Friulian language series: Esodo 5, denant dal faraon

In the fifth chapter of the book of Exodus, Moses and Aaron present themselves to Pharaoh: Mosè e Aron denant dal faraon (Moses and Aaron before Pharaoh).

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Versets 1-5

Vocabulary: dopo di (after), il fat (matter), presentâsi di (to present oneself to), il faraon (pharaoh), (to say), cussì (thus), lassâ (to let), il popul (people), (to go), il sacrifici (sacrifice), il desert (desert), rispuindi (to respond), scoltâ (to heed), la vôs (voice), savê (to know), rivuart a (as for), no… gran (not in the least), vignî (to come), viodi di (to see to), trê dîs (three days), il viaç (journey), senò (otherwise), cjastiâ (to punish), la peste (pestilence), la spade (sword), il re (king), volê (to will), discjoli di (to take away from), la int (people), lis voris (tasks), tornâ (to return), zontâ (to add), cumò (now), la tiere (land), la pratese (presumption), gjavâ (to withdraw).

Verse 1: *Dopo di chescj fats* (after these matters), Mosè e Aron si presentarin dal faraon (Moses and Aaron presented themselves to Pharaoh) e i diserin (and said to him): il Signôr, il Diu di Israel, al dîs cussì (the Lord, the God of Israel, says thus): lasse che il gno popul al ledi a fâmi un sacrifici tal desert (let that my people may go to make a sacrifice to me in the desert). — *Dopo di chescj fats conveys the passage of a certain amount of time.

Verse 2: Ur rispuindè il faraon (Pharaoh responded to them): e cui esal il Signôr (and who is the Lord), che *jo o varès di* scoltâ la sô vôs (that I ought to heed his voice) e di lassâ lâ Israel? (and let Israel go?). Jo no sai cui che al è il Signôr e (I do not know who the Lord is and) rivuart a Israel (as for Israel), no lu+ lassarai lâ gran (I will not let them go in the least). *Jo o varès (I would have) is the first-person singular of the condizionâl presint of the verb vê. Jo o varès di, from the expression vê di (to have to), takes the sense of I ought. +Lu stands in here for the masculine singular Israel.

Verse 3: I diserin (they said to him): il Diu dai ebreus al è vignût a viodi di nô (the God of the Hebrews has come to see to us). Lassinus lâ a trê dîs di viaç tal desert (let us go at a distance of three days into the desert) par fâi un sacrifici al Signôr nestri Diu (to make a sacrifice to the Lord our God), che senò nus cjastiarà cu la peste o cu la spade (otherwise he will punish us with pestilence or sword).

Verse 4: Dissal il re dal Egjit (the king of Egypt said): parcè, Mosè e Aron (why, Moses and Aaron), volêso* discjoli la int +des sôs voris+? (will you take the people away from their tasks?). Tornait a lis vuestris voris: return to your tasks. — *O volês is the second-person plural of the presint indicatîf of the verb volê; its interrogative form is volêso. +See the note at verse 5.

Verse 5: Il faraon al zontà (Pharaoh added): cumò che and è tante int in cheste tiere (now that there are so many people in this land), *o varessis* pratese di gjavâju +des lôr voris+? (you would have the presumption of withdrawing them from their tasks?). — *O varessis is the second-person plural of the condizionâl presint of the verb vê. +Note the use of both lis sôs voris (verse 4; literally, its tasks) and lis lôr voris (verse 5; their tasks), both of which refer to the tasks of the people; in verse 4, the agreement is made with the singular la int, whereas the agreement in verse 5 is made with the plural ju of gjavâju.

Versets 6-11

Vocabulary: stes (same), la dì (day), il faraon (pharaoh), (to give), un ordin (order), il vuardean (guardian), il popul (people), il scriturist (scribe), di cumò indenant (henceforth), vê di (to have to), il stranc (straw), za (already), pestâ (to grind), (to make), il modon (brick), îr (yesterday), îr l’altri (the day before yesterday), regonâ (to fetch), dibessôl (on one’s own), vê dibisugne (to need), però (but), il numar (number), la remission (diminishment), la int (people), la voe (will), nuie (nothing), berlâ (to cry forth), il sacrifici (sacrifice), tignî sot (to keep under), ancjemò di plui (yet more), in mût che ({in order} that), lavorâ (to work), vanzâ (to remain), il timp (time), lâ daûr di (to pay heed to), la sflocje (tale), cussì (thus), il lavôr (labour), cangjâ (to diminish), no… di un cimi (not in the least).

