Polish language series: Rdz 8, przymierze Boga z Noem

In the Polish text of Rdz 8, or the eighth chapter of the book of Genesis, you continue to read about the flood. You will recall from previous readings that the Polish for flood is the masculine noun potop. In this chapter, you will also begin reading about przymierze Boga z Noem (God’s covenant with Noah).

If you are arriving on this site for the first time, begin your study of the Polish language here (Rdz 1). In your study of Polish, you will use the Biblia Tysiąclecia as your source text. You can read the text of this Bible entirely online.

Before you begin your study of Rdz 8, you must access the verses on biblia.deon.pl below:

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Should the above links ever become unavailable, you will find an archived version of the text here.

Werset 1

  • pamiętać (impf.), to remember
  • powiać (pf.), to blow
  • opadać (impf.), to abate, to decrease

The first half of this verse reads: ale Bóg, pamiętając (but God, remembering) o Noem (Noah), o wszystkich istotach żywych (all living creatures) i o wszystkich zwierzętach (and all animals), które z nim były w arce (which were with him in the ark). Note the use of o here with the verb pamiętać, followed by the locative.

In the remainder of this first verse, you find a number of usages that you have encountered before in your readings: the perfective verb sprawić (to cause, to bring about), first seen in Rdz 2:21; the masculine noun wiatr (wind), first seen in Rdz 3:8; and the perfective verb zacząć (to start, to begin), first seen in Rdz 4:26.

Wersety 2-4

  • zbiornik (m.), reservoir
  • przestać (pf.), to desist, to stop
  • ustępować (impf.), to withdraw
  • powoli, slowly
  • lecz, but
  • nieustannie, continually
  • upływ (m.), passage
  • obniżyć (pf.) się, to lower, to drop
  • osiąść (pf.), to settle down

Review: zamknąć (pf., to close, to shut), bowiem (for, because), otchłań (f., abyss, deep), deszcz (m., rain), padać (impf., to fall), miesiąc (m., month), góra (f., mount, mountain).

You may wish to review Polish cardinal numbers and Polish ordinal numbers. In this grouping of verses, you find: sto pięćdziesiąt (one hundred and fifty), siódmy (seventh), siedemnasty (seventeenth).

In verse 3, you read that waters dropped after one hundred and fifty days: i po upływie stu pięćdziesięciu dni (and after the passage of one hundred and fifty days) się obniżyły (they lowered). Following po, you find upływ inflected for the locative case as upływie. You also find here sto pięćdziesiąt inflected for the genitive case as stu pięćdziesięciu.

After the abatement of the waters, you read, in verse 4, that the ark settled: miesiąca siódmego (in the seventh month), siedemnastego dnia miesiąca (on the seventeeth day of the month) arka osiadła na górach Ararat (the ark settled on the Ararat mountains). Górach, following na, is in locative plural form.

Wersety 5-7

  • aż do (+ gen.), up to, as far as
  • dziesiąty, tenth
  • szczyt (m.), peak, mountaintop
  • okno (n.), window
  • przedtem, before, previously
  • wypuścić (pf.), to release, to let out
  • kruk (m.), raven
  • wylatywać (impf.), to fly out
  • zaraz, at once, immediately
  • wracać (impf.), to come back, to return
  • dopóki, until
  • wyschnąć (pf.), to dry up

In verse 5, you find wciąż again (first seen in Rdz 6:5), which, like nieustannie, means continually. As for opadała, its infinitive form was encountered in verse 1 above. Ukazać się (pf., to appear) was first seen in Rdz 1:9, where you read: niech się ukaże powierzchnia sucha (let the dry surface appear). The second sentence of verse 5 is to be understood as follows: w pierwszym dniu (on the first day) miesiąca dziesiątego (of the tenth month) ukazały się szczyty gór (the peaks of the mountains appeared).

From verse 6, a po czterdziestu dniach means and after forty days. As for otworzywszy, this is to be understood as meaning having opened; the infinitive form of the verb is the perfective otworzyć, which you have already seen a number of times now but only in reflexive form. Compare otworzywszy to similar forms already encountered: uczyniwszy (having made; Rdz 1:7), zasadziwszy (having planted; Rdz 2:8), ulepiwszy (having formed; Rdz 2:19), wygnawszy (having driven out; Rdz 3:24), przeżywszy (having lived; Rdz 5:8).

In verse 7, you read that Noah sent out a raven: wypuścił kruka (he released a raven); ale ten (but this [one]) wylatywał i zaraz wracał (was flying off and immediately coming back), dopóki nie wyschła woda na ziemi (until the water dried up on the earth). In other words, the raven flew back and forth until the waters had dried up. Note the use of nie in dopóki nie wyschła woda (until the water dried up).

Wersety 8-9

  • gołębica (f.), dove, pigeon
  • ustąpić (pf.), to withdraw
  • usiąść (pf.), to sit down, to perch
  • wrócić (pf.), to return, to come back
  • schwytać (pf.), to catch

In verse 8, you read that Noah also released a dove to determine whether or not the waters had withdrawn from the earth. Recall that the perfective verb przekonać się means to ascertain. Note the use of czy in this verse, which equates to the English whether (or not).

In verse 9, you find the perfective verb znaleźć (to find); you have seen this verb before, but in reflexive form only (Rdz 2:20). Znalazłszy is to be understood as meaning having found. Recall that the neuter miejsce means place, spot.

