Friulian language series: Esodo 4, Mosè cu la virtût dai spiei

The fourth chapter of the book of Exodus tells of: Mosè cu la virtût dai spiei (Moses with the virtue of the marvels); Mosè in Madian (Moses in Midian).

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Versets 1-5

Vocabulary: cjapâ (to take), tornâ a cjapâ (to take again), la peraule (word), (to say), crodi (to believe), volê (to will), scoltâ (to heed), la vôs (voice), vêr (true), comparî (to appear), (to have), la man (hand), il baston (staff), rispuindi (to respond), butâ (to cast), la tiere (ground), tramudâsi in (to turn oneself into), il madrac (serpent), fuî (to make off), denant di (before), slungjâ (to extend), la man (hand), brincâ (to apprehend), la code (tail), gafâ (to seize), deventâ (to become), tornâ a devantâ (to become again), cussì (so), i vons (forefathers).

Verse 1: Mosè al tornà a cjapâ la peraule (Moses took the word again) e i disè (and said to him): e se lôr no mi crodin (what if they believe me not) e no vuelin scoltâ la mê vôs (and will not heed my voice) e mi disin (and say to me): no je vere* che il Signôr ti à comparît? (it is not true that the Lord has appeared to you). — *Vere is the feminine form of the adjective vêr, meaning true.

Verse 2: Dissal il Signôr (the Lord said): ce âstu *te man*? (what have you in your hand?). Un baston, i rispuindè Mosè: a staff, responded Moses to him. — *Literally, in the hand; following from the use of the second-person singular âstu, your hand is understood.

Verse 3: E il Signôr (and the Lord {said}): butilu* par tiere (cast it on the ground). Mosè lu butà par tiere (Moses cast it on the ground) e il baston si tramudà intun madrac (and the staff turned itself into a serpent) e Mosè al fuì denant di lui (and Moses made off before it). — *Of the verb butâ, the second-person singular imperative is bute; the final e becomes i when lu is added. Review: butâ; bute; butilu (to cast; cast; cast it).

Verse 4: Dissal il Signôr a Mosè (the Lord said to Moses): slungje la man e brinchilu* pe code (extend your hand and apprehend it by the tail). Al slungjà la man (he extended his hand), lu gafà e (seized it and), te sô man (in his hand), al tornà a deventâ un baston (it became a staff again). — *Of the verb brincâ, the second-person singular imperative is brinche, where h is inserted to maintain the /k/ sound of the c and prevent its being pronounced /tʃ/ before the e. Review: brincâ; brinche; brinchilu (to grasp; grasp; grasp it).

Verse 5: Cussì a crodaran (so shall they believe) che il Signôr (that the Lord), il Diu dai lôr vons (the God of their forefathers), il Diu di Abram, il Diu di Isac, il Diu di Jacop (the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, the God of Jacob) ti à comparît (has appeared to you).

Versets 6-9

Vocabulary: zontâ (to add), meti (to put), la man (hand), il pet (bosom), po (then), tirâ fûr (to draw forth), tornâ a tirâ fûr (to draw forth again), blanc (white), la nêf (snow), la levre (leprosy), (to say), tornâ a meti (to put back), compagn di (like), dut (all), il cuarp (body), cussì (so), crodi (to believe), convincisi (to become convinced), prin (first), il spieli (marvel), par vie di (on account of), secont (second), nancje (not even), doi (two), volê (to will), scoltâ (to heed), la vôs (voice), cjoli (to take), un sclip di (a bit of), la aghe (water), il flum (river), strucjâ (to pour), la tiere (ground), urî (to draw), tocjâ (to touch), sut (dry), tramudâsi in (to turn oneself into), il sanc (blood).

Verse 6: Il Signôr al zontà (the Lord added): met la man tal pet (put your hand into your bosom). Al metè la man tal pet (he put his hand into his bosom), po le tornà a tirâ fûr (then drew it forth again). E ve che al veve la man (and so it was that he had his hand) blancje come la nêf (white like snow) cu la levre (with leprosy).

