Polish language series: Rdz 10, wykaz ludów

The subject matter of the tenth chapter of the book of Genesis is: wykaz ludów (list of peoples), where the masculine wykaz means list, roll, and the masculine lud means people in the sense of nation.

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Read Rdz 10

To read the Polish text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Biblia Tysiąclecia and consult Rdz 10. An archived version of the text can be found here.

Wersety 1-7

  • następujący, the following
  • mieszkaniec (m.), inhabitant
  • wybrzeże (n.), coast
  • wyspa (f.), island
  • podzielić (pf.), to divide
  • język (m.), language, tongue
  • szczep (m.), tribe
  • naród (m.), nation

Review: oto (this is, here is), potomstwo (n., offspring, lineage), syn (m., son), potop (m., flood), urodzić się (pf., to be born), pochodzić (impf., to descend), według (according to, by), kraj (m., country, land).

Verse 1: Oto potomstwo synów Noego (this is the lineage of the sons of Noah): Sema, Chama i Jafeta (of Shem, Ham and Japheth). Names in nominative form: Noe (Noah); Sem (Shem); Cham (Ham); Jafet (Japheth). Po potopie urodzili się im następujący synowie: after the flood, the following sons were born to them; taken literally: po potopie (after the flood) urodzili się (were born) im (unto them) następujący synowie (the following sons). Observe the following, all of which you have encountered in your readings: urodzili mu się (were born to him; Rdz 5:32); urodził mu się (was born to him; Rdz 5:3); urodzili się im (were born to them; current verse).

Verses 2-4: Names in nominative form: Jafet (Japheth); Gomer (Gomer); Magog (Magog); Madaj (Madai); Jawan (Javan); Tubal (Tubal); Meszek (Meshech); Tiras (Tiras); Gomer (Gomer); Aszkanaz (Ashkenaz); Rifat (Riphath); Togarma (Togarmah); Elisza (Elishah); Tarszisz (Tarshish); Kittim (the Kittim); Dodanim (the Dodanim).

Verse 5: Od nich (from them) pochodzą mieszkańcy (descend the inhabitants) wybrzeży i wysp (of coasts and islands), podzieleni według swych krajów i swego języka (divided according to their lands and their language), według szczepów i według narodów (by [their] tribes and by [their] nations). Według (according to, by) is followed by the genitive. Podzieleny (divided) is formed form the perfective podzielić; it is found here in its nominative, masculine personal form of the plural as podzieleni.

Verses 6-7: Names in nominative form: Cham (Ham); Kusz (Cush); Misraim (Mizraim); Put (Put); Kanaan (Canaan); Seba (Seba); Chawila (Havilah); Sabta (Sabtah); Rama (Raamah); Sabteka (Sabteca); Saba (Sheba); Dedan (Dedan). Ramy is the genitive form of Rama.

Wersety 8-12

  • zrodzić (pf.), to beget
  • najsławniejszy, most renowned
  • myśliwy (m.), hunter
  • stąd, from here, hence
  • przysłowie (n.), proverb
  • dzielny, competent, skilled

Review: pierwszy (first), mocarz (m., powerful man), ziemia (f., earth), też (also, too), powstać (pf., to come into being, to arise), panować (impf., to rule), kraj (m., land, country), wyjść (pf., to go [come] out), zbudować (pf., to build, to construct), wielki (great, big), miasto (n., city, town), pomiędzy (between).

Verse 8: Kusz zaś (as for Cush) zrodził Nimroda (he begot Nimrod), który był pierwszym mocarzem (who was the first mighty man) na ziemi (on earth).

