Friulian language series: Esodo 3, il baraçâr che al art

The subjects whereof the third chapter of the book of Exodus treats are: il baraçâr che al art (the bush which burns); la mission di Mosè (mission of Moses); la rivelazion dal Non di Diu (revelation of the Name of God). The Friulian verb ardi means to burn; al art is its masculine, third-person singular form of the presint indicatîf.

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Read Esodo 3

To read the Friulian text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Bibie par un popul and consult Esodo 3. An archived version of the text is found here.

Versets 1-6

Vocabulary: passonâ (to pasture), la minuçarìe (little livestock), il missêr (father-in-law), il predi (priest), il trop (flock), il predi (priest), menâ (to lead), di là di (beyond), il desert (desert), rivâ (to arrive), la mont (mountain), la flame (flame), il fûc (fire), framieç di (amidst), il baraçâr (bush), comparî (to appear), un agnul (angel), cjalâ (to look {upon}), il sterp (shrub), infogât (ablaze), consumâsi (to burn up), seneôs (keen), sancirâsi (to make sense), strani (strange), cemût mai che (how is it that), viodi (to see), rivâ dongje (to arrive alongside), clamâ (to call), di jenfri (from amidst), rispuindi (to respond), vignî dongje (to come alongside), gjavâsi dai pîts (to withdraw from one’s feet), il sandul (sandal), la tiere (ground), balinâ (to tread), sant (holy), zontâ (to add), i vons (forefathers), taponâsi la muse (to conceal one’s face), la pôre (fear), cjalâ in muse (to look in the face).

Verse 1: Mosè al passonave la minuçarìe di Jetro, so missêr, predi di Madian (Moses was pasturing the little livestock of his father-in-law Jethro, priest of Midian); al menà il trop di là dal desert (he led the flock beyond the desert) e al rivà a la mont di Diu, l’Oreb (and came to the mountain of God — the Horeb).

Verse 2: Intune flame di fûc (in a flame of fire), framieç di un baraçâr (amidst a bush), i comparì l’agnul dal Signôr (the angel of the Lord appeared to him). Mosè al cjalà il sterp (Moses looked upon the shrub): al jere dut infogât (it was all ablaze) ma no si consumave (but was not burning up).

Verse 3: Dissal Mosè (Moses said): o soi propit seneôs (I am keen indeed) di lâ a sancirâmi (to go to make sense) di cheste robe tant stranie (of this such strange matter) e cemût mai che (and how it is that) il baraçâr no si consume (the bush does not burn up).

Verse 4: Il Signôr lu viodè a rivâ dongje par sancirâsi (the Lord saw him arriving alongside to make sense) e Diu lu clamà di jenfri il baraçâr (and God called him from amidst the bush): Mosè, Mosè (Moses, Moses). E lui i rispuindè (and he responded to him): ve chi che o soi (here I am).

Verse 5: Dissal (he said): no sta vignî dongje (do not come alongside); *gjaviti i sandui dai pîts* (withdraw the sandals from your feet) parcè che la tiere che tu balinis e je une tiere sante (for the ground whereon you tread is holy ground). — *Taken apart: gjaviti (withdraw {from} unto you) i sandui (the sandals) dai pîts (from the feet).

Verse 6: E al zontà (and he added): jo o soi il Diu dai tiei vons (I am the God of your forefathers), il Diu di Abram, il Diu di Isac e il Diu di Jacop (the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac and the God of Jacob). Mosè alore si taponà la muse (Moses then concealed his face) parcè che al veve pôre a cjalâ Diu in muse (for he had fear to look God in the face).

