Friulian language series: Esodo 5, denant dal faraon

In the fifth chapter of the book of Exodus, Moses and Aaron present themselves to Pharaoh: Mosè e Aron denant dal faraon (Moses and Aaron before Pharaoh).

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Versets 1-5

Vocabulary: dopo (after, following), il fat (fact, matter), presentâsi di (to present oneself to), il faraon (pharaoh), (to say), cussì (thus, so), lassâ (to let, to allow), il popul (people), (to go), fâ un sacrifici (to make a sacrifice), il desert (desert), rispuindi (to respond), scoltâ (to listen, to heed), la vôs (voice), savê (to know), rivuart a (as for, as regards), no… gran (not in the least), vignî (to come), viodi di (to visit), trê dîs (three days), il viaç (journey), senò (otherwise), cjastiâ (to punish), la peste (pestilence, plague), la spade (sword), il re (king), volê (to want, to mean), discjoli di (to take away from), la int (people), la vore (work, task, labour), tornâ (to return, to go back), zontâ (to add), cumò (now), la tiere (land), la pratese (presumption, nerve; also pretese), gjavâ di (to take away from).

Verse 1: Dopo di chescj fats: after these matters; conveys the passage of a certain amount of time. Mosè e Aron si presentarin dal faraon e i diserin: Moses and Aaron presented themselves to Pharaoh and said to him. They say: il Signôr, il Diu di Israel, al dîs cussì (thus says the Lord, the God of Israel): lasse che il gno popul al ledi (let my people go [allow that my people go]) a fâmi un sacrifici tal desert (as to make a sacrifice to me in the desert). Observe: lassâ che (to allow that); al va (he goes); lassâ che al ledi (to allow that he go); lasse che al ledi (allow that he go; that is, let him go); lasse che il gno popul al ledi (allow that my people go; that is, let my people go).

Verse 2: Ur rispuindè il faraon: Pharaoh responded to them. He resists and says: e cui esal il Signôr (and who is the Lord), che jo o varès di scoltâ la sô vôs (that I should [would have to] heed his voice) e di lassâ lâ Israel? (and let Israel go?). O varès (I would have) is the first-person singular of the condizionâl presint of the verb vê. Pharaoh continues: jo no sai cui che al è il Signôr (I do not know who the Lord is) e, rivuart a Israel (and, as for Israel), no lu lassarai lâ gran (I will most certainly not let them [it] go).

Verse 3: Moses and Aaron say: il Diu dai ebreus al è vignût a viodi di nô (the God of the Hebrews has come to visit us). They continue: lassinus lâ a trê dîs di viaç tal desert (let us go at a distance [journey] of three days into the desert) par fâi un sacrifici al Signôr nestri Diu (as to make a sacrifice to the Lord our God), che senò nus cjastiarà cu la peste o cu la spade (otherwise he will punish us with pestilence or with the sword).

Verse 4: Dissal il re dal Egjit: the king of Egypt said. O volês is the second-person plural of the presint indicatîf of the verb volê; its interrogative form is volêso. Pharaoh says: parcè, Mosè e Aron, volêso discjoli la int des sôs voris? (why, Moses and Aaron, do you mean to take the people away from their tasks?). Tornait a lis vuestris voris: get back to your labours.

Verse 5: Il faraon al zontà: Pharaoh added. He says: cumò che and è tante int in cheste tiere (now that there are so many people in this land), o varessis pratese di gjavâju des lôr voris? (you should have [would have] the presumption of taking them away from their tasks?). O varessis is the second-person plural of the condizionâl presint of the verb vê. Note the use of both lis sôs voris (verse 4; literally, its tasks) and lis lôr voris (verse 5; their tasks), both of which refer to the tasks of the people; in verse 4, the agreement is made with la int, whereas the agreement in verse 5 is made with the ju of gjavâju.

Versets 6-11

Vocabulary: stes (same), la dì (day), il faraon (pharaoh), (to give), un ordin (order, command), il vuardean (watchman, guardian; also vuardian), il popul (people), il scriturist (scribe), di cumò indenant (from now on), vê di (must, to have to), il stranc (straw), za (already), pestâ (to grind, to crush), (to make, to do), il modon (brick), îr (yesterday), îr l’altri (the day before yesterday), regonâ (to fetch), dibessôl (on one’s own), vê dibisugne (to need), però (but), il numar (number), la remission (reduction, diminishment), la int (people), la voe (will, want; also voie), nuie (nothing), par chel (therefore, for this reason), berlâ (to yell, to cry out), il sacrifici (sacrifice), tignî sot (to subject), ancjemò di plui (even more), in mût che (so that), lavorâ (to work), vanzâ (to be left over, to remain), il timp (time), lâ daûr di (to pay heed to), la sflocje (tale), cussì (thus, so), il lavôr (labour, work), cangjâ (to diminish), no… di un cimi (not one bit, not in the least).