Verse 7: Dissal il Signôr (the Lord said): torne a meti la man tal pet (put your hand back into your bosom). Al tornà a meti la man tal pet (he put his hand back into his bosom), le tornà a tirâ fûr (drew it forth again) e ve e jere tornade compagne di dut il cuarp (and so it was that it was returned like all his body).

Verse 8: Cussì, se no ti crodin (so if they believe you not) e no si convincin cul prin spieli (and are not convinced with the first marvel), a crodaran par vie dal secont spieli (they shall believe on account of the second marvel).

Verse 9: E se no crodin nancje a di chescj doi spiei (and if they believe not even these two marvels) e no vuelin scoltâ la tô vôs (and will not heed your voice), tu cjolarâs un sclip di aghe dal flum (you shall take a bit of water from the river) e tu le strucjarâs par tiere (and shall pour it on the ground) e l’aghe che tu varâs uride dal flum (and the water which you have [will have] drawn from the river), tocjant la tiere sute (in touching the dry ground), si tramudarà in sanc (shall turn itself into blood).

Versets 10-17

Vocabulary: (to say), cjapâse (to take it unto oneself), jessi bon di (to be capable of), fevelâ (to speak), îr (yesterday), îr l’altri (the day before yesterday), di cuant che (since), il famei (servant), di fat (in fact), un impediment (impediment), la bocje (mouth), la lenghe (tongue), (to give), un om (man), (to make, to do), il mut (dumb man), il sort (deaf man), viodi (to see), vuarp (blind), (to go), alore (then), insegnâ (to instruct), indaûr (anew), inrabiâsi (to become angered), mandâ (to send), preâ (to pray), volê (to will), vignî sù (to come up), la rabie (anger), cuintri di (against), il fradi (brother), il levit (Levite), savê (to know), babio (skilled), il cont (account), velu (here he is), vignî incuintri (to come unto), content (content), meti (to put), la peraule (word), impen di (in place of), il popul (people), jessi tant che (to be as), un diu (god), rivuart a (in regard to), il baston (staff), cjapâ in man (to take into hand), il spieli (marvel), midiant di (by way of).

Verse 10: Mosè i disè al Signôr (Moses said to the Lord): no sta cjapâte, Signôr (take it not unto yourself, O Lord): no soi bon di fevelâ (I am not capable of speaking) ni di îr (either since yesterday), ni di îr l’altri (or since the day before yesterday), ni di cuant che tu i fevelis al to famei (or since you have been speaking to your servant). Di fat jo o ài un impediment (in fact I have an impediment) di bocje e di lenghe (of mouth and tongue).

Verse 11: Dissal il Signôr (the Lord said): *cui i àial dade la bocje al om?* (who gave to man his mouth?). Cui fasial il mut e il sort (who makes the dumb man and the deaf man), chel che al viôt e chel che al è vuarp? (that one who sees and that one who is blind?). No soio jo, il Signôr?: is it not I, the Lord? — *Taken apart: cui (who) i (unto him) àial dade (has given) la bocje (the mouth) al om (to the man).

Verse 12: Va, alore (go, then): jo o sarai cu la tô bocje (I will be with your mouth) e ti insegnarai jo ce che tu âs di dî (and I myself will instruct you that which you are to say).

Verse 13: Dissal indaûr Mosè (Moses said anew): no sta inrabiâti, Signôr (be not angered, O Lord). Mande, ti prei (send, I pray you), cui che tu vûs (whom you will).

Verse 14: Alore al Signôr i vignì sù la rabie cuintri di Mosè (then unto the Lord did come up anger against Moses) e i disè (and he said to him): no esal to fradi Aron il levit? (is there not your brother Aaron the Levite?). O sai che lui al è babio (I know that he is skilled) par cont di lenghe (by account of tongue). Velu che ti ven incuintri: here he is who is coming unto you. Cuant che ti viodarà (when he sees [will see] you) al sarà tant content che mai (he will be ever so content).

