Friulian language series: Esodo 8, lis plais dal Egjit

The eighth chapter of the book of Exodus continues the telling of lis plais dal Egjit (the plagues of Egypt). Not only do you read more about the second plague, which began in the last chapter and deals with i crots (frogs), but you also read about the third and fourth plagues: lis zanzaris (mosquitoes); i tavans (horseflies).

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Read Esodo 8

To read the Friulian text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Bibie par un popul and consult Esodo 8. An archived version of the text can be found here.

Versets 1-5

Vocabulary: (to say), slungjâ la man (to extend one’s hand), il baston (rod, staff), parsore (over, above), il flum (river), il canâl (canal), il palût (swamp, marsh), fâ vignî sù (to bring up), il crot (frog), la tiere (land), la aghe (water), vignî sù (to come up), taponâ (to cover), il strolic (magician), il striament (spell, enchantment), fâ precîs edentic (to do just the same), il faraon (pharaoh), clamâ (to call, to summon), preâ (to pray, to entreat), deliberâ di (to deliver from; also diliberâ), il popul (people), dâ la sô peraule (to give one’s word), lassâ (to allow, to let), (to go), fâ un sacrifici (to make a sacrifice), il vantaç (advantage), cuant (when), lâ ben (to suit, to be convenient), il famei (servant), sparî (to disappear, to vanish), la cjase (house), restâ (to remain, to be left), dome (only, but).

Verse 1: The Lord gives instructions to Moses: dîsij a Aron (say to Aaron): slungje la man (extend your hand) cul baston (with the rod) parsore dai flums, dai canâi e dai palûts (over the rivers, canals and marshes), e fâs vignî sù i crots (and bring up [make come up] the frogs) te tiere dal Egjit (in the land of Egypt). Dîsij (say to him) is a variant of the form dîsii encountered in Esodo 7:19.

Verse 2: Aron al slungjà la man parsore des aghis dal Egjit (Aaron extended his hand over the waters of Egypt): i crots a vignirin sù (the frogs came up) e a taponarin dute la tiere dal Egjit (and covered all the land of Egypt). Consider: vignî sù (to come up; verse 2); fâ vignî sù (to bring up [make come up]; verse 1).

Verse 3: Ma i strolics (but the magicians), cui lôr striaments (with their spells), a faserin precîs edentic (did just the same) e a faserin vignî sù i crots te tiere dal Egjit (and brought frogs upon the land of Egypt [and brought up frogs in the land of Egypt]).

Verse 4: Il faraon al clamà Mosè e Aron e ur disè: Pharaoh summoned (called for) Moses and Aaron and said to them. In Pharaoh’s words, you find two present subjunctive forms: che mi deliberi and che al ledi; he says: preait il Signôr (entreat the Lord) che mi deliberi (that he may deliver me), me e il gno popul (me and my people), dai crots (from the frogs) e jo us doi la mê peraule (and I give you my word) che o lassarai che il popul al ledi (that I shall let the people go [that I shall let that the people go]) a fâi un sacrifici al Signôr (to make a sacrifice to the Lord). Compare the present indicative and present subjunctive forms: mi delibere; preait che mi deliberi (he delivers me; entreat that he may deliver me); il popul al va; o lassarai che il popul al ledi (the people go; I shall let the people go [I shall let that the people go]).

Verse 5: To Pharaoh, Moses says: a ti il vantaç (the advantage is yours [unto you the advantage); by this, Moses means to say that the honour of establishing the moment at which the Lord is to be entreated lies with Pharaoh. Moses continues: cuant ti vadial ben (when does it suit you [when does it go well for you (unto you)]) che o prei par te, pai tiei fameis e pal to popul (that I entreat on behalf of you, your servants and your people [for you, for your servants and for your people]) che i crots a sparissin (that the frogs vanish) di li di te (from your midst) e des vuestris cjasis (and from your houses) e che a restin dome tal flum? (and that they remain only in the river?). Vadial (or vaial) is the interrogative form of al va.

