Polish language series: Rdz 6, zapowiedź potopu

In this post, you will study the Polish text of the sixth chapter of the book of Genesis. The subject matter of Rdz 6 includes: zepsucie moralne ludzkości (moral corruption of mankind), Boże postanowienie zagłady (divine decision of annihilation; that is, God’s decision to annihilate), zapowiedź potopu (announcement of the flood).

Learn the following Polish vocabulary from the subject matter listed above: zepsucie (n., depravation, corruption), moralny (moral), ludzkość (f., mankind), postanowienie (n., decision), zagłada (f., annihilation), zapowiedź (f., announcement), potop (m., flood).

If you are arriving on this site for the first time, begin your study of the Polish language here (Rdz 1). In your study of Polish, you will use the Biblia Tysiąclecia as your source text. You can read the text of this Bible entirely online.

Before you begin your study of Rdz 6, you must access the verses on biblia.deon.pl below:

Consult text only

Consult text and audio

Should the above links ever become unavailable, you will find an archived version of the text here.

Wersety 1-2

  • człowieczy, human, of man
  • piękny, beautiful
  • brać (impf.), to take
  • za (+ acc.), for
  • podobać (impf.) się, to appeal, to be pleasing

Verse 1 does not contain any new vocabulary. Review the following: kiedy (when), ludzie (pl., people, men), zacząć (pf., to begin, to start), mnożyć się (impf., to multiply oneself), rodzić się (impf., to be born), córka (f., daughter). The plural of córka is córki. You read that when men began to multiply on the earth, daughters were born unto them.

Verse 2 contains new usages; they are listed above. The plural of the masculine syn (son) is synowie; in the text, synowie Boga means the sons of God. You will recall having encountered widząc ([whilst] seeing) in Rdz 1. Upon seeing that the daughters of men (córki człowiecze) were beautiful (piękne), the sons of God took them as wives: brali je sobie za żony (they were taking them unto themselves for wives). They took all those who were appealing to them: wszystkie, jakie im się tylko podobały.

Note the following: zaczęli and brali are masculine forms, whereas rodziły and podobały are feminine forms. Observe their endings.

Wersety 3-4

  • pozostawać (impf.), to stay, to remain
  • zawsze, always
  • na zawsze, forever
  • cielesny, carnal, of flesh
  • gigant (m.), giant
  • później, afterwards
  • zbliżać (impf.) się, to draw near
  • mocarz (m.), potentate
  • sława (f.), renown
  • dawny, former, distant

Może is the third-person singular of the present tense of the imperfective verb móc (may, to have to). The first part of verse 3 reads: nie może pozostawać duch mój w człowieku na zawsze (my spirit cannot remain in man forever). You first encountered the masculine duch in Rdz 1, in Duch Boży (Divine Spirit; that is, Spirit of God).

Recall that the feminine istota means creature. You first encountered this noun in Rdz 1, in istota żywa (living creature). Continuing along in verse 3, you read: gdyż człowiek jest istotą cielesną (for man is a carnal creature; that is, for man is a creature of flesh).

In the remainder of verse 3, you will recognise the imperative through the use of niechaj. The imperfective verb żyć, which you have already met, means to live. Niechaj więc żyje is to be understood as may he therefore live, let him therefore live. A number of years then appears: review Polish cardinal numbers here. You may also wish to go back and review the many examples you saw in Rdz 5.

Verse 4 begins: a w owych czasach (and in those times). From this phrase, review the following: ów (the said, that), czas (m., time). Owych czasach is in locative plural position. The plural of the masculine noun gigant is giganci. The text tells you that, in those times, there were giants on the earth.

In Rdz 4, you read that Adam knew his wife Eve (that is, they had carnal relations); in that chapter, you encountered the perfective zbliżyć się, meaning to draw near, used euphemistically. In verse 4 of the current chapter, you now find its imperfective equivalent zbliżać się. Following do, córek człowieczych is in genitive plural form. Te im rodziły is to be understood as these (ones) were bearing (children) unto them.