Verse 9: Był on też najsławniejszym na ziemi myśliwym: he was also the most renowned hunter on earth. Stąd powstało przysłowie: hence arose the proverb. The proverb reads: dzielny jak Nimrod (skilled like Nimrod), najsławniejszy na ziemi myśliwy (the most renowned hunter on earth). The adjective sławny means renowned; you find it here in its superlative form najsławniejszy (most renowned). Observe:

sławnysławniejszynajsławniejszy
renownedmore renownedmost renowned

Verse 10: On to pierwszy panował w Babelu (it was he who first ruled [was first ruling] in Babel), w Erek (in Erech), w Akkad (in Accad) i w Kalne, w kraju Szinear (and in Calneh, in the land of Shinar). In its nominative form, the Polish for Babel is Babel.

Verses 11-12: Wyszedłszy (having gone forth) z tego kraju (out of that land) do Aszszuru (unto Asshur), zbudował Niniwę (he built Nineveh), Rechobot-Ir (Rehoboth-Ir), Kalach (Calah) i Resan (and Resen), wielkie miasto (the great city) pomiędzy Niniwą a Kalach (between Nineveh and Calah). Pomiędzy is followed by the instrumental. Placenames in nominative form: Aszszur (Asshur); Niniwa (Nineveh); Rechobot-Ir (Rehoboth-Ir); Kalach (Calah); Resan (Resen).

Wersety 13-25

  • pierworodny, firstborn
  • ponadto, furthermore, besides
  • kananejski, Canaanite
  • rozproszyć się (pf.), to spread out
  • granica (f.), border
  • biegnąć (impf.), to run, to extend
  • kierunek (m.), direction
  • praojciec (m.), forefather
  • starszy, older, elder
  • ludzkość (m.), mankind
  • podzielić się (pf.), to divide oneself

Review: mieć (impf., to have), jako (as), potomstwo (n., offspring), pochodzić (impf., to descend), syn (m., son), potem (then), szczep (m., tribe), aż do (as far as), potomek (m., descendant), według (according to, by), język (m., language, tongue), kraj (m., land, country), naród (m., nation), również (also, too), wszystek (all, every), brat (m., brother), urodzić się (pf., to be born), ojciec (m., father), dwa (two), imię (n., name), jeden (one), gdyż (for, because), czas (m., time).

Verses 13-18: Misraim miał jako potomstwo (these lines [as a lineage] Mizraim begot): Ludim, Anamim, Lehabim, Naftuchim, Patrusim i Kasluchim (the Ludim, the Anamim, the Lehabim, the Naphtuhim, the Pathrusim and the Casluhim) od których pochodzą Filistyni i Kaftoryci (from whom the Philistines and Caphtorim descend). Filistyni and Kaftoryci are nominative plural forms; their nominative singular forms are Filistyn and Kaftoryta. Kanaan zaś miał synów: pierworodnego Sydona i Cheta: as for Canaan, he begot these sons: Sidon, his firstborn, and Heth. A ponadto (in addition): Jebusytów, Amorytów, Girgaszytów (the Jebusites, the Amorites, the Girgashites), Chiwwitów, Arkitów, Sinitów (the Hivites, the Arkites, the Sinites), Arwadytów, Semarytów i Chamatytów (the Arvadites, the Zemarites and the Hamathites). From verses 16-18, here is the nominative singular form (with nominative plural between parentheses) of the peoples named: Jebusyta (Jebusyci); Amoryta (Amoryci); Girgaszyta (Girgaszyci); Chiwwita (Chiwwici); Arkita (Arkici); Sinita (Sinici); Arwadyta (Arwadyci); Semaryta (Semaryci); Chamatyta (Chamatyci). A potem szczepy kananejskie rozproszyły się: and then the Canaanite tribes spread out. Kananejski is an adjective meaning Canaanite; you find its related noun form in the notes at verse 19 below.

Verse 19: The masculine noun Kananejczyk is the nominative for Canaanite; its nominative plural form is Kananejczycy. You read: granica Kananejczyków (the border of the Canaanites) biegła (extended [was extending]) od Sydonu (from Sidon) w kierunku Geraru (in the direction of Gerar) aż do Gazy (as far as Gaza), a potem w kierunku Sodomy, Gomory, Admy i Seboim (and then in the direction of Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah and Zeboiim)aż do Leszy (as far as Lasha). Placenames in nominative form: Sydon (Sidon); Gerar (Gerar); Gaza (Gaza); Sodoma (Sodom); Gomora (Gomorrah); Adma (Admah); Seboim (Zeboiim); Lesza (Lasha).

