Polish language series: Rdz 10, wykaz ludów

In this post, you will study the Polish text of Rdz 10. This tenth chapter of the book of Genesis does not present the same level of difficulty as recent chapters; there is nonetheless a good deal of new vocabulary to learn. Its subject matter is wykaz ludów (list of peoples), where the masculine noun wykaz means list, roll, and the masculine noun lud means people, nation.

If you are arriving on this site for the first time, begin your study of the Polish language here.

Read Rdz 10

To read the Polish text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Biblia Tysiąclecia and consult Rdz 10. An archived version of the text can be found here.

Wersety 1-7

  • następujący, the following
  • mieszkaniec (m.), inhabitant
  • wybrzeże (n.), coast
  • wyspa (f.), island
  • podzielić (pf.), to divide
  • szczep (m.), tribe
  • naród (m.), nation
  • język (m.), tongue, language

Review: oto (behold, here is), potomstwo (n., offspring), syn (m., son), potop (m., flood), urodzić się (pf., to be born), pochodzić (impf., to descend), według (+ gen., according to), kraj (m., country, land).

Of the masculine noun syn (nominative singular), be sure to know the following two declensions appearing in these verses: synowie (nominative plural), synów (genitive plural).

In verse 1, you read: po potopie (after the flood) urodzili się im następujący synowie (the following sons were born unto them). Observe the following, all of which you have encountered in your readings: urodzili mu się (were born unto him; Rdz 5:32), urodził mu się (was born unto him; Rdz 5:3), urodzili się im (were born unto them; current verse).

Verse 5 begins: od nich pochodzą (from them descend) mieszkańcy wybrzeży i wysp (the inhabitants of the coasts and islands). In the remainder of the verse, you read that they were divided according to their lands and language, tribes and nations. Observe the genitive plural forms krajów, szczepów, narodów. You read: podzieleni (divided) według swych krajów (according to their lands) i swego języka (and their language), według szczepów (according to [their] tribes) i według narodów (and [their] nations). From the perfective podzielić comes podzielony (divided). You find its masculine plural form podzieleni in the text.

Wersety 8-12

  • zrodzić (pf.), to beget
  • najsławniejszy, most renowned
  • myśliwy (m.), hunter
  • stąd, from here
  • przysłowie (n.), proverb
  • dzielny, competent, skilled

Review: mocarz (m., powerful man), powstać (pf., to come into being), panować (impf., to rule), wyjść (pf., to exit), zbudować (pf., to construct, to create), miasto (n., city, town), pomiędzy (+ instr., between).

The Polish sławny means renowned, celebrated; you find its superlative form najsławniejszy in verse 9. You read: był on też najsławniejszym na ziemi myśliwym (he was also the most renowned hunter on the earth). Also from verse 9: stąd powstało przysłowie (this is where the [following] proverb came from; literally, from here came into being the proverb). Dzielny jak Nimrod: skilled like Nimrod.

In verse 10, you read where Nimrod was the first to rule. Understand: on to pierwszy panował w (it was him first ruled in; he was the one first ruled in). As for the first part of verse 11, it is to be understood as: wyszedłszy z tego kraju (having exited from this land) do Aszszuru (unto Asshur); that is, having gone out of this land and into Asshur. Wielkie miasto: large city.

Wersety 13-25

  • pierworodny, firstborn
  • ponadto, furthermore
  • rozproszyć (pf.) się, to scatter oneself
  • granica (f.), border
  • biegnąć (impf.), to run, to extend
  • kierunek (m.), direction
  • praojciec (m.), forefather
  • starszy, older, elder

From verse 13, od których pochodzą Filistyni i Kaftoryci is to be understood as from whom descend the Philistines and the Caphtorites. In verse 15, synów is the accusative plural form of the masculine singular syn; the accusative plural and genitive plural forms are identical.

In verses 16-18, you find the names of peoples, all in accusative plural form. The peoples are: Jebusyci (Jebusites), Amoryci (Amorites), Girgaszyci (Girgasites), Chiwwici (Hivites), Arkici (Arkites), Sinici (Sinites), Arwadyci (Arvadites), Semaryci (Zemarites), Chamatyci (Hamathites).

Verse 18 ends with: a potem szczepy kananejskie rozproszyły się (and then the Canaanite tribes scattered themselves; that is, and then the Canaanite tribes spread out). The masculine noun Kananejczyk is the Polish for Canaanite (man); kananejski is its related adjective (szczep kananejski, Canaanite tribe).  You have an example of the noun in verse 19: granica Kananejczyków (the border of the Canaanites) biegła od Sydonu (ran [was running] from Sidon) w kierunku Geraru (in the direction of Gerar) aż do Gazy (as far as Gaza; up to Gaza).

In verse 20, recall that the masculine noun potomek means descendant; its nominative plural form is potomkowie. See the notes for verses 1-7 above should you not remember the meaning of the nouns in the remainder of the verse.

The masculine noun Hebrajczyk is the Polish for Hebrew. In verse 21, you read: również Semowi (also unto Shem), praojcu wszystkich Hebrajczyków (the forefather of all Hebrews) i starszemu bratu Jafeta (and the elder brother of Japheth), urodzili się [synowie] (were born sons). Starszy (older) is the comparative form of stary (old). Because Sem is in dative form as Semowi, so too then are praojciec as praojcu and starszy brat as starszemu bratu.

In verse 25, note the use of the nominative plural, masculine personal dwaj: Eberowi urodzili się dwaj synowie (unto Eber were born two sons; two sons were born unto Eber). Farther along in the verse, imię jednego means the name of one. The reason that Peleg was so named is given: gdyż za jego czasów (for in his times) ludzkość się podzieliła (mankind divided itself). You first encountered the perfective verb podzielić (to divide) in the fifth verse.

Wersety 26-32

  • obszar (m.), area
  • rozciągać (impf.) się, to run, to extend
  • wyżyna (f.), highland
  • wschodni, eastern
  • pokrewieństwo (n.), kinship
  • wywodzić (impf.) się, to derive

In verse 29, ci wszyscy byli synami Joktana means all these were the sons of Joktan. Ci is the personal masculine plural of ten; wszyscy is the same of wszystek. Ci wszyscy translates literally as these all; that is, all these.

Recall that the imperfective verb mieszkać means to live. As for wschodni (eastern), this is the adjective form of the masculine noun wschód (east), first encountered in Rdz 2:8. The feminine form of wschodni is wschodnia. In verse 30, you read: obszar, na którym mieszkali (the area in which they lived [were living; used to live]), rozciągał się od Meszy (extended [was extending] from Mesha) w kierunku Sefar (in the direction of Sephar) aż do wyżyny wschodniej (as far as the eastern highland).

Verse 32: według ich pokrewieństwa (according to their kinship); od nich to wywodzą się ludy na ziemi po potopie (it is from them that the people on the earth after the flood derive).