In the final sentence of verse 4, owi mocarze is the plural form of ów mocarz. Mający sławę is to be understood as having renown.

Wersety 5-8

  • niegodziwość (f.), wickedness
  • usposobienie (n.), disposition
  • wciąż, continually
  • zły, evil
  • żałować (impf.), to regret
  • zasmucić (pf.) się, to be saddened
  • zgładzić (pf.), to wipe out, to put to death
  • żal (m.), regret, sorrow
  • darzyć (impf.), to bestow, to grant
  • życzliwość (f.), kindness

You should be able to work through verses 5 and 6 with only the aid of the vocabulary listed above. Recall the meaning of wielki, which is great, large.

Saddened by the wickedness of man, God says in verse 7 that he will destroy him: zgładzę ludzi, których stworzyłem (I shall wipe out the men that I created) z powierzchni ziemi (from the face of the earth). The feminine noun powierzchnia (surface, area) was first encountered in Rdz 1. Also encountered there were the names of the creatures mentioned in this verse to be destroyed by God.

Żal mi is to be understood as I am regretful.

Wersety 9-10

  • prawy, righteous, just
  • wyróżniać (impf.) się, to distinguish oneself
  • nieskazitelność (f.), integrity, rectitude
  • współcześni (pl.), contemporaries

With verse 9 begins the lineage of Noah. You will recall the meaning of the plural dzieje as history, which you first encountered in Rdz 2. In this verse you read that Noah was a just man who, by nature of his rectitude, distinguished himself amongst the people of his own generation. The remainder of verse 9 repeats language already studied in Rdz 5:22: w przyjaźni z Bogiem żył Noe (in amity with God was living Noah).

Verse 10 tells you that Noah was the father of three sons. Recall that the Polish for father is the maculine ojciec, which you find in this verse in instrumental form as ojcem. Note the genitive form trzech synów (of three sons). The names Sem, Cham and Jafet also take the genitive form as Sema, Chama and Jafeta.

Wersety 11-13

  • skazić (pf.), to corrupt
  • = że
  • niegodziwie, vilely, wretchedly
  • postanowić (pf.), to decide, to resolve
  • położyć (pf.), to place, to set down
  • kres (m.), end
  • pełny, full
  • wykroczenie (n.), transgression, offence
  • przeciw (+ dat.), against
  • zniszczyć (pf.), to destroy
  • wraz, together

Verse 11 is to be understood as follows: ziemia została skażona w oczach Boga (the earth was corrupted in the eyes of God). Została skażona (was corrupted, got corrupted) will remind you of a similar use seen in Rdz 2:23, where you encountered the following about Eve: ta z mężczyzny została wzięta (this [one] was taken out of man; got taken out of man). The Polish for eye is the neuter oko.

From verse 12, wszyscy ludzie means all people, all men. Recall the meaning of the imperfective postępować as to act, to behave.

You will recall that the neuter istnienie means existence. In verse 13, położyć kres istnieniu wszystkich ludzi is to be understood as to put an end to the existence of all men. The verse then continues: bo ziemia jest pełna wykroczeń przeciw mnie (for the earth is full of transgressions against me). Verse 13 ends: zatem zniszczę ich wraz z ziemią (therefore I shall destroy them along with the earth).

Werset 14

  • arka (f.), ark
  • żywiczny, resinous
  • przegroda (f.), compartment
  • powlec (pf.), to coat
  • smoła (f.), pitch, tar
  • wewnątrz, inside
  • zewnątrz, outside

Recall the meaning of the perfective verb zbudować, which is to construct, to build. Zbuduj is its second-person singular imperative form. In the first part of verse 14, God tells Noah to make an ark: ty zaś zbuduj sobie arkę z drzewa żywicznego (you, on the other hand, build yourself an ark from resinous wood). The adjective żywiczny derives from the feminine noun żywica, which is the Polish for resin.

God then tells Noah to equip the ark with rooms: uczyń w arce przegrody (make compartments in the ark). Uczyń is the second-person singular imperative form of the perfective verb uczynić, meaning to make. With the noun arka, note the change of consonant from k to c in the locative arce.

