You will now study the Polish text of Rdz 11. The first nine verses of the eleventh chapter of the book of Genesis deal with wieża Babel (tower of Babel). Other subjects covered in this chapter include potomkowie Sema (descendants of Shem) and rodzina Abrama (family of Abram). You will have a chance to review Polish numbers in your study of verses 10-26.
If you are arriving on this site for the first time, begin your study of the Polish language here (Rdz 1). In your study of Polish, you will use the Biblia Tysiąclecia as your source text. You can read the text of this Bible entirely online.
Before you begin your study of Rdz 11, you must access the verses on biblia.deon.pl below:
Consult text only
Consult text and audio
Should the above links ever become unavailable, you will find an archived version of the text here.
- mowa (f.), language
- czyli, that is to say
- jednakowy, identical, the same
- wędrować (impf.), to roam, to wander
- napotkać (pf.), to come across
- równina (f.), plain
Review: mieszkaniec (m., inhabitant), wschód (m., east), kraj (m., country, land), tam (there), zamieszkać (pf., to settle).
In verse 1, you come across a new Polish noun for language: the feminine mowa; this is in addition to the masculine język that you already know. You also come across the neuter noun słowo again; you know that this is the Polish word for word itself, but it can be better understood as speech in this verse. Verse 1 can be understood as follows: mieszkańcy całej ziemi (the inhabitants of the entire earth) mieli jedną mowę (used to have one language), czyli jednakowe słowa (that is to say, the same speech). The verb used here is the imperfective mieć.
the inhabitant was having
the inhabitant used to have
the inhabitants were having
the inhabitants used to have
Read through verse 2 with the aid of the vocabulary provided above. W kraju Szinear is to be understood as in the land of Shinar.
- wyrabiać (impf.), to produce
- cegła (f.), brick
- wypalić (pf.), to burn
- ogień (m.), fire
- zamiast (+ gen.), instead of
- zaprawa (f.), mortar
- murarski, of brickwork
- wierzchołek (m.), peak, tip
- sięgać (impf.), to reach for
Review: mówić (impf., to say), chodzić (impf., to walk, to go), kamień (m., stone), smoła (f., pitch, tar), zbudować (pf., to construct, to create), miasto (n., town, city), wieża (f., tower), w ten sposób (thus, in this manner), uczynić (pf., to make), znak (m., sign, mark), rozproszyć się (pf., to scatter oneself).
I mówili jeden do drugiego, from verse 3, can be understood as meaning and they said to one another (literally, and they said the one to the second). In this same verse, chodźcie is the second-person plural imperative of the imperfective verb chodzić; it can be understood as meaning come on then, get to, get a move on, etc. You then find two first-person plural imperatives: wyrabiajmy (let us produce) and wypalmy (let us burn).
Farther along in verse 3, you read that they had brick in place of stone: mieli cegłę zamiast kamieni and pitch in place of mortar: [mieli] smołę zamiast zaprawy murarskieji. Zaprawa murarska is Polish for mortar.
In verse 4, you read: zbudujemy sobie miasto i wieżę (we shall build ourselves a city and tower), której wierzchołek będzie sięgał nieba (whose tip will reach the heaven). You also read: uczynimy sobie znak (we shall make ourselves a mark), abyśmy się nie rozproszyli po całej ziemi (in order that we do not scatter ourselves on the entire earth). The sense of znak here is renown; that is, uczynimy sobie znak can be understood as meaning we shall make ourselves renowned.
- zstąpić (pf.), to descend
- budować (impf.), to build, to construct
- przyczyna (f.), reason
- przyszłość (f.), future
- nic, nothing
- niemożliwy, impossible
- zamierzyć (pf.), to intend
- zejść (pf.), to go down
- pomieszać (pf.), to jumble, to stir
- rozumieć (impf.), to understand
- dokończyć (pf.), to finish, to complete
- budowa (f.), building, construction
Review: zobaczyć (pf., to see), ludzie (m., people), lud (m., people, nation), zacząć (pf., to start, to begin), cokolwiek (whatever, everything that), rozproszyć (pf., to scatter), stamtąd (from there), nazwać (pf., to call), dlatego (therefore), bowiem (for, because).
Although these five verses contain a good deal of new vocabulary, you may just find that you are able to work through them with minimal help. A few notes nonetheless, in case of doubt:
In the first sentence of verse 6, you read: są oni jednym ludem (they are one people) i wszyscy mają jedną mowę (and all have one language). You will recall that wszyscy is the personal masculine plural of wszystek. From the remainder of the sentence, you understand that the reason men began to build was because of unity of people and language. In the second sentence of verse 6, w przyszłości means in the future.
You find two second-person plural imperatives in verse 7: zejdźmy (let us go down) and pomieszajmy (let us confuse, let us stir up, let us mix up, etc.). The final portion of this verse reads: aby jeden nie rozumiał drugiego (in order that they do not understand one another; literally, in order that the one does not understand the second).
In verse 9, nazwano (from the perfective verb nazwać) is the impersonal past.
Review: potomek (m., descendant), mieć x lat (to be x years old), urodzić się (pf., to be born), potop (m., flood), urodzenie (n., birth), żyć (impf., to live), syn (m., son), córka (f., daughter), przeżyć (pf., to live, to survive).
Should you have trouble understanding the language found in this grouping of verses, you may wish to review the notes for Rdz 5; the language used in that chapter is identical to that of the current verses. You may also wish to review Polish numbers.
From verse 10, ci są potomkowie Sema means these are the descendants of Shem.
- zemrzeć (pf.), to die
- niepłodny, barren
- wnuk (m.), grandson
- synowa (f.), daughter-in-law
- wyruszyć (impf.), to leave, to set out
- udać (pf.) się, to go, to proceed
- przyjść (pf.), to arrive, to come
- osiedlić (pf.) się, to settle
- doczekać (pf.), to live to see
Review: dzieje (pl., history), wziąć (pf., to take), ojciec (m., father), żona (f., wife), imię (n., name), potomstwo (n., offspring), jednak (however).
In verse 28, you read: Haran zmarł jeszcze za życia Teracha, swego ojca (Haran died yet in the life of Terah, his father; that is, Haran died when Terah, his father, was still alive; Haran died before Terah, his father). You then read where he died: w kraju, w którym się urodził (in the land where he was born), w Ur chaldejskim (in the Chaldean Ur). You find the adjective chaldejski here, meaning Chaldean, of the Chaldees.
In verse 29, you read that Abram and Nahor took wives: Abram i Nachor wzięli sobie żony (Abram and Nahor took wives unto themselves). In the remainder of the verse, you read that Milcah was the daughter of Haran and that Haran had another daughter named Iscah. The instrumental imieniem (from the nominative imię) can be understood as meaning by the name.
In verse 31, you will have understood that wziąwszy means having taken. You read that Terah took his son Abram, his grandson Lot and his daughter-in-law Sarai, and he set out with them (wyruszył z nimi) from the Ur of the Chaldees.
Terah, as you read in verse 32, died in Haran at the age of two hundred and five. Terach doczekał dwustu i pięciu lat życia is be understood as Terah lived to see two hundred and five years of life.