Verse 15: Tu i fevelarâs (you shall speak to him) e tu metarâs lis tôs peraulis te sô bocje (and shall put your words into his mouth). Jo o sarai cu la tô bocje (I will be with your mouth) e cu la sô (and with his) e us disarai jo ce che o vês di fâ (and I myself will say to you that which you are to do).

Verse 16: Al fevelarà lui impen di te al popul (he shall speak in place of you to the people); lui al sarà la tô bocje (he shall be your mouth) e tu tu sarâs par lui tant che un diu (and you shall be for him as a god).

Verse 17: Rivuart al baston (in regard to the staff), cjapilu in man (take it into hand); tu fasarâs i spiei (you shall do the marvels) midiant di lui (by way of it).

Versets 18-23

Vocabulary: lâsint (to leave), tornâ (to return), il missêr (father-in-law), (to say), lassâ (to let), (to go), il fradi (brother), (down), viodi (to see), ancjemò (yet), vîf (living), rispuindi (to respond), la pâs (peace), muart (dead), cirî di (to seek to), fâ fûr (to do away with), cjoli (to take), la femine (wife), il fi (son), montâ (to mount), il mus (ass), la tiere (land), cjapâ in man (to take into hand), il baston (staff), intant che (whilst), pensâ (to think), il spieli (marvel), meti (to put), la man (hand), in face di (in face of), il faraon (pharaoh), il cûr (heart), no… gran (not in the least), partî (to depart), il popul (people), prin (first), il sacrifici (sacrifice), stant che (given that), volê (to will), savê (to know), poben (well), murî (to die).

Verse 18: Mosè si’nt lè (Moses left) e al tornà di Jetro, so missêr (and returned to his father-in-law Jethro). I disè (he said to him): lassimi lâ (let me go), che o torni dai miei fradis (that I may return to my brethren) che a son jù in Egjit (who are down in Egypt) par viodi se a son ancjemò vîfs (to see if they are yet living). I rispuindè Jetro (Jethro responded to him): va in pâs (go in peace).

Verse 19: Il Signôr i disè a Mosè in Madian (the Lord said to Moses in Midian): va, torne jù in Egjit (go, return down into Egypt), parcè che a son muarts (for they are dead) chei che a cirivin di fâti fûr (those who were seeking to do away with you).

Verse 20: Mosè al cjolè la sô femine e so fi (Moses took his wife and his son), ju fasè montâ suntun mus (made them mount upon an ass) e al tornà jù te tiere dal Egjit (and returned down into the land of Egypt). Mosè al cjapà in man (Moses took into hand) il baston di Diu (the staff of God).

Verse 21: Il Signôr i disè a Mosè (the Lord said to Moses): intant che tu tornis in Egjit (whilst you are returning into Egypt), pense ai spiei (think of the marvels) che ti ài metût tes tôs mans (which I have put into your hands). Tu ju fasarâs in face dal faraon (you shall do them in face of the pharaoh), ma jo o ài viodût il so cûr (but I have seen his heart) e nol lassarà gran partî il popul (and he will not in the least let the people depart).

Verse 22: Alore tu i disarâs al faraon (then you shall say to the pharaoh): il Signôr al dîs chest (the Lord says this): il gno prin fi al è Israel (my first son is Israel).

Verse 23: Jo tal* vevi dit (I had said it to you): lasse lâ gno fi (let my son go) par che mi fasi un sacrifici (that he may make a sacrifice to me). Ma stant che no tu âs volût savênt di lassâlu lâ (but given that you have willed not hear [know] of letting him go), poben (well), jo ti fasarai murî il to prin fi (I will make your first son die on you). — *Tal is the contraction of ti + lu (unto you + it).