Verse 20: Są to potomkowie Chama (these are the descendants of Ham) według ich szczepów, języków, krajów i narodów (according to their tribes, languages, lands and nations).

Verse 21: The masculine noun Hebrajczyk is the nominative for Hebrew; its nominative plural form is Hebrajczycy. You read: również Semowi (also unto Shem), praojcu wszystkich Hebrajczyków (forefather of all Hebrews) i starszemu bratu Jafeta (and older brother of Japheth), urodzili się [synowie] (sons were born). Because Semowi is in dative position, so too are praojcu and starszemu bratu, which refer to the same person (Shem). Starszy (older) is the comparative form of stary (old). Observe:

starystarszynajstarszy
oldolderoldest

Verses 22-24: Names in nominative form: Sem (Shem); Elam (Elam); Aszszur (Asshur); Arpachszad (Arpachshad); Lud (Lud); Aram (Aram); Us (Uz); Chul (Hul); Geter (Gether);  Masz (Mash); Szelach (Shelah); Eber (Eber). Arpachszad był ojcem Szelacha, a Szelach Ebera: Arpachshad was the father of Shelah, and Shelah (was the father) of Eber.

Verse 25: Eberowi urodzili się dwaj synowie (unto Eber two sons were born); imię jednego Peleg (the name of the one [was] Peleg), gdyż za jego czasów ludzkość się podzieliła (for in his times mankind had divided), imię zaś jego brataJoktan (whereas the name of his brother [was] Joktan). Dwaj is the masculine personal form of the nominative plural of dwa.

Wersety 26-32

  • obszar (m.), area
  • rozciągać się (impf.), to run, to extend
  • wyżyna (f.), highland
  • wschodni, eastern
  • pokrewieństwo (n.), kinship
  • wywodzić się (impf.), to descend

Review: ojciec (m., father), wszystek (all, every), syn (m., son), mieszkać (impf., to dwell), kierunek (m., direction), aż do (as far as), oto (this is, here is), według (according to, by), szczep (m., tribe), język (m., language), kraj (m., land, country), naród (m., nation), lud (m., people), ziemia (f., earth), potop (m., flood).

Verses 26-29: Joktan był ojcem Almodada […]: Joktan was the father of Almodad (…). Ci wszyscy byli synami Joktana: all these were the sons of Joktan. Names in nominative form: Joktan (Joktan); Almodad (Almodad); Szelef (Sheleph); Chasarmawet (Hazarmaveth); Jerach (Jerah); Hadoram (Hadoram); Uzal (Uzal); Dikla (Diklah); Obal (Obal); Abimael (Abimael); Saba (Sheba); Ofir (Ophir); Chawila (Havilah); Jobab (Jobab).

Verse 30: Obszar, na którym mieszkali (the area where [in which] they dwelt [were dwelling]), rozciągał się (extended [was extending]) od Meszy (from Mesha) w kierunku Sefar (in the direction of Sephar) aż do wyżyny wschodniej (as far as the eastern highland). Placenames in nominative form: Mesza (Mesha); Sefar (Sephar).

Verse 31: Oto synowie Sema (these are the sons of Shem) według szczepów, języków, krajów i narodów (according to [their] tribes, languages, lands and nations). Sem: Shem.

Verse 32: Oto szczepy synów Noego (these are the tribes of the sons of Noah) według ich pokrewieństwa (according to [their] kinship) i według narodów (and by [their] nations). Noe: Noah. Od nich to wywodzą się ludy na ziemi po potopie: it is from them that, after the flood, the peoples on earth descend.