Verse 6: Ta chê stesse dì (on [in] that same day) il faraon al dè chest ordin (Pharaoh gave the following command [this command]) ai vuardeans dal popul (to the watchmen of the people), e ai scrituriscj (and to the scribes).

Verse 7: Di cumò indenant (from now on; henceforth) no vês plui di dâur al popul (you are no longer to give to the people) il stranc za pestât (straw that has already been grinded [the straw already grinded]) par fâ modons (for making bricks), come che o vês fat îr e îr l’altri (as you did yesterday and the day before yesterday). Che a ledin a regonâsi dibessôi il stranc che a àn dibisugne: let them go fetch for themselves the straw that they need. Supplementary examples of vê dibisugne: al à dibisugne di jutori (he needs help); al à dibisugne di bêçs (he needs money); al à dibisugne di pensâi parsore ancjemò (he still needs to think it over).

Verse 8: Però o vês di fâur fâ (but you are to have them make) il stes numar di modons (the same number of bricks) che a fasevin îr e îr l’altri (that they made [were making] yesterday and the day before yesterday) cence nissune remission (without any reduction; with no diminishment), parcè che a son int (for they are people) che no à voe di fâ nuie (who want to do nothing). Pharaoh continues: par chel lôr a berlin (this is why they cry out): anìn a fâi un sacrifici al nestri Diu (let us go make a sacrifice to our God). Anìn is a first-person plural imperative meaning let us go.

Verse 9: Cheste int o vês di tignîle sot ancjemò di plui (you must subject this people even more), in mût che lavorant (so that when they work [so that {whilst} working]) no ur vanzarà timp di lâ daûr des sflocjis (they do not have time to pay heed to tales [time will not remain unto them to follow (go behind) tales]). The ‘tales’, or sflocjis, in question here are the promises of deliverance.

Verse 10: I vuardeans dal popul e i scrituriscj a lerin a dîi a la int (the watchmen of the people and the scribes went to say to the people): il faraon al dîs cussì (thus says Pharaoh): no us doi plui il stranc za pestât (we will no longer give you [we no longer give you] grinded straw [straw already grinded]).

Verse 11: O vês di lâ a regonâsal dibessôi (you are to go fetch it for yourselves) là che and è (wherever you can find it [there where of it there is]), ma il vuestri lavôr nol varà di cangjâ di un cimi (but your labour will not be lessened in the least).

Versets 12-18

Vocabulary: alore (so, then), il popul (people), sparniçâsi (to scatter oneself), la tiere (land), regonâ (to fetch), il fros (stalk, stubble), il stranc (straw), pestât (grinded, crushed), il sorestant (chief, overseer), pocâ (to press, to urge), di un continuo (continually), vê di (must, to have to), stes (same), la vore (work, labour), za (already), bastonâ (to strike, to beat), il scriturist (scribe), il vuardean (watchman, guardian; also vuardian), meti (to place, to put), tignî di voli (to watch over, to supervise), il modon (brick), ordenâ (to order, to command), vuê (today), compagn di (just like, identical to), îr (yesterday), îr l’altri (the day before yesterday), vignî (to come), lamentâsi (to complain), il faraon (pharaoh), (to say), tratâ (to treat), il famei (servant), furnî (to furnish, to supply), pacâ (to strike, to beat), la colpe (fault), rispuindi (to respond), une sdrume di (a pack of, a bunch of), il poltron (idler, good-for-nothing, lazy person), e vonde (and nothing more, and that is all), cumò (now), lavorâ (to work), taiât (cut), consegnâ (to deliver, to hand in), distinât (determined; also destinât).

Verse 12: Alore il popul si sparniçà (so the people scattered) par dute la tiere dal Egjit (throughout the land of Egypt) a regonâ i fros par vê il stranc pestât (to fetch the stubble needed for the grinded straw [to fetch the stubble to have the grinded straw]).

Verse 13: I sorestants ju pocavin di un continuo (their overseers [the overseers] pressed them continually): o vês di fâ la stesse vore (you are to do the same work) che o fasevis (that you did [were doing]) cuant che o vevis za il stranc (when you already had [used to already have] the straw).

