In this post, you will study the Polish text of Rdz 10. This tenth chapter of the book of Genesis does not present the same level of difficulty as recent chapters; there is nonetheless a good deal of new vocabulary to learn. Its subject matter is wykaz ludów (list of peoples), where the masculine noun wykaz means list, roll, and the masculine noun lud means people, nation.
If you are arriving on this site for the first time, begin your study of the Polish language here (Rdz 1). In your study of Polish, you will use the Biblia Tysiąclecia as your source text. You can read the text of this Bible entirely online.
Before you begin your study of Rdz 10, you must access the verses on biblia.deon.pl below:
Consult text only
Consult text and audio
Should the above links ever become unavailable, you will find an archived version of the text here.
- następujący, the following
- mieszkaniec (m.), inhabitant
- wybrzeże (n.), coast
- wyspa (f.), island
- podzielić (pf.), to divide
- szczep (m.), tribe
- naród (m.), nation
- język (m.), language
Review: oto (behold, here is), potomstwo (n., offspring), syn (m., son), potop (m., flood), urodzić się (pf., to be born), pochodzić (impf., to descend), według (+ gen., according to), kraj (m., country, land).
Of the masculine noun syn (nominative singular), be sure to know the following two declensions appearing in these verses: synowie (nominative plural), synów (genitive plural).
In verse 1, you read: po potopie (after the flood) urodzili się im następujący synowie (the following sons were born unto them). Observe the following, all of which you have encountered in your readings: urodzili się im (were born unto them; Rdz 10:1), urodzili mu się (were born unto him; Rdz 5:32), urodził mu się (was born unto him; Rdz 5:3).
Verse 5 begins: od nich pochodzą (from them descend) mieszkańcy wybrzeży i wysp (the inhabitants of the coasts and islands). In the remainder of the verse, you read that they were divided according to their lands and language, tribes and nations. Observe the genitive plural forms krajów, szczepów, narodów.
- zrodzić (pf.), to beget
- najsławniejszy, most renowned
- myśliwy (m.), hunter
- stąd, from here
- przysłowie (n.), proverb
- dzielny, competent, skilled
Review: mocarz (m., potentate), powstać (pf., to come into being), panować (impf., to rule), wyjść (pf., to exit), zbudować (pf., to construct, to create), miasto (n., city, town), pomiędzy (+ instr., between).
The Polish sławny means renowned, celebrated; you find its superlative form najsławniejszy in verse 9. Also in verse 9, stąd powstało przysłowie is to be understood as meaning this is where the (following) proverb came from (literally, from here came into being the proverb).
In verse 10, you read where Nimrod began to rule. As for the first part of verse 11, it is to be understood as: wyszedłszy z tego kraju (having exited this land) do Aszszuru (unto Asshur); that is, having gone out of this land and into Asshur.
- pierworodny, firstborn
- ponadto, furthermore
- rozproszyć (pf.) się, to scatter oneself
- granica (f.), border
- biegnąć (impf.), to run, to extend
- kierunek (m.), direction
- praojciec (m.), forefather
- starszy, older, elder
From verse 13, od których pochodzą Filistyni i Kaftoryci is to be understood as from whom descend the Philistines and the Caphtorite.
In verse 15, synów is the accusative plural form of the masculine singular syn; the accusative plural and genitive plural forms are identical.
In verses 16-18, you find the names of peoples, all in accusative plural form. The peoples are: Jebusyci (Jebusite), Amoryci (Amorite), Girgaszyci (Girgasite), Chiwwici (Hivite), Arkici (Arkite), Sinici (Sinite), Arwadyci (Arvadite), Semaryci (Zemarite), Chamatyci (Hamathite).
Verse 18 ends with: a potem szczepy kananejskie rozproszyły się (and then the Canaanite tribes scattered themselves; that is, and then the Canaanite tribes spread out). The masculine noun Kananejczyk is the Polish for Canaanite; kananejski is its related adjective. You have an example of the noun in verse 19: granica Kananejczyków (the border of the Canaanites) biegła od Sydonu (was running from Sidon) w kierunku Geraru (in the direction of Gerar) aż do Gazy (as far as Gaza).
In verse 20, recall that the masculine noun potomek means descendant; its nominative plural form is potomkowie. See the notes for verses 1-7 above should you not remember the meaning of the nouns in the remainder of the verse.
The masculine noun Hebrajczyk is the Polish for Hebrew. In verse 21, you read: również Semowi (also unto Shem), praojcu wszystkich Hebrajczyków (the forefather of all Hebrews) i starszemu bratu Jafeta (and the elder brother of Japheth), urodzili się [synowie] (were born sons). Starszy (older) is the comparative form of stary (old). Because Sem is in dative form as Semowi, so too then are praojciec (as praojcu) and starszy brat (as starszemu bratu).
In verse 25, note the use of the masculine nominative and personal form dwaj, in dwaj synowie (two sons). Farther along in the verse, imię jednego means the name of one. The reason that Peleg was so named is given: gdyż za jego czasów (for in his times) ludzkość się podzieliła (mankind divided itself). You first encountered the perfective verb podzielić (to divide) in verse 5.
- obszar (m.), area
- rozciągać (impf.) się, to run, to extend
- wyżyna (f.), highland
- wschodni, eastern
- pokrewieństwo (n.), kinship
- wywodzić (impf.) się, to derive
In verse 28, ci wszyscy byli synami Joktana means all these were the sons of Joktan. Ci is the personal masculine plural of ten; wszyscy is the same of wszystek.
Recall that the imperfective verb mieszkać means to live. As for wschodni (eastern), this is the adjective form of the masculine noun wschód (east), first encountered in Rdz 2:8. The feminine form of wschodni is wschodnia. In verse 30, you read: obszar, na którym mieszkali (the area in which they were living), rozciągał się od Meszy (was extending from Mesha) w kierunku Sefar (in the direction of Sephar) aż do wyżyny wschodniej (as far as the eastern highland).