse cresoladis e tampieste (there has been too much thunder and hail).

In verse 31, you read that the flax and barley were destroyed: il lin e il vuardi a lerin dal dut (the flax and barley were completely destroyed; literally, the flax and barley went [away] completely). The reason is given: il vuardi al jere in spî (the barley was in the ear) e il lin in flôr (and the flax in blossom). In verse 32, you read: ma il forment e la blave (but the wheat and corn) a rivarin a ripiâsi (managed to grow back) che a jerin ancjemò indaûr (for they were still behind; that is, behind in the sense that they had not yet reached maturity when the hail began). Where the Friulian has blave (corn), the Hebrew instead appears to mention sorghum.