Friulian language series: Esodo 3, il baraçâr che al art

The subjects of which the third chapter of the book of Exodus treats are: il baraçâr che al art (the burning bush [the bush that burns]); la mission di Mosè (mission of Moses); la rivelazion dal Non di Diu (revelation of the Name of God). The Friulian verb ardi means to burn; al art is its masculine, third-person singular form of the presint indicatîf.

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Read Esodo 3

To read the Friulian text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Bibie par un popul and consult Esodo 3. An archived version of the text can be found here.

Versets 1-6

Vocabulary: passonâ (to pasture), la minuçarìe (sheep, small livestock), il missêr (father-in-law), il predi (priest), il trop (flock), il predi (priest), menâ (to bring, to lead), di là di (beyond), il desert (desert), rivâ (to arrive, to come), la mont (mount, mountain), la flame (flame), il fûc (fire), framieç di (amongst), il baraçâr (bush, shrub), comparî (to appear), un agnul (angel), cjalâ (to look), il sterp (shrub, bush), infogât (on fire, ablaze), consumâsi (to burn up), seneôs (desirous, eager, keen), sancirâsi di (to make sense to oneself of), strani (strange), cemût mai che (how could it be that), viodi (to see), rivâ dongje (to draw near), clamâ (to call), di jenfri (from amongst), rispuindi (to respond), vignî dongje (to come near), gjavâsi dai pîts (to remove from one’s feet), il sandul (sandal), la tiere (earth, ground), balinâ (to tread), sant (holy), zontâ (to add), i vons (forefathers), taponâsi la muse (to cover one’s face), vê pôre (to be afraid), cjalâ in muse (to look in the face).

Verse 1: Like the terms besteam minût or robe minude, the feminine minuçarie refers to sheep, flocks, small livestock: Mosè al passonave la minuçarìe di Jetro, so missêr, predi di Madian (Moses was pasturing the sheep of his father-in-law Jethro, priest of Midian). Al menà il trop di là dal desert: he brought the flock beyond the desert. Al rivà a la mont di Diu, l’Oreb: he came to the mountain of God — the Horeb.

Verse 2: Intune flame di fûc (in a flame of fire), framieç di un baraçâr (amongst a bush), i comparì l’agnul dal Signôr (the angel of the Lord appeared to him). Mosè al cjalà il sterp (Moses looked upon the shrub): al jere dut infogât (it was all ablaze) ma no si consumave (but it was not burning up).

Verse 3: O soi propit seneôs (I am eager indeed) di lâ a sancirâmi (to go make sense) di cheste robe tant stranie (of this such strange thing) e cemût mai che (and how it is that) il baraçâr no si consume (the bush does not burn up).

Verse 4: Il Signôr lu viodè a rivâ dongje par sancirâsi: the Lord saw him draw near to make sense (of it). Diu lu clamà di jenfri il baraçâr: God called him from amongst the bush. Moses responds: ve chi che o soi (here I am [it is here that I am]).

Verse 5: No sta vignî dongje: do not come near. Gjaviti i sandui dai pîts: remove the sandals from your feet (remove the sandals from the feet unto you). La tiere che tu balinis e je une tiere sante: the ground upon which you tread is holy ground.

Verse 6: God continues: jo o soi il Diu dai tiei vons (I am the God of your forefathers), il Diu di Abram, il Diu di Isac e il Diu di Jacop (the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac and the God of Jacob). Mosè alore si taponà la muse: so Moses covered his face. Al veve pôre a cjalâ Diu in muse: he was afraid to look God in the face.

Versets 7-12

Vocabulary: viodi (to see), la miserie (misery), il popul (people), sintî (to hear), trop che (how much that, the extent to which), berlâ (to cry out), denant di (before, in front of), tignî sot (to subject), savê (to know), la streme (affliction), vignî jù (to come down), gjavâ des mans di (to deliver from the hands of), fâ tornâ di (to bring back out of), la tiere (land), butâ (to spread out), lunc (long), larc (wide), scori (to flow), il riul (stream), il lat (milk), la mîl (honey), jessi a stâ (to dwell), cumò mo sì che (now indeed), il berli (outcry), rivâ (to arrive, to come), fin li di me (unto me), ce tant che (just how much that, the extent to which), pesâ (to weigh), il jôf (yoke), lâ jù (to go down), dal moment (at once, immediately), mandâ (to send), il faraon (pharaoh), fâ saltâ fûr (to bring forth), il fi (son), rispuindi (to respond), presentâsi (to present oneself), ve chi (here is, this is), il segnâl (sign, signal), mostrâ (to show, to demonstrate), preâ (to pray), la mont (mount, mountain).

Verse 7: The Lord says: o ài viodût (I have seen), o ài propit viodût (and I have seen well) la miserie dal gno popul in Egjit (the misery of my people in Egypt); propit is used here for emphasis, along the lines of: I have seen, oh how I have seen. He continues: o ài sintût (I have heard) trop che (how [how much]) a berlin (they cry out) denant di chei (before those) che ju tegnin sot (who subject them [who keep them under]); (yes), o sai dute la lôr streme (I am aware of [I know] all their affliction).

