A large amount of new Polish vocabulary appears in Rdz 12. Amongst this vocabulary are the cardinal directions in Polish, which you will study in the notes below for verse 8. This twelfth chapter of the book of Genesis deals with the following subject matter: Bóg powołuje Abrama (God appoints Abram) and Abram w Egipcie (Abram in Egypt). The imperfective verb powoływać means to appoint, and the Polish for Egypt is the masculine noun Egipt.
If you are arriving on this site for the first time, begin your study of the Polish language here (Rdz 1). In your study of Polish, you will use the Biblia Tysiąclecia as your source text. You can read the text of this Bible entirely online.
Before you begin your study of Rdz 12, you must access the verses on biblia.deon.pl below:
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Should the above links ever become unavailable, you will find an archived version of the text here.
- rodzinny, family, domestic
- dom (m.), house, home
- ukazać (pf.), to show
- rozsławić (pf.), to cover with glory
- błogosławieństwo (n.), blessing
- otrzymywać (impf.), to receive
Review: wyjść (pf., to exit, to go out), ojciec (m., father), kraj (m., land, country), wielki (great, large), naród (m., nation), stać się (pf., to become), złorzeczyć (impf., to curse).
God, in verse 1, tells Abram: wyjdź z twojej ziemi rodzinnej (go out from your homeland [literally, family land]) i z domu twego ojca (and from the house of your father) do kraju, który ci ukażę (unto a land that I shall show you). You have met the perfective verb ukazać before, but only as the reflexive ukazać się (to appear). For example, in Rdz 1:9, you encountered: i niech się ukaże powierzchnia sucha (and let the dry surface appear). Given that ukazać means to show, you might consider that a more literal meaning of the reflexive ukazać się is to show oneself.
Verse 2 begins: uczynię bowiem z ciebie wielki naród (because I shall make of you a great nation). God continues by saying that he will bless Abram and cover his name in glory; a blessing shall Abram be. Błogosławieństwem is the instrumental form of the nominative błogosławieństwo.
In verse 3, God says that he will bless those who bless Abram, and curse those who curse him. As for przez ciebie, this is to be understood as through you. God says: przez ciebie (through you) będą otrzymywały błogosławieństwo (shall receive a blessing) ludy całej ziemi (the people of the entire earth).
- pójść (pf.), to go
- bratanek (m.), fraternal nephew
- dobytek (m.), livestock; possessions
- oba, both
- posiadać (impf.), to own, to possess
- służba (f.,), servants, domestic staff
- nabyć (pf.), to obtain, to acquire, to buy
- przybyć (pf.), to arrive
- przejść (pf.), to traverse, to pass
- pewien, a, one, a certain
- miejscowość (f.), place, spot
- koło (+ gen.), near
- dąb (m.), oak
- wówczas, at that time, then
Review: udać się (pf., to go, to proceed), droga (f., way, road), rozkazać (pf., to order, to command), zabrać (pf., to take away, to take along), oraz (also), wyruszyć (impf., to leave, to set out), mieszkać (impf., to live), Kananejczyk (m., Canaanite).
Despite the large amount of vocabulary that may be new to you in this grouping of verses, you should be able to work through this portion of text with minimal help. A few pointers nonetheless:
Abram udał się w drogę, from verse 4, can be understood as meaning Abram set out. It is out of Haran that he went: wyszedł z Charanu. You read that Lot went with him: a z nim poszedł i Lot. Obaj, from verse 5, is in masculine personal form; it means both (of them). In verse 6, you read: Abram przeszedł przez ten kraj (Abram passed through this land) aż do pewnej miejscowości koło Sychem (up to a place near Sichem), do dębu More (unto the oak of Moreh).
You may wish to learn the following related vocabulary: bratanek (m., fraternal nephew), bratanica (f., fraternal niece), siostrzeniec (m., sororal nephew), siostrzenica (f., sororal niece).
- oddawać (impf.), to grant, to yield
- przenieść (pf.) się, to move, to go over
- wzgórze (n.), hill
- rozbić (pf.), to pitch
- zachód (m.), west
Review: potomstwo (n., offspring), zbudować (pf., to build, to construct), ołtarz (m., altar), stamtąd (from there), wschód (m., east), na wschód od (to the east of), namiot (m., tent), pomiędzy (between), również (also), wzywać (impf., to call upon), imię (n., name).
Ukazawszy się Abramowi, from verse 7, means having appeared unto Abram. Farther along in the verse, który mu się ukazał is to be understood as who had appeared unto him. In verse 8, you read: pomiędzy Betel od zachodu i Aj od wschodu (between Bethel on [from] the west and Hai on [from] the east).
You may now wish to learn the names of all four cardinal points: północ (f., north), południe (n., south), wschód (m., east), zachód (m., west).
In the following phrases, the cardinal points are in locative position: na północy (in the north), na południu (in the south), na wschodzie (in the east), na zachodzie (in the west).
As for this next set of phrases, the cardinal points are in the accusative: na północ (to the north), na południe (to the south), na wschód (to the east), na zachód (to the west). These can be followed by od, as in: na północ od (to the north of), na południe od (to the south of), na wschód od (to the east of), na zachód od (to the west of).
The adjective północny means northern; południowy means southern. Learn also the following: północny wschód (north-east), północny zachód (north-west), południowy wschód (south-east), południowy zachód (south-west). These translate literally from the Polish as northern east, northern west, southern east, southern west.