Versets 24-31

Vocabulary: vignî incuintri (to come unto), il viaç (journey), fermâsi (to halt oneself), la gnot (night), cirî di (to seek to), murî (to die), alore (then), cjapâ sù (to take up), il clap (stone), spiçât (sharpened), taiâ (to cut), la piel (skin), la nature (nature), il fi (son), tocjâ (to touch), il pît (feet), (to say), il nuviç (bridegroom), il sanc (blood), slontanâsi (to part), par vie di (on account of), la circuncision (circumcision), lâ incuintri (to go unto), la bande (side), il desert (desert), partî (to depart), incuintrâ (to meet), la mont (mountain), cjapâ a bracecuel (to take into neck-embrace), contâ (to recount), mandâ (to send), il spieli (marvel), ordenâ (to order), clamâ dongje (to call alongside), un anzian (elder), crodi (to believe), tornâ a dî (to repeat), denant di (before), il popul (people), crodi (to believe), sintî (to feel), grant (great), la gjonde (joy), par vie che (given that), vignî a cjatâ (to come to find), viodi (to see), la streme (affliction), butâsi in genoglon (to cast oneself on one’s knees), la muse (face), la tiere (ground).

Verse 24: Il Signôr i vignì incuintri par viaç (the Lord came unto him on the journey), là che si jere fermât pe gnot (where he had halted himself for the night), e al cirì di fâlu murî (and sought to make him die).

Verse 25: Alore Zipore e cjapà sù un clap spiçât (then Zipporah took up a sharpened stone) e *i taià la piel de nature a so fi* (and cut the skin of her son’s nature), *i tocjà i pîts* (touched his feet) e i disè (and said to him): tu tu sês par me un nuviç di sanc (you are for me a bridegroom of blood). — *The feminine nature is here a euphemism for the virile member; piel de nature (skin of the nature) refers to the foreskin. Take note of the Friulian manner of constructing sentences of the sort: i taià la piel de nature a so fi (literally, she cut the skin of the nature unto her son); i tocjâ i pîts (literally, she touched the feet unto him).

Verse 26: E si slontanà di lui: and he parted from him. I veve dit nuviç di sanc (she had deemed him a bridegroom of blood [she had said to him ‘bridegroom of blood’]) par vie de circuncision (on account of the circumcision).

Verse 27: Il Signôr i disè a Aron (the Lord said to Aaron): va incuintri a Mosè de bande dal desert (go unto Moses out in the desert). Al partì (he departed), lu incuintrà su la mont di Diu (met him on the mountain of God) e lu cjapà a bracecuel (and took him into neck-embrace).

Verse 28: Mosè i contà a Aron (Moses recounted to Aaron) dut ce che i veve dit il Signôr (all that which the Lord had said to him), che lu veve mandât (that he had sent him), e ducj i spiei che i veve ordenât di fâ (and all the marvels which he had ordered him to do).

Verse 29: Mosè al partì cun Aron (Moses departed with Aaron) e a clamarin dongje ducj i anzians di Israel (and they called alongside all the elders of Israel).

Verse 30: Aron al tornà a dî dut ce che il Signôr i veve dit a Mosè (Aaron repeated all that which the Lord had said to Moses) e al* fasè i spiei denant dal popul (and did the marvels before the people). — *I have interpreted this as meaning that, according to the Friulian text, it was Aaron who performed the marvels (which is moreover often the case afterwards; for instance, see Esodo 7:10, Esodo 7:19, Esodo 8:2, Esodo 8:13). The employment of nothing more than the atonic al suggests that the subject here is yet Aron.

Verse 31: Il popul al crodè (the people believed) e al sintì une grande gjonde (and felt a great joy) par vie che il Signôr al jere vignût a cjatâ i israelits (given that the Lord had come to find the Israelites) e al veve viodude dute la lôr streme (and had seen all their affliction). Si butarin in genoglon (they cast themselves on their knees) e cu la muse par tiere (and with their face to the ground).