Versets 6-11

Vocabulary: rispuindi (to respond), doman (tomorrow), sucedi (to happen, to occur, to come to pass), (to say), savê (to know), il crot (frog), lâsint (to leave, to go away), il flum (river), jessî di (to take leave of), berlâ (to yell, to cry out), viers di (towards), in merit di (regarding, in the matter of), mandâ (to send), il cjastic (punishment, chastisement), (to do, to make), domandâ (to ask), crepâ (to die), la cjase (house), il cort (courtyard), il cjamp (field), intassâ (to pile up), un infet (stench), slargjâsi par (to spread through), la regjon (region), viodi (to see), tirâ il flât (to take a breath, to breathe), indurî (to harden), ancjemò di plui (even more), il cûr (heart), no… gran (not in the least), volê (to want), scoltâ (to listen, to heed), antiviodi (to foresee).

Verse 6: Pharaoh responds by saying: doman (tomorrow). Moses, in turn, responds: al sucedarà come che tu âs dit (it shall come about as you have said), par che tu sepis (that you may know) che no ’nd è un (that there is none [that there is not one]) come il Signôr nestri Diu (like the Lord our God). Observe: tu tu sâs; tu sâs (you know); par che tu sepis (that you may know; in order that you know).

Verse 7: I crots si ’nt laran dome intal flum: the frogs shall be found (shall go) only in the river.

Verse 8: Mosè e Aron a jessirin dal faraon: Moses and Aaron took leave of Pharaoh; the verb here is jessî (to go out), not to be confused with jessi (to be). Jessî di can be understood as to go out of (the presence of); that is, to take leave of. Moses cries out to the Lord: Mosè al berlà viers dal Signôr (Moses cried out to the Lord) in merit dai crots (in the matter of the frogs) che lui jai veve mandâts par cjastic al faraon (which he had brought upon [sent to] Pharaoh in punishment). Jai is a contraction of i + ju (unto him + them), where ju stands in for the masculine plural crots.

Verse 9: Il Signôr al fasè ce che al domandave Mosè (the Lord did as Moses asked [that which Moses was asking]) e i crots a creparin tes cjasis (and the frogs died in the houses), tes corts (in the courtyards) e tai cjamps (and in the fields).

Verse 10: Ju intassarin (they piled them up) e l’infet si slargjà par dute la regjon (and the stench spread through the entire region).

Verse 11: Il faraon al viodè (Pharaoh saw) che si podeve tirâ il flât (that there was respite [that one could take a breath]) e al indurì ancjemò di plui il so cûr (and he hardended his heart yet more) e nol volè gran scoltâju (and altogether refused to heed them [did not want to listen to them in the least]), precîs che al veve antiviodût il Signôr (just as the Lord had foreseen).

Versets 12-15

Vocabulary: (to say), alçâ (to raise), il baston (rod, staff), bati (to strike, to hit), il pulvin (dust), la tiere (earth, ground), tramudâsi in (to transform oneself into, to turn into), la zanzare (mosquito), la regjon (region), slungjâ la man (to extend one’s hand), capitâ (to come about, to take place), un stragjo di (a great deal of), la int (people), il nemâl (animal), il strolic (magician), un egjizian (Egyptian), il striament (spell, enchantment), stes (same), la opare (act, deed), fâ saltâ fûr (to bring forth), no rivâ adore (to be unable), ardi (to burn, to sting), un om (man), chi (here), la man (hand), il cûr (heart), il faraon (pharaoh), indurîsi (to become hardened), simpri di plui (even more), volê (to want), no… lafè (not in the least), scoltâ (to listen, to heed), antiviodi (to foresee).

Verse 12: Dîsij a Aron: say to Aaron; see note at verse 1 regarding dîsij and dîsii. Moses is instructed to say to Aaron: alce il baston (raise your rod) e bat il pulvin de tiere (and strike the dust of the earth), che si tramudarà in zanzaris (which shall turn into mosquitoes) sun dute la regjon dal Egjit (over all the region of Egypt).

Verse 13: Aron al slungjà la man (Aaron extended his hand) cul baston (with the rod) e al batè il pulvin de tiere (and struck the dust of the earth) e a capitarin un stragjo di zanzaris su la int e sui nemâi (and a great many mosquitoes came upon man and beast [came about on the people and animals]); dut il pulvin si tramudà in zanzaris (all the dust turned into mosquitoes) par dute la regjon dal Egjit (throughout the entire region of Egypt).