Versets 7-12

Vocabulary: viodi (to see), propit (truly), la miserie (misery), il popul (people), sintî (to hear), trop che (how {much}), berlâ (to cry forth), denant di (before), tignî sot (to keep under), savê (to know), la streme (affliction), vignî jù (to come down), gjavâ (to withdraw), la man (hand), fâ tornâ di (to bring back out of), la tiere (land), butâ (to cast), lunc (long), larc (broad), scori (to flow), il riul (stream), il lat (milk), la mîl (honey), jessi a stâ (to dwell), cumò mo sì che (now indeed), il berli (outcry), rivâ (to arrive), fin li di me (into my midst), ce tant che (just how {much}), pesâ (to weigh), il jôf (yoke), lâ jù (to go down), dal moment (forthwith), mandâ (to send), il faraon (pharaoh), saltâ fûr (to come forth), il fi (son), rispuindi (to respond), presentâsi (to present oneself), ve chi (here is), il segnâl (sign), mostrâ (to demonstrate), preâ (to pray), la mont (mountain).

Verse 7: Dissal il Signôr (the Lord said): o ài viodût (I have seen), o ài propit viodût (I have truly seen) la miserie dal gno popul in Egjit (the misery of my people in Egypt). O ài sintût (I have heard) trop che a berlin (how they cry forth) denant di chei che ju tegnin sot (before those who subject them [keep them under]); , o sai dute la lôr streme (yes, I know all their affliction).

Verse 8: O soi vignût jù (I have come down) par gjavâju des mans dai egjizians (to withdraw them from the hands of the Egyptians) e par fâju tornâ di cheste tiere (and to bring them back out of this land) intune tiere ch’e bute, lungje e largje (into a land which spreads forth [which casts], long and broad), intune tiere che a scorin a riui lat e mîl (into a land where milk and honey flow by streamfuls), là che cumò a son a stâ (where now dwell) i cananeus (the Canaanites), i itits (the Hittites), i amoreus (the Amorites), i peressits (the Perizzites), i eveus (the Hivites) e i gjebuseus (and the Jebusites).

Verse 9: Cumò mo sì che il berli dai ebreus al è rivât sù fin li di me (now indeed the outcry of the Hebrews has arrived up into my midst) e o ài viodût ce tant che i egjizians *a fasin pesâ* il lôr jôf sun lôr (and I have seen just how the Egyptians cause their yoke to weigh upon them). — *Consider: pesâ (to weigh); fâ pesâ (to make weigh, to cause to weigh); fâ pesâ il lôr jôf sun lôr (to make their yoke weigh upon them; to cause their yoke to weigh upon them).

Verse 10: Va jù dal moment (go down forthwith); jo ti mandi dal faraon (I am sending you to Pharaoh): fâs* saltâ fûr il gno popul, i fîs di Israel, dal Egjit: make my people, the sons of Israel, come forth from Egypt. — *Of the verb fâ, the second-person singular imperative is fâs.

Verse 11: Mosè i rispuindè a Diu (Moses responded to God): e cui sojo* jo (and who am I) par presentâmi denant dal faraon (to present myself before Pharaoh) e par fâ saltâ fûr dal Egjit i fîs d’Israel? (and to make the sons of Israel come forth from Egypt?). — *Observe the following: jo o soi (I am); soio jo? sojo jo? (interrogative form); cui soio jo? cui sojo jo? (who am I?). Sojo is a spelling variant of soio.

Verse 12: Dissal Diu (God said): jo o sarai cun te (I will be with you), e ve chi il segnâl (and here is the sign) che ti mostrarà (which shall demonstrate to you) che o soi jo che ti mandi (that it is I who send you). Cuant che *tu varâs fat saltâ fûr* il popul dal Egjit (when you have made [will have made] the people come forth from Egypt), o prearês Diu sun cheste mont (you+ will pray God on this mountain). — *Consider: saltâ fûr (to come forth); fâ saltâ fûr (to make come forth); tu âs fat saltâ fûr (you have made come forth); tu varâs fat saltâ fûr (you will have made come forth). +The liberated people.

Versets 13-15

Vocabulary: (to say), lâ jù (to go down), un israelit (Israelite), i vons (forefathers), mandâ (to send), domandâ (to ask), il non (name), rispuindi (to respond), zontâ (to add), vê di (to have to), ancjemò (yet), fevelâ (to speak), cussì (thus), par in eterni (for all time), clamâ (to call), la gjenerazion (generation).