Verse 8: The Lord continues: o soi vignût jù (I have come down) par gjavâju des mans dai egjizians (to deliver them from the hands of the Egyptians) e par fâju tornâ di cheste tiere (and to bring them back out of this land) intune tiere ch’e bute, lungje e largje (into a land that spreads out, far and wide [long and wide]), intune tiere che a scorin a riui lat e mîl (into a land where milk and honey flow by the riverful[s]), là che cumò a son a stâ (where now dwell) i cananeus (the Canaanites), i itits (the Hittites), i amoreus (the Amorites), i peressits (the Perizzites), i eveus (the Hivites) e i gjebuseus (and the Jebusites).

Verse 9: Cumò mo sì che il berli dai ebreus al è rivât sù fin li di me: now indeed the outcry of the Hebrews has reached me [has come up unto me]). O ài viodût ce tant che i egjizians a fasin pesâ il lôr jôf sun lôr: I have seen just how [how much] the Egyptians cause their yoke to weigh upon them; taken less literally: I have seen the extent to which the Egyptians oppress them. Consider: pesâ (to weigh); fâ pesâ (to make weigh, to cause to weigh); fâ pesâ il lôr jôf sun lôr (to make their yoke weigh upon them; to cause their yoke to weigh upon them).

Verse 10: Va jù dal moment: go down at once. Jo ti mandi dal faraon: I shall send (I am sending) you to Pharaoh. Of the verb fâ, the second-person singular imperative is fâs; the Lord continues: fâs saltâ fûr il gno popul (bring forth my people [make come forth my people]), i fîs di Israel (the sons of Israel), dal Egjit (out of Egypt). Consider: saltâ fûr (to come forth); fâ saltâ fûr (to make come forth, to cause to come forth; that is, to bring forth).

Verse 11: Moses asks: e cui sojo jo (and who am I) par presentâmi denant dal faraon (to present myself before Pharaoh) e par fâ saltâ fûr dal Egjit i fîs d’Israel? (and to bring out of [make come forth from] Egypt the sons of Israel?). Observe the following: jo o soi (I am); soio jo? sojo jo? (interrogative form); cui soio jo? cui sojo jo? (who am I?). Sojo is a variant spelling of soio.

Verse 12: God responds to Moses: jo o sarai cun te (I shall be with you), e ve chi il segnâl (and this is the sign) che ti mostrarà (that shall demonstrate to you) che o soi jo che ti mandi (that it was I who sent you [that it is I who sends you]). He continues: cuant che tu varâs fat saltâ fûr il popul dal Egjit (when you have brought the people out of Egypt [when you will have made come forth the people from Egypt]), o prearês Diu sun cheste mont (you shall pray God on this mountain). Consider: saltâ fûr (to come forth); fâ saltâ fûr (to make come forth); tu âs fat saltâ fûr (you have made come forth); tu varâs fat saltâ fûr (you will have made come forth).

Versets 13-15

Vocabulary: (to say), lâ jù (to go down), un israelit (Israelite), i vons (forefathers), mandâ (to send), domandâ (to ask), il non (name), rispuindi (to respond), zontâ (to add), vê di (must, to have to), ancjemò (yet), fevelâ (to speak), cussì (thus, so), par in eterni (forever), clamâ (to call), la gjenerazion (generation).

Verse 13: Moses says (with guillemets added to the text for clarity): ve, jo o voi jù e ur dîs ai israelits (so I go down and say to the Israelites): «il Diu dai vuestris vons mi à mandât chi di vualtris» (the God of your forefathers has sent me to you). He continues: e se lôr mi domandaran (what if they ask me): «ce non àial?» (what is his name [what name has he]?), ce àio di rispuindiur? (how am I to respond to them [what have I to respond to them]?). Consider: o ai di rispuindi (I have to respond); o ai di rispuindiur (I have to respond to them); aio di rispuindiur? (have I to respond to them?); ce aio di rispuidiur? (what have I to respond to them?; that is, how am I to respond to them?).

Verse 14: God responds with the name Ehyeh-Asher-Ehyeh, rendered in Friulian as: Jo o soi chel che al è (I am he who is). E al zontà: and he added. God continues: ve ce che tu âs di dîur ai israelits (this is what you are to say to the Israelites): Jo-o-soi mi à mandât di vualtris (I AM has sent me to you).

Verse 15: Diu i disè ancjemò a Mosè: God said yet to Moses. God says: tu ur fevelarâs cussì ai israelits (thus shall you speak to the Israelites): il Signôr (jhwh) (the Lord [YHWH]), il Diu dai vuestris vons (the God of your forefathers), il Diu di Abram, il Diu di Isac, il Diu di Jacop (the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, the God of Jacob) mi à mandât di vualtris (has sent me to you). God continues: chest al è il gno non par in eterni (this is my name forever) e cussì a varan di clamâmi (and thus shall they call me [and thus shall they have to call me]) di gjenerazion in gjenerazion (from generation to generation). Related: Jahve (Yahweh).