Verse 14: I strolics dai egjizians (the Egyptians’ magicians), cui lôr striaments (with their spells), a faserin la stesse opare (did likewise [performed (did) the same act]) par fâ saltâ fûr lis zanzaris (to bring forth mosquitoes) ma no rivarin adore (but were unable), e lis zanzaris a ardevin oms e nemâi (and the mosquitoes stung [were burning] man and beast [men and animals]).

Verse 15: I strolics i diserin al faraon: the magicians said to Pharaoh. Convinced as they were of having witnessed a supernatural act, the magicians say: chi e je la man di Diu (this is [here is] the hand of God). Pharaoh is unperturbed: ma il cûr dal faraon si indurì simpri di plui (but Pharaoh’s heart became yet more hardened) e nol volè lafè scoltâju (and he altogether refused to heed them [did not want to listen to them in the least]), propit come che al veve antiviodût il Signôr (just as the Lord had foreseen).

Versets 16-23

Vocabulary: (to say), jevâ (to arise, to get up), denant dì (in the early morning), presentâsi (to present oneself), il faraon (pharaoh), (to go, to walk), un ôr (edge), la aghe (water), cussì (thus, so), lassâ (to let, to allow), il popul (people), fâ un sacrifici (to make a sacrifice), mandâ (to send), il tavan (horsefly), cuintri (against), il famei (servant), la cjase (house), un egjizian (Egyptian), ancje (also, too), il teren (ground, land), jessi a stâ (to dwell), invadi (to invade, to infest), in chê dì (on that day), tignî di bande (to set aside), la regjon (region), li (there), savê (to know), framieç di (amidst), dividi (to divide, to separate), il spieli (sign), doman (tomorrow), propit cussì (just so), la tiere (land), plombâ (to precipitate), un disordin di (a great deal of), fiscâ (to ravage), la colpe (fault), par colpe di (on account of), clamâ (to call, to summon), culì dongje (nearby), rispuindi (to respond), podê (may, can, to be able), la robe (thing), nancje (not even), vê indiment (to mention, to invoke), sot (under, below), il voli (eye), no rivâ a (to be unable to), concepî (to conceive, to fathom), tâl (such), dome (only, but), crodi (to believe), claponâ (to stone, to lapidate), vê di (must, to have to), il desert (desert), trê (three), il dì (day), il viaç (journey), ordenâ (to order, to command).

Verse 16: To Moses the Lord says: jeve denant dì (arise in the early morning [before day]) e presentiti al faraon (and present yourself to Pharaoh) cuant che al larà sul ôr da l’aghe (as he walks [will walk (go)] along the edge of the water). He continues: tu i disarâs (you shall say to him): il Signôr al dîs cussì (thus says the Lord): lasse che il gno popul al ledi a fâmi un sacrifici (let my people go that they may make a sacrifice to me [let that my people go to make a sacrifice to me]).

Verse 17: Se no tu lassis lâ il gno popul (if you do not let my people go), o mandarai i tavans cuintri di te, dai tiei fameis, dal to popul e des tôs cjasis (I shall bring horseflies upon [shall send horseflies against] you, your servants, your people and your houses). The text continues: lis cjasis dai egjizians (the houses of the Egyptians) e ancje il teren (along with the ground [and also the ground]) là che a son a stâ (where they dwell) a saran invadûts dai tavans (shall be infested with [invaded by] horseflies).

Verse 18: In chê dì (on that day) jo o tignarai di bande (I shall set aside) la regjon di Gosen (the region of Goshen), là che al è a stâ il gno popul (where my people dwell), e li no ’nt sarà tavans (and no horseflies shall be there), par che tu sepis (that you may know) che jo o soi il Signôr (that I am the Lord) e che o stoi framieç di vualtris (and that I am in your midst). The feminine bande is the Friulian for side; tignî di bande can be taken as to keep aside, to set aside, to set apart.

Verse 19: O dividarai il gno popul dal to (I shall separate [divide] my people from yours); chest spieli lu fasarai doman (this sign shall I perform [do] tomorrow). Note the wording: chest spieli (this sign) lu fasarai (I shall do it) doman (tomorrow).

