Friulian language series: Esodo 3, il baraçâr che al art

You will now study the Friulian text of Esodo 3, or the third chapter of the book of Exodus, where the subjects are il baraçâr che al art (the burning bush; literally, the bush that burns, from the verb ardi, meaning to burn), la mission di Mosè (the mission of Moses), la rivelazion dal Non di Diu (the revelation of the Name of God).

If you are arriving on this site for the first time, begin your study of the Friulian language here.

Read Esodo 3

To read the Friulian text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Bibie par un popul and consult Esodo 3. An archived version of the text can be found here.

Versets 1-6

Vocabulary: passonâ (to put out to pasture), la minuçarìe (flock [of sheep]), il missêr (father-in-law), il trop (flock), il predi (priest), di là di (on the other side of), il desert (desert), la mont (mount, mountain), la flame (flame), il fûc (fire), framieç di (amongst), il baraçâr (bush, shrub), comparî (to appear), un agnul (angel), cjalâ (to look at), il sterp (bush, shrub), infogât (on fire), consumâsi (to burn up), seneôs (desirous, eager, keen), sancirâsi di (to get to the bottom of), strani (strange), cemût mai che (how could it be that), rivâ dongje (to draw near, to arrive next to), di jenfri (from amongst), gjavâsi dai pîts (to remove from one’s feet), il sandul (sandal), balinâ (to pace), sant (holy), zontâ (to add), i vons (forefathers), taponâsi la muse (to cover one’s face), vê pôre (to be afraid), cjalâ in muse (to look in the face). Names: Jetro (Jethro), Oreb (Horeb).

In verse 2, you read that the angel of the Lord appeared unto Moses intune flame di fûc (in a flame of fire), framieç di un baraçâr (amongst a bush, amidst a shrub). When Moses looked at the bush, he saw that al jere dut infogât (it was all afire) ma no si consumave (but it was not getting consumed [by the flames]).

In verse 3, sancirâsi di can be taken as meaning to get to the bottom of, to make sense to oneself of, to clarify (the meaning of) to oneself. You read: o soi propit seneôs (I am keen indeed) di lâ a sancirâmi di cheste robe tant stranie (to go and clarify to myself [the meaning of] this very strange thing; to go and make sense to myself of this very strange thing). Recall that the adjective sancîr (or sincîr), which is at the base of this verb, can, depending on the context, take on the sense of lucid, clear, sober. See also the related notes at Gjenesi 9:24 and Gjenesi 42:33.

Take note, in verse 5, of how God tells Moses to take his sandals off: gjaviti i sandui dai pîts (remove the sandals from your feet).

Versets 7-12

Vocabulary: la miserie (misery), il popul (people), sintî (to hear), trop che (how much that), berlâ (to cry out, to yell), denant di (before, in front of), tignî sot (to subject; literally, to hold under), la streme (affliction), gjavâ des mans di (to deliver from the hands of), butâ in (to lead into), lunc (long), larc (wide), scori (to flow), il riul (stream), a riui (by the streamfuls), il lat (milk), la mîl (honey), jessi a stâ (to live, to dwell), cumò mo sì che (now indeed), il berli (outcry), fin li di me (all the way unto me), ce tant che (just how much that), pesâ (to weigh), fâ pesâ su (to make weigh down upon), il jôf (yoke, oppression), dal moment (immediately), mandi di (to send unto), fâ saltâ fûr (to bring forth; literally, to make come out), presentâsi (to present oneself), il segnâl (sign, signal), mostrâ (to show), preâ Diu (to pray God).

Take note of the use of trop in verse 7, where you read: o ài sintût (I have heard) trop che a berlin (how much that they call out) denant di chei che ju tegnin sot (before those who subject them). Recall that o sai, in this same verse, means I know, from the verb savê.

In verse 8, you find the plural of riul (stream), which is riui. More precisely, you find it used in the expression scori a riui, which can be understood as to flow by the streamfuls. You read: une tiere che a scorin a riui lat e mîl (a land where milk and honey flow by the streamfuls; that is, in abundance). Also in verse 8, you find the names of different peoples, all of which you have already encountered: cananeus (Canaanites), itits (Hittites), amoreus (Amorites), perissits (Perizzites), eveus (Hivites), gjebuseus (Jebusites).