Versets 16-20

Vocabulary: clamâ dongje (to call together), un anzian (elder), (to say), cussì (thus, so), i vons (forefathers), comparî (to appear), volê (to want), di persone (in person), viodi (to see), alore (so, then), saltâ fûr (to come forth), fâ saltâ fûr (to bring forth), la pene (affliction), la tiere (land), scori (to flow), il riul (stream), a riui (by the streamful[s]), il lat (milk), la mîl (honey), scoltâ (to listen, to heed), la vôs (voice), presentâsi (to present oneself), il re (king), vignî incuintri (to come unto), lassâ (to let, to allow), trê dîs (three days), il viaç (journey), fâ un sacrifici (to make a sacrifice), savê (to know), za (already), no… gran (not in the least), a pat che (unless, only if), la man (hand), fuart (strong, mighty), obleâ (to obligate, to compel), molâ (to give in, to back down), pa la cuâl (for this reason), slungjâ (to extend), vuaiâ (to smite), il spieli (marvel, wonder), di ogni sorte (of every sort), framieç di (amongst), scugnî (must, to have to, to be obliged).

Verse 16: Va, clame dongje i anzians e dîsiur cussì: go, call together the elders and say to them thus. I vuestris vons: your forefathers. [Il Signôr] mi à comparît: the Lord has appeared unto me. O ài volût vignî di persone: I wanted to come myself. O ài viodût ce che us fasin in Egjit: I have seen what is being done to you (what they are doing to you) in Egypt.

Verse 17: E alore o ài dit: and so I said. The feminine plural penis means afflictions, from the singular pene: jo us fasarai saltâ fûr des penis dal Egjit (I shall bring you forth from the afflictions of Egypt). Regarding fâ saltâ fûr, see also the notes at verses 10 and 12. The text continues: [jo us fasarai] tornâ (I shall bring you back [I shall make you return]) te tiere dai cananeus, dai itits, dai amoreus, dai peressits, dai eveus e dai gjebuseus ([in]to the land of the Canaanites, the Hittites, the Amorites, the Perizzites, the Hivites and the Jebusites), tune tiere ([in]to a land) che a scorin a riui lat e mîl (where milk and honey flow by the streamful[s]).

Verse 18: Lôr a scoltaran la tô vôs: they shall heed your voice. Si presentarês, tu e i anzians di Israel, dal re dal Egjit: you shall present yourselves, you and the elders of Egypt, before (unto) the king of Egypt. I disarês: il Signôr, il Diu dai ebreus, nus è vignût incuintri: you shall shall say: the Lord, the God of the Hebrews, has come to us. Lassinus alore lâ tal desert, a trê dîs di viaç: so let us go into the desert, at a distance (journey) of three days; observe: lassâ (to let); lasse (let; second-person singular imperative); lassinus (let us). Fâi un sacrifici al Signôr nestri Diu: to make a sacrifice to the Lord our God.

Verse 19: O sai za (I already know) che il re dal Egjit (that the king of Egypt) no us lassarà partî gran (will most certainly not let you go), a pat che une man fuarte (unless a mighty hand) no lu oblei a molâ (compels him to back down). Of obleâ, the third-person singular of the present indicative is al oblee (feminine: e oblee); its present subjunctive of the same is al oblei (feminine: e oblei). In the text of this verse, following a pat che, you find the present subjunctive e oblei.

Verse 20: Spiei is the plural of the masculine spieli (marvel, wonder). God says: pa la cuâl o slungjarai la man (so I shall extend my hand) e o vuaiarai l’Egjit (and I shall smite Egypt) cun spiei di ogni sorte (with wonders of every sort) che o fasarai framieç di lôr (which I shall perform [do] amongst them). Dopo al scugnarà lassâus lâ: after that he shall be obliged to let you go.

Versets 21-22

Vocabulary: fâ in mût che (to bring about that), la viste (sight, view), cjapâ sù di buine viste (to look favourably upon), cussì (thus, so), lâ vie (to leave, to go away), cu lis mans spacant (empty-handed), la femine (woman), stâ (to stay, to dwell), la puarte (door), la cjase (house), la robe (thing, matter, object), d’aur (of gold), d’arint (of silver), il vistît (garment), puartâ (to wear), il fi (son), la fie (daughter), netâ (to clean out, to strip, to plunder).

Verse 21: O fasarai in mût che (I shall bring about that [I shall do in manner that]) i egjizians us cjapin sù di buine viste (the Egyptians look favourably upon you [take you up in good view]) e cussì, cuant che o larês vie (and so, when you leave [will leave]), no larês cu lis mans spacant (you shall not go empty-handed). Related reading: cjapâ sù. O larês is the second-person plural of the futûr sempliç of the verb lâ. Regarding cu lis mans spacant, see the notes at Gjenesi 31:42.

Verse 22: La femine i domandarà (each woman [the woman] shall ask) a di chê che e sta puarte cun puarte ([unto] the one who dwells next door) e a di chê che e je a stâ inte sô cjase (and [unto] the one who stays in her house) robe d’aur (objects of gold), robe d’arint (objects of silver) e vistîts (and clothes). Ju fasarês puartâ ai vuestris fîs e a lis vuestris fiis: you shall put them on (you shall make wear them) your sons and daughters. O netarês i egjizians: you shall strip the Egyptians.