Verse 20: Il Signôr al fasè propit cussì (the Lord did just so) e te cjase dal faraon (and in the house of Pharaoh), tes cjasis dai siei fameis (in the houses of his servants) e in dute la tiere dal Egjit (and in all the land of Egypt) a plombarin un disordin di tavans (a great many horseflies came swarming down); e la tiere e fo fiscade (and the land was ravaged) par colpe dai tavans (on account of [by fault of] the horseflies). The sense of plombâ is one of rushing headlong; depending on the context, it might be taken as to crash down, to pour down, to swoop in on, to pounce on. In Gjenesi 7:10, you read the following in the matter of the waters of the flood: lis aghis dal diluvi a plombarin su la tiere. In the text of the current verse, plombâ might be rendered as to come swarming down, to swarm down.

Verse 21: Pharaoh summons Moses and Aaron and says: lait a fâi un sacrifici al vuestri Diu (go to make a sacrifice to your God), ma culì dongje (but nearby).

Verse 22: Moses: no si pò fâ chel tant (we cannot do so) parcè che i sacrificis che nô i fasìn (for the sacrifices that we make) al Signôr nestri Diu (to the Lord our God) a son une robe nancje di vêle indiment cui egjizians (are a thing not even to be mentioned before the Egyptians [are a thing not even to mention it with the Egyptians]). He continues: se nô o fasìn un sacrifici (if we make a sacrifice) sot i vôi dai egjizians (before the eyes [under the eyes] of the Egyptians), che lôr no rivin nancje a concepîle une tâl (the likes of which they cannot even fathom [which they are unable even to conceive of such a one]*), tu puedis dome crodi se no nus claponaran (you can be sure that they will stone us [you can but believe that (if) they will stone us]). *The sense here is that the sacrifice made by the Israelites would be shocking to the Egyptians.

Verse 23: Nô o vin di lâ (we must go) a fâi un sacrifici al Signôr nestri Diu (to make a sacrifice to the Lord our God) intal desert (in the desert), a trê dîs di viaç (at a distance [journey] of three days), come che lui nus à ordenât (as he has commanded us).

Versets 24-28

Vocabulary: dissal (he said), il faraon (pharaoh), lassâ (to let, to allow), (to go), fâ un sacrifici (to make a sacrifice), il desert (desert), a pat che (on the condition that), masse lontan (too far), preâ (to pray, to entreat), a pene (as soon as), saltâ fûr (to come/go out), di chi (from here), doman (tomorrow), il tavan (horsefly), slontanâsi (to distance oneself, to go away), il famei (servant), il popul (people), ma però (but, however), vê di (must, to have to), finîle di fâ (to stop doing, to quit doing), zuiâ (to play, to deceive), (to do, to make), domandâ (to ask), restâ (to remain, to be left), la semence (seed), indurî (to harden), il cûr (heart), ancje (also, too), la volte (time).

Verse 24: Jo us lassi lâ (I shall let you go) a fâi un sacrifici al vuestri Diu (to make a sacrifice to the Lord your God) intal desert (in the desert) ma a pat che no ledis masse lontans (but on the condition that you do not go too far). E preait il Signôr par me: and entreat the Lord for me.

Verse 25: A pene saltât fûr di chi, o prearai il Signôr: as soon as we leave from here (at once having come forth from here), I shall entreat the Lord. Doman i tavans si slontanaran dal faraon, dai siei fameis e dal so popul: the horseflies shall depart tomorrow from Pharaoh, his servants and his people. Moses continues: ma però il faraon al à di finîle di zuiânus (but Pharaoh must stop deceiving us) no lassant che il popul al ledi (by disallowing the people to go [not allowing that the people go]) a fâi un sacrifici al Signôr (to make a sacrifice to the Lord).

Verse 26: Mosè al saltà fûr di li dal faraon e al preà il Signôr: Moses left the presence of Pharaoh (came forth from the midst of the pharaoh) and entreated the Lord.

Verse 27: Il Signôr al fasè ce che al veve domandât Mosè (the Lord did as Moses had asked [that which Moses had asked]) e i tavans si slontanarin dal faraon (and the horseflies departed from Pharaoh), dai siei fameis (from his servants) e dal so popul (and from his people), e no ’nt restà un di semence (and not the trace [seed] of one remained).

Verse 28: Ma il faraon al indurì il so cûr ancje cheste volte (but Pharaoh hardened his heart this time also) e nol lassà lâ il popul (and did not let the people go).