The first half of verse 9 is to be understood as follows: gołębica (the dove), nie znalazłszy miejsca (not having found a spot), gdzie by mogła usiąść (where it could perch), wróciła do arki (returned to the ark). Mogła is the feminine, third-person singular of the past tense of the imperfective verb móc. As for perfective verb wrócić, you encountered its imperfective equivalent wracać in verse 7.

By replacing the ł ending of the third-person singular masculine past form of a perfective verb with wszy (after a vowel) or łszy (after a consonant), you obtain, for example:

uczyniwszy (having made)

ulepiwszy (having formed)

wygnawszy (having driven out)

znalazłszy (having found)

The perfective verb wyciągnąć, meaning to extend, was first encountered in Rdz 3:22. You will have understood that wyciągnąwszy rękę means having extended his hand. As for the perfective verb zabrać (to take away, to take along), you first encountered it in Rdz 5:24, where you read that God had taken Enoch away (that is, he took his life away): zabrał go Bóg (God took him away). In the current verse, you now read that Noah caught the dove and took her back into the ark: schwytał ją i zabrał do arki (he caught her and took [her] along into the ark).

Wersety 10-12

  • przeczekać (pf.), to wait
  • znów, again
  • nieść (impf.), to carry
  • dziób (m.), beak
  • świeży, fresh
  • listek (m.), little leaf, leaflet
  • oliwny, olive
  • opaść (pf.), to abate, to decrease
  • czekać (impf.), to wait
  • powrócić (pf.), to return, to come back

You read, in verse 10, that Noah releases the dove again after having waited another seven days. You will have understood that przeczekawszy means having waited.

The dove, in verse 11, returns to Noah: i ta (and this [one]) wróciła do niego (returned to him) pod wieczór (towards the evening). In her beak was an olive leaf: niosąc w dziobie (carrying in her beak) świeży listek (a fresh leaflet) z drzewa oliwnego (from an olive tree). Listek is the diminutive form of the masculine noun liść (leaf). The Polish for olive tree is drzewo oliwne.

In the remainder of verse 11, you find the perfective verb opaść; its imperfective form opadać was encountered in verse 1.

Verse 12 tells you that Noah waited another seven days before releasing the dove yet again, but, this time, she did not return: ona już nie powróciła do niego (she did not return to him anymore).

Werset 13

  • zdjąć (pf.), to take off
  • dach (m.), roof
  • zobaczyć (pf.), to see
  • prawie, almost

The first half of verse 13 tells you when the waters dried up: w sześćset pierwszym roku (in the six hundred and first year), w miesiącu pierwszym (in the first month), w pierwszym dniu miesiąca (on the first day of the month).

The perfective verb wyschnąć, meaning to dry up, was first encountered in verse 7.

With the aid of the vocabulary listed above, work through the remainder of the verse. You will remember that the Polish adjective suchy means dry.

Wersety 14-19

  • dwudziesty siódmy, twenty-seventh
  • przemówić (pf.), to address
  • wyjść (pf.), to exit
  • wyprowadzić (pf.), to bring forth
  • rozejść (pf.) się, to spread

This grouping of verses contains a good deal of language that you have already encountered in your readings.

Wyjdź is the second-person singular imperative form of the perfective verb wyjść. You have now seen both the following:

wejdź do arki (enter the ark)
wyjdź z arki (exit the ark)

You encounter another second-person singular imperative in verse 17: wyprowadź, from the perfective verb wyprowadzić.

The third-person singular wyszedł, from verse 18, and the third-person plural wyszły, from verse 19, are both past tense forms of the perfective verb wyjść.

In the remainder of verse 19, review the following: różny (different, various), gatunek (m., kind, sort), poruszać się (impf., to move).

Werset 20

  • ołtarz (m.), altar
  • złożyć (pf.), to offer up
  • całopalny, burnt-offering

Review: zbudować (pf., to construct, to create), wziąć (pf., to take), czysty (clean), ofiara (f., offering).

Wziąwszy ze wszystkich zwierząt czystych means having taken of all the clean animals.

Ofiara całopalna is Polish for burnt offering. Złożył je w ofierze całopalnej is to be understood as he offered them up as a burnt offering.

Werset 21

  • poczuć (pf.), to smell
  • woń (f.), odour, scent
  • złorzeczyć (impf.), to curse
  • wzgląd (m.), account, consideration
  • młodość (f.), youth
  • przeto, consequently
  • nigdy, never

Review: usposobienie (n., disposition), zły (evil), zgładzić (pf., to wipe out, to put to death), żyć (impf., to live), uczynić (pf., to do, to make).

Nie będę już więcej złorzeczył is to be understood as I shall no more be cursing. Ze względu na means on account of, concerning.

God describes the character of man: usposobienie człowieka (the disposition of man) jest złe (is evil) już od młodości (since [the time of] his youth). He then says: przeto (consequently) już nigdy nie zgładzę (I shall never again wipe out) wszystkiego, co żyje (everything that lives), jak to uczyniłem (as I have done).

Note how Polish expresses no more and never again in this verse.

Werset 22

  • jak długo, as long as
  • trwać (impf.), to last, to endure
  • siew (m.), sowing
  • żniwo (n.), harvest
  • mróz (m.), cold weather
  • upał (m.), hot weather
  • lato (n.), summer
  • zima (f.), winter

Review: zatem (and so, therefore), istnieć (impf., to exist).

The first half of this final verse is to be understood as follows: będą zatem istniały (they shall therefore be existing), jak długo trwać będzie ziemia (for as long as the earth will be enduring). In other words, for as long as the earth endures, they [the following] shall continue to exist.