Verses 6-7: Ta chê stesse dì (on [in] that same day) il faraon al dè chest ordin (Pharaoh gave this order) ai vuardeans dal popul (to the guardians of the people), e ai scrituriscj (and to the scribes): di cumò indenant (henceforth) no vês plui di dâur al popul (you are no longer to give to the people) il stranc za pestât (straw already grinded) par fâ modons (for making bricks), come che o vês fat îr e îr l’altri (as you did yesterday and the day before yesterday). Che a ledin a regonâsi dibessôi (let them go fetch for themselves on their own) il stranc che *a àn dibisugne* (the straw which they need). — *Supplementary examples of vê dibisugne: al à dibisugne di jutori (he needs help); al à dibisugne di bêçs (he needs money); al à dibisugne di pensâi parsore ancjemò (he needs to think it over).

Verse 8: Però o vês di fâur fâ (but you are to have them make) il stes numar di modons (the same number of bricks) che a fasevin îr e îr l’altri (which they were making yesterday and the day before yesterday) cence nissune remission (without any diminishment), parcè che a son int (for they are people) che no à voe di fâ nuie (who have not {the} will to do anything). Par chel lôr a berlin (they therefore cry forth): anìn* a fâi un sacrifici al nestri Diu (let us go make a sacrifice to our God). — *Anìn is a first-person plural imperative meaning let us go.

Verse 9: Cheste int o vês di tignîle sot ancjemò di plui (you must subject this people [keep this people under] yet more), in mût che lavorant (that in working) no ur vanzarà timp di *lâ daûr* des sflocjis+ (they may not have time to pay heed to tales [time will not remain unto them to go behind tales]). — *To ‘go behind’ something is to follow it, which, in the context of this verse, means to pay it heed. +The ‘tales’, or sflocjis, whereof it is question are the promises of deliverance.

Verse 10: I vuardeans dal popul (the guardians of the people) e i scrituriscj (and the scribes) a lerin a dîi a la int (went to say to the people): il faraon al dîs cussì (Pharaoh says thus): no us doi plui il stranc za pestât (I {hereby} no longer give you straw already grinded).

Verse 11: O vês di lâ a regonâsal* dibessôi (you are to go fetch it for yourselves on your own) là che and è (where there is of it), ma il vuestri lavôr +nol varà di+ cangjâ di un cimi (but your labour is not to diminish in the least). — *Regonâsal: contraction of regonâ + si + lu. +Nol varà di: literally, will not have to, the sense whereof is must not, is not to, ought not to.

Versets 12-18

Vocabulary: alore (then), il popul (people), sparniçâsi (to scatter oneself), la tiere (land), regonâ (to fetch), il fros (stubble), il stranc (straw), pestât (grinded), il sorestant (chief), pocâ (to press), di un continuo (incessantly), vê di (to have to), stes (same), la vore (work), za (already), bastonâ (to beat), il scriturist (scribe), il vuardean (guardian), meti (to put), tignî di voli (to keep one’s eye on), il modon (brick), ordenâ (to order), vuê (today), compagn di (like), îr (yesterday), îr l’altri (the day before yesterday), vignî (to come), lamentâsi (to complain), il faraon (pharaoh), (to say), tratâ (to treat), il famei (servant), furnî (to furnish), pacâ (to beat), la colpe (fault), rispuindi (to respond), une sdrume di (a pack of), il poltron (idler), e vonde (and nothing more), cumò (now), lavorâ (to work), taiât (cut), consegnâ (to consign), distinât (prescribed).

Verse 12: Alore il popul si sparniçà (then the people scattered themselves) par dute la tiere dal Egjit (through all the land of Egypt) a regonâ i fros par vê il stranc pestât (to fetch the stubble as to obtain grinded straw).

Verse 13: I sorestants ju pocavin di un continuo (the chiefs pressed them incessantly): o vês di fâ la stesse vore (you are to do the same work) che o fasevis (which you would do) cuant che o vevis za il stranc (when you already had the straw).