Verse 13: Mosè i disè a Diu (Moses said to God): ve, jo o voi jù e ur dîs ai israelits (so I go down and say to the Israelites): «il Diu dai vuestris vons mi à mandât chi di vualtris» (the God of your forefathers has sent me hither to you). E se lôr mi domandaran (what if they [and if they will] ask me): «ce non àial?» (what is his name [what name has he]?), *ce àio di rispuindiur?* (what am I to respond to them?). — *Consider: o ai (I have); o ai di rispuindi (I have to respond); o ai di rispuindiur (I have to respond to them); aio? (have I?); aio di rispuindiur? (have I to respond to them?); ce aio di rispuidiur? (what have I to respond to them?). When it is question of the expression vê di, the English verb to be can also be employed: o ai di rispuindiur (I am to respond to them); ce aio di rispuidiur? (what am I to respond to them?). Àio: the text puts an accent on aio, which is optional. The reason for the accent stems from the double meaning of ai: it can mean {I} have (from o ai, which is the first-person singular of the present tense of ), just as it can be the contraction of the preposition a (to) + the plural definite article i (the). For this reason, the verb ai is sometimes accented as ài to distinguish between the two, and this accented form may be carried over into the interrogative as àio. You will find examples in this very Bible of where the verb ai is left unaccented, as it is not mandatory where no risk of confusion is present.

Verse 14: Alore Diu i disè a Mosè (so God said to Moses): Jo o soi chel che al è (‘I am he who is’). E al zontà (and he added): ve ce che tu âs di dîur ai israelits (this is that which you are to say to the Israelites): Jo-o-soi mi à mandât di vualtris (‘I am’ has sent me to you).

Verse 15: Diu i disè ancjemò a Mosè (God yet said to Moses): tu ur fevelarâs cussì ai israelits (you shall speak thus to the Israelites): il Signôr (the Lord) (jhwh) (YHWH), il Diu dai vuestris vons (the God of your forefathers), il Diu di Abram, il Diu di Isac, il Diu di Jacop (the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, the God of Jacob) mi à mandât di vualtris (has sent me to you). Chest al è il gno non par in eterni (this is my name for all time) e cussì a varan di clamâmi (and so shall they have to call me) di gjenerazion in gjenerazion (from generation to generation). — Related: Jahve (Yahweh).

Versets 16-20

Vocabulary: clamâ dongje (to call alongside), un anzian (elder), (to say), cussì (thus), i vons (forefathers), comparî (to appear), volê (to will), di persone (in person), viodi (to see), alore (then), saltâ fûr (to come forth), la pene (affliction), tornâ (to return), la tiere (land), scori (to flow), il riul (stream), il lat (milk), la mîl (honey), scoltâ (to heed), la vôs (voice), presentâsi (to present oneself), il re (king), vignî incuintri (to come unto), lassâ (to let), trê dîs (three days), il viaç (journey), fâ un sacrifici (to make a sacrifice), savê (to know), za (already), partî (to depart), no… gran (not in the least), a pat che (unless), la man (hand), fuart (mighty), obleâ (to compel), molâ (to relinquish), pa la cuâl (therefore), slungjâ (to extend), vuaiâ (to smite), il spieli (wonder), di ogni sorte (of every sort), framieç di (amongst), scugnî (to have to).

Verse 16: Va (go), clame dongje i anzians e dîsiur cussì (call alongside the elders and say to them thus): il Signôr, il Diu dai vuestris vons (the Lord, the God of your forefathers), mi à comparît (has appeared to me), il Diu di Abram, il Diu di Isac, il Diu di Jacop (the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, the God of Jacob), e mi à dit (and has said to me): o ài volût vignî di persone (I myself would come) e o ài viodût ce che us fasin in Egjit (and have seen that which they do to you in Egypt).