Verse 14: A bastonarin ancje i scrituriscj dai israelits (the scribes of the Israelites were also beaten [they also beat the scribes of the Israelites]), chei che i vuardeans ju vevin metûts par tignîju di voli (those whom the watchmen had assigned [placed] to supervise them). They asked: parcè no vêso fat chel tant di modons che o vevin ordenât (why then did you not make the amount of bricks that we had commanded), vuê compagn di îr e di îr l’altri? (today, as you did yesterday [just like yesterday] and the day before yesterday?); for clarity: why then have you not made today, as you did yesterday and the day before, the prescribed amount of bricks?

Verse 15: Alore i scrituriscj dai israelits (so the scribes of the Israelites) a vignirin a lamentâsi dal faraon (came to complain to Pharaoh) disint (saying): parcè mo tratistu cussì i tiei fameis? (why then do you treat your servants so?).

Verse 16: Ai tiei fameis no ur ven furnît il stranc (your servants are not supplied with straw [unto your servants the straw does not get (does not come) supplied]) e si dîsiur (yet [and] it is said to them): fasêt modons (make bricks). E ve che si pache i tiei fameis e la colpe e je dal to popul: and, behold, your servants are beaten whereas the fault lies with your people (and the fault is of your people).

Verse 17: O sês une sdrume di poltrons (you are a pack of idlers), poltrons e vonde (idlers and nothing more). Vonde means enough: taken literally, e vonde translates as and enough; the sense of it here is and nothing more; and that is all (that you are).

Verse 18: Cumò lait e lavorait: now get to work (now go and work). No si us darà stranc taiât (cut straw will not be given to you) ma vualtris o varês di consegnâ (but you are to deliver) chel tant di modons che al è distinât (the prescribed amount of bricks [that amount of bricks that has been (that is) determined]).

Versets 19-23

Vocabulary: il scriturist (scribe), cjatâsi (to find oneself), il gjespâr (wasps’ nest), cjatâsi intun gjespâr (to find oneself in a hornet’s nest, to find oneself in trouble), (to say), calâ (to diminish), il modon (brick), dì par dì (day by day, daily), lassâ (to leave), il faraon (pharaoh), intivâsi in (to come upon), a pueste (on purpose, expressly), spietâ (to wait for), cjalâ (to look upon), fâ sentence (to judge), la colpe (fault), il famei (servant), cumò (now), cjapâ in asse (to take to hating), meti in man (to put into one’s hand), la spade (sword), copâ (to kill), tornâ di (to return to), la malegracie (rudeness, harshness), fâ malegraciis (to act harshly), il popul (people), mandâ (to send), cjatâ (to meet), fevelâ (to speak), a non to (in your name), deventâ (to become), insurît (ruthless, harsh), propit nuie (nothing at all), solevâ (to relieve).

Verse 19: I scrituriscj dai israelits si cjatarin intun biel gjespâr (the scribes of the Israelites found themselves in a great deal of trouble) cuant che ur diserin (when it was said to them [when they said to them]): no vês par nuie di calâ (you must under no circumstances reduce) i modons che o vevis di fâ (the bricks that you are to make) dì par dì (day by day). Taken literally, the masculine gjespâr is the Friulian for wasps’ nest; the figurative cjatâsi intun gjespâr aligns with the figurative to find oneself in a hornet’s nest (that is, to find oneself in trouble).

Verse 20: Lassât il faraon (having left Pharaoh), si intivarin in Mosè e Aron (they came upon Moses and Aaron) che a jerin li a pueste par spietâju (who were waiting expressly for them there [who were there expressly as to wait for them]).

Verse 21: Il Signôr che us cjali vualtris e che al fasi sentence: may the Lord look upon you and judge. E je colpe vuestre se il faraon e i siei fameis cumò nus àn cjapâts in asse: it is your fault if Pharaoh and his servants have now taken to hating us. O sês stâts vualtris a metiur la spade in man par copânus: it was you who put a sword in their hands to kill us (it was you who unto them put the sword in hand to kill us).

Verse 22: Mosè al tornà dal Signôr: Moses returned to the Lord. He asks: Signôr, parcè mo i fasistu malegraciis a di chest popul?: O Lord, why then do you act so harshly with this people? Parcè mi âstu mandât?: why did you send me?

Verse 23: Moses continues: dopo che o ài stât a cjatâ il faraon (ever since I went to meet Pharaoh [after I was to meet the pharaoh]) e che i ài fevelât a non to (and spoke to him in your name), lui al è deventât plui insurît (he has become more ruthless) cun chest popul (with this people) e tu no tu fasis propit nuie (and you do nothing at all) par solevâ il to popul (to relieve your people).