Verse 14: A bastonarin ancje i scrituriscj dai israelits (also beaten were [they also beat] the scribes of the Israelites), chei che i vuardeans ju vevin metûts par tignîju di voli (those whom the guardians had assigned [put] to keep their eye on them): parcè no vêso fat chel tant di modons che o vevin ordenât (why then did you not make such amount of bricks as we had ordered), vuê compagn di îr e di îr l’altri? (today like yesterday and the day before yesterday?).

Verse 15: Alore i scrituriscj dai israelits (then the scribes of the Israelites) a vignirin a lamentâsi dal faraon (came to complain to Pharaoh) disint (saying): parcè mo tratistu cussì i tiei fameis? (why then do you treat your servants so?).

Verse 16: Ai tiei fameis no ur ven furnît il stranc (your servants are not furnished with straw [unto your servants the straw does not come furnished]) e si dîsiur (and {yet} it is said to them): fasêt modons (make bricks). E ve che si pache i tiei fameis (and so it is that your servants are beaten) e la colpe e je dal to popul (and the fault lies with your people).

Verse 17: Ur rispuindè (he responded to them): o sês une sdrume di poltrons (you are a pack of idlers), poltrons e vonde (idlers and nothing more).

Verse 18: Cumò lait e lavorait: now go and work. No si us darà stranc taiât (cut straw will not be given to you) ma vualtris o varês di consegnâ (but you are to consign) chel tant di modons che al è distinât (such amount of bricks as has been prescribed).

Versets 19-23

Vocabulary: il scriturist (scribe), cjatâsi (to be found), il gjespâr (wasps’ nest), (to say), calâ (to diminish), il modon (brick), dì par dì (day by day), lassâ (to leave), il faraon (pharaoh), intivâsi in (to come upon), a pueste (expressly), spietâ (to wait for), cjalâ (to look {upon}), la sentence (sentence), la colpe (fault), il famei (servant), cumò (now), cjapâ (to take), la asse (hatred), meti in man (to put into hand), la spade (sword), copâ (to kill), tornâ di (to return to), la malegracie (harshness), fâ malegraciis (to deal harshly), il popul (people), mandâ (to send), cjatâ (to meet), fevelâ (to speak), a non to (in your name), deventâ (to become), insurît (ruthless), propit nuie (nothing whatsoever), solevâ (to relieve).

Verse 19: I scrituriscj dai israelits *si cjatarin intun biel gjespâr* (the scribes of the Israelites were found in great trouble [in a fine hornets’ nest]) cuant che ur diserin (when it was said [when they said] to them): no vês par nuie di calâ (you must under no circumstances reduce) i modons che o vevis di fâ (the bricks which you are to make) dì par dì (day by day). — *The masculine gjespâr is the Friulian for wasps’ nest; the figurative Friulian expression cjatâsi intun gjespâr aligns with the figurative English to be found in a hornets’ nest. More precisely, cjatâsi intun biel gjespâr is employed: to be found in a fine hornets’ nest.

Verse 20: Lassât il faraon (having left Pharaoh), si intivarin in Mosè e Aron (they came upon Moses and Aaron) che a jerin li a pueste par spietâju (who were there expressly to wait for them).

Verse 21: Ur diserin (they said to them): il Signôr che us cjali vualtris e che al fasi sentence (may the Lord look upon you and pass sentence). E je colpe vuestre (it is your fault) se il faraon e i siei fameis (if Pharaoh and his servants) cumò nus àn cjapâts in asse (have now taken us into hatred) e o sês stâts vualtris (and it was you) a metiur la spade in man (who put the sword into their hands [who unto them put the sword into hand]) par copânus (to kill us).

Verse 22: Mosè al tornà dal Signôr e i disè (Moses returned to the Lord and said to him): Signôr (O Lord), parcè mo i fasistu malegraciis a di chest popul? (why then do you deal so harshly with this people?). Parcè mi âstu mandât?: why did you send me?

Verse 23: Dopo che o ài stât a cjatâ il faraon (ever since I went to meet Pharaoh) e che i ài fevelât a non to (and spoke to him in your name), lui al è deventât plui insurît (he has become more ruthless) cun chest popul (with this people) e tu no tu fasis propit nuie (and you do nothing whatsoever) par solevâ il to popul (to relieve your people).