Verse 17: E alore o ài dit (and so I said): jo us fasarai saltâ fûr des penis dal Egjit (I will make you come forth from the afflictions of Egypt) e tornâ te tiere (and {make you} return to the land) dai cananeus, dai itits, dai amoreus, dai peressits, dai eveus e dai gjebuseus (of the Canaanites, the Hittites, the Amorites, the Perizzites, the Hivites and the Jebusites), tune tiere che a scorin a riui lat e mîl (to a land where milk and honey flow by streamfuls).

Verse 18: Lôr a scoltaran la tô vôs (they will heed your voice) e si presentarês, tu e i anzians di Israel (and you shall present yourselves, you and the elders of Egypt), dal re dal Egjit (to the king of Egypt) e i disarês (and shall say to him): il Signôr, il Diu dai ebreus, nus è vignût incuintri (the Lord, the God of the Hebrews, has come unto us). Lassinus* alore lâ tal desert (so let us go into the desert), a trê dîs di viaç (at a distance of three days), par fâi un sacrifici al Signôr nestri Diu (to make a sacrifice to the Lord our God). — *Observe: lassâ (to let); lasse (let; second-person singular imperative); lassinus (let us).

Verse 19: O sai za (I already know) che il re dal Egjit (that the king of Egypt) no us lassarà partî gran (will not let you depart in the least), a pat che une man fuarte (unless a mighty hand) no lu oblei* a molâ (should compel him to relinquish). — *Of obleâ, the third-person singular of the present indicative is al oblee (feminine: e oblee); its present subjunctive of the same is al oblei (feminine: e oblei). In the text of this verse, following a pat che, you find the present subjunctive e oblei.

Verse 20: Pa la cuâl o slungjarai la man (therefore I will extend my hand) e o vuaiarai l’Egjit (and will smite Egypt) cun spiei di ogni sorte (with wonders of every sort) che o fasarai framieç di lôr (which I will do amongst them). Dopo al scugnarà lassâus lâ: thereupon he will have to let you go.

Versets 21-22

Vocabulary: in mût che ({in order} that), cjapâ sù (to take up), la viste (view), cjapâ sù di buine viste (to look favourably upon), cussì (so), lâ vie (to go away), cu lis mans spacant (empty-handed), la femine (woman), domandâ (to ask {for}), stâ (to dwell), la puarte (door), la cjase (house), la robe (matter), d’aur (of gold), d’arint (of silver), i vistîts (clothes), puartâ (to bear), il fi (son), la fie (daughter), netâ (to clean {out}).

Verse 21: O fasarai in mût che (I will so do that) i egjizians us cjapin sù di buine viste (the Egyptians may look favourably upon you [may take you up in good view]) e cussì, cuant che o larês* vie (and so when you go away), no larês* +cu lis mans spacant+ (you will not go empty-handed). — *O larês is the second-person plural of the futûr sempliç of the verb lâ. +Cu lis mans spacant: see the notes at Gjenesi 31:42.

Verse 22: La femine i domandarà *a di chê che* e sta puarte cun puarte (each woman shall ask [the woman shall ask unto] the one who dwells next door) e a di chê che e je a stâ inte sô cjase (and the one [and unto the one] who stays in her house) robe d’aur (for+ matter of gold), robe d’arint (matter of silver) e vistîts (and clothes). Ju fasarês puartâ ai vuestris fîs e a lis vuestris fiis (you shall make your sons and daughters bear them) e o netarês i egjizians (and shall plunder [clean out] the Egyptians). — *A di chê che: unto that {female} one who, where chê refers specifically to a woman. +Domandâ, in the context of this verse, is to be taken as meaning to ask for; the Friulian equivalent of for is not expressed alongside the verb domandâ. Example: domandâ la caritât (to ask for charity, to beg for charity). In English, ‘one asks someone for something’, whereas in Friulian, ‘one asks {for} something unto someone’, without expressing for. For instance, mi à domandât un plasê means he has asked me for a favour; literally, unto me has he asked a favour.