Noah is also instructed to cover the ark with pitch: powlecz ją (coat it) smołą (with pitch) wewnątrz i zewnątrz (inside and outside). Powlecz is the second-person singular imperative form of the perfective verb powlec (to coat).

Wersety 15-16

  • długość (f.), length
  • łokieć (m.), elbow; cubit
  • szerokość (f.), width
  • wysokość (f.), height
  • nakrycie (n.), covering
  • przepuszczać (impf.) to let pass
  • światło (n.), light
  • wysoki, tall
  • wejście (n.), entrance
  • boczny, lateral, side
  • ściana (f.), wall
  • dolny, lower

In verse 15, you meet the perfective verb wykonać again; it means to carry out, to execute. God says: a oto, jak masz ją wykonać (and this is how you must execute it; that is, and this is how you have to make it). Recall that masz (you have) is the second-person singular of the imperfective verb mieć; it takes on the sense of you have to here.

In the remainder of verse 15, God stipulates the measurements that the ark must take: długość arki (the length of the ark) must be trzysta łokci (three hundred cubits); jej szerokość (its width) must be pięćdziesiąt łokci (fifty cubits); wysokość jej (its height) must be trzydzieści łokci (thirty cubits).

From verse 16, przepuszczające światło is to be understood as letting the light pass. You encounter again the perfective verbs sporządzić (to make, to prepare) and zrobić (to make, to do). In this verse, God tells Noah to make the covering of the ark a cubit tall, and to make the entrance to the ark in the side wall. In the remainder of the verse, recall that drugi and trzeci mean second and third.

Wersety 17-19

  • sprowadzić (pf.), to bring
  • potop (m.), flood
  • istnieć (impf.), to exist
  • wyginąć (pf.), to perish
  • zawrzeć (pf.), to contract, to establish
  • przymierze (n.), covenant
  • wejść (pf.), to enter, to go into
  • przeto, therefore
  • spośród (+ gen.), from amongst
  • wprowadzić (pf.), to usher, to bring, to conduct
  • para (f.), pair
  • samiec (m.), male
  • samica (f.), female
  • ocaleć (pf.), to escape, to save one’s life
  • zagłada (f.), annihilation

In verse 17, God says that he will bring a flood: sprowadzę na ziemię potop (I shall bring a flood on the earth) aby zniszczyć wszelką istotę pod niebem (in order to destroy every creature under the heaven). As for tchnienie życia (breath of life), you will remember having first encountered this in Rdz 2:7.

God continues, in verse 18, by telling Noah: z tobą zawrę przymierze (with you I shall establish a covenant). He tells Noah to enter the ark with his sons, his wife and the wives of his sons. Wejdź is the second-person singular imperative form of the perfective verb wejść (to enter, to go into). Note the instrumental forms in z tobą, z synami, z żoną and z żonami.

In the first half of verse 19, you read: spośród wszystkich istot żyjących (from amongst all living creatures) wprowadź do arki po parze (bring into the ark by the pair), samca i samicę (a male and a female). Wprowadź is the second-person singular imperative. Samca and samicę are accusative forms. In the remainder of the verse, wraz z tobą means along with you.

Wersety 20-22

  • nabrać (pf.), to take
  • żywność (f.), food
  • zgromadzić (pf.), to gather
  • u (+ gen.), at
  • pasza (f.), fodder
  • polecić (pf.), to instruct, to command

Verse 20 presents no new vocabulary. You will recall that każdy means every, and that the masculine gatunek means sort, kind. The meaning of other usages from this verse can be found in the last grouping of notes above.

From verse 21, review the following usages: nadawać się (impf., to be fit for; first seen in Rdz 3:6), jedzenie (n., food; first seen in Rdz 3:6), pokarm (m., food; first seen in Rdz 1:29). God tells Noah to take unto himself of all food that is fit to be eaten. Nabierz and zgromadź are second-person singular imperative forms. Wszystkiego, co nadaje się do jedzenia is to be understood as of all which is fit for food.

In the final verse of this chapter, you read that Noah executed all that God had commanded him to do.