- zwinąć (pf.), to roll up, to fold up
- strona (f.), side, way
- głód (m.), famine
- powędrować (pf.), to journey, to trek
- Egipt (m.), Egypt
- pewien, certain, some
- ciężki, grievous, bad
- urodziwy, attractive, comely
- kobieta (f.), woman
- skoro, as soon as
- Egipcjanin (m.), Egyptian
- zostawić (pf.), to leave
- wieść (impf.) się, to fare
- dzięki (+ dat.), thanks to
- utrzymać (pf.), to remain, to persist
Review: wędrować (impf., to journey, to trek), miejsce (n., place, spot), nastać (pf., to come about), ów (that, the aforementioned), pozostać (pf., to remain, to stay), czas (m., time), zbliżać się (impf., to draw near), wiedzieć (impf., to know), powiedzieć (pf., to say), ujrzeć (pf., to see, to behold), zabić (pf., to kill), życie (n., life), mówić (impf., to say), siostra (f., sister), dobrze (well), wzgląd (m., account, consideration).
Zwinąwszy namioty, from verse 9, can be understood as meaning having broken camp or having set out (literally, having rolled up the tent; having folded up the tent). In the remainder of the verse, you read: Abram wędrował (Abram was journeying) z miejsca na miejsce (from place to place) w stronę Negebu (towards the Negev). The Negev (Negew or Negeb in Polish) is a desertic region of southern Israel.
In verse 10, you read that a famine in the land caused Abram to go down to Egypt. The wording aby tam przez pewien czas pozostać is to be understood as meaning in order to stay there for a while. Przez pewien czas means for a while, for some time, for a certain (amount of) time, etc.
Verse 11 begins: a gdy się już zbliżał do Egiptu (and as he was yet drawing near to Egypt; and as he was yet approaching Egypt). The reflexive verb in question here in the imperfective zbliżać się (to draw near). You have already met this verb in your readings, as well as its perfective equivalent zbliżyć się; up to this point, however, you had only seen them used euphemistically to refer to the act of engaging in carnal relations (see Rdz 4:1 and Rdz 6:4).
In the remainder of verse 11, Abram says to his wife Sarai: wiem, że jesteś urodziwą kobietą (I know that you are a comely woman). Kobieta is the usual word for woman in modern Polish; niewiasta, which you have encountered in previous readings, is considered poetic.
Abram, in verse 12, continues to address his wife: skoro cię ujrzą Egipcjanie (as soon as the Egyptians will see you), powiedzą (they will say): to jego żona (this is his wife); i zabiją mnie (and they will kill me), a ciebie zostawią przy życiu (whereas you they will leave alive). Przy is followed by the locative. An Egyptian man in Polish is called Egipcjanin; an Egyptian woman is Egipcjanka.
Mów, from verse 13, is the second-person singular imperative of the imperfective mówić. In this verse, Abram tells Sarai to say that she is his sister. The reason for this, he says, is: aby mi się dobrze wiodło (in order that it fare well for me) ze względu na ciebie (on account of you) i abym dzięki tobie utrzymał się przy życiu (and so that thanks to you I stay alive).
- przybyć (pf.), to come, to arrive
- zauważyć (pf.), to notice, to observe
- dostojnik (m.), dignitary
- faraon (m.), pharaoh
- chwalić (impf.), to praise
- toteż, and so, therefore
- dwór (m.), court
- wynagrodzić (pf.), to reward, to recompense
- sowicie, generously
- owca (f.), sheep
- wół (m.), ox
- niewolnik (m.), male slave, manservant
- niewolnica (f.), female slave, maidservant
- oślica (f.), female donkey, jenny
- wielbłąd (m.), camel
Review: piękny (beautiful), przed (+ instr., in front of, before), otrzymać (pf., to receive).
In verse 15, you read: ujrzawszy ją dostojnicy faraona (the dignitaries of the Pharaoh having seen her), chwalili ją także przed faraonem (they also praised her before the Pharaoh).
In this grouping of verses, you find two impersonal past forms: zabrano (verse 15) and wynagrodzono (verse 16); these can be understood as meaning one took and one recompensed, respectively. Za nią, from verse 16, literally meaning for her, after her, is to be understood as meaning for her sake.
- dotknąć (impf.), to afflict
- otoczenie (n.), surroundings
- kara (f.), punishment
- wezwać (pf.) to call in, to summon
- czemu, why
- iść (impf.), to go
- dworzanin (m.), courtier
- żeby, in order that
- odprowadzić (pf.), to escort, to march off
Review: cóż (what, whatever), dlaczego (why), wziąć (pf., to take), dać (pf., to give), rozkaz (m., command, order), granica (f., border).
Otoczenie (surroundings), from verse 17, is to be understood as referring to those surrounding the Pharaoh: that is, his servants. In this same verse, zabranie is a verbal noun from the perfective zabrać. Wielkimi karami za zabranie Saraj can be understood as meaning with great punishments for the taking of Sarai.
In verse 18, the Pharaoh asks Abram: cóżeś mi uczynił? (what have you done to me?). He then asks him, in verse 19, why he said that Sarai was his sister; the Pharaoh had taken Sarai with the intention of making her his wife. Farther along in verse 19, the Pharaoh says: zabierz ją i idź (take her and go); zabierz and idź are second-person singular imperatives from the perfective zabrać and imperfective iść.
In the final verse, you read that the Pharaoh gave the order to his courtiers to march Abram, his wife and all his cattle off to the border.