Note how Friulian uses the preposition di in the following, from verse 10: jo ti mandi dal faraon (I send you unto the Pharaoh). You will find more examples of this in the next grouping of verses (13-15), where you find mandâ di vualtris (to send unto you).

In verse 11, you read: e cui sojo jo par presentâmi denant dal faraon? (and who am I to present myself before the Pharaoh?). The interrogative sojo is a spelling variant of soio, from o soi.

Take note of the use of the futûr anteriôr and futûr sempliç in verse 12: cuant che tu varâs fat saltâ fûr il popul dal Egjit (when you will have brought forth the people from Egypt), o prearês Diu sun cheste mont (you will pray God on this mountain).

fâ saltâ fûr
tu âs fat saltâ fûr
tu varâs fat saltâ fûr
to make come out
you have made come out
you will have made come out

Versets 13-15

Vocabulary: domandâ (to ask), il non (name), rispuindi (to respond), par in eterni (forever), clamâ (to call), di gjenerazion in gjenerazion (from one generation to the next).

Observe the interrogative forms in verse 13: ce non àial? (what is his name?; literally, what name has he?), ce àio di rispuindiur? (how shall I respond to them?, how am I to respond to them?; literally, what do I have to respond to them?). In ce àio di, you will recognise the use of the expression vê di, meaning to have to. To better understand this line, it might help if guillemets are added, as follows: “(…) e se lôr mi domandaran: «Ce non àial?», ce àio di rispuindiur?” (“and if they [will] ask me, ‘what is his name?’, how am I to respond to them?”).

God, in verse 14, says: jo o soi chel che al è (I am he who is). He continues: ve ce che tu âs di dîur ai israelits (this is what you have to say to the Israelites): Jo-o-soi mi à mandât di vualtris (“I am” has sent me unto you). Jo-o-soi (I am) is the name of God, as is the tetragrammaton JHWH in verse 15, transliterated from the Hebrew consonants. Know also that Jahve is the Friulian for Yahweh.

Versets 16-20

Vocabulary: clamâ dongje (to call together, to make gather), un anzian (elder), la pene (affliction), scoltâ (to listen to), la vôs (voice), il re (king), vignî incuintri (to come unto), a trê dîs di viaç (three days’ journey away), fâ un sacrifici (to make a sacrifice), no… gran (hardly, not at all), a pat che (unless), fuart (strong), obleâ (to obligate), molâ (to give in, to cede), pa la cuâl (for this reason), slungjâ (to extend), vuaiâ (to flatten), il spieli (marvel, wonder), di ogni sorte (of all sorts), scugnî (to have to, must).

In verse 17, jo us fasarai saltâ fûr des penis dal Egjit is to be understood as I shall bring you forth from the afflictions of Egypt. Lis penis is the plural of la pene, meaning affliction.

Si presentarês, from verse 18, is the second-person plural of the futûr sempliç. You read: lôr a scoltaran la tô vôs (they will listen to your voice) e si presentarês (…) dal re dal Egjit (and you will present yourselves unto the king of Egypt).

You find the present subjunctive in verse 19: a pat che une man fuarte no lu oblei a molâ (unless a strong hand obligates him to cede). The third-person singular of the present indicative of obleâ is al oblee; the present subjunctive form is al oblei.

In verse 20, spiei is the plural of spieli: cun spiei di ogni sorte (with marvels of every sort). The last sentence of this verse, dopo al scugnarà lassâus lâ, is to be understood as then he will have to let you go.

Versets 21-22

Vocabulary: fâ in mût che (to make it so that, to proceed so as to), la viste (sight, view), cjapâ sù di buine viste (to look favourably upon), lâ vie (to leave, to go away), lâ cu lis mans spacant (to go empty-handed), stâ puarte cun puarte (to live next door, to be a neighbour), d’aur (made of gold), d’arint (made of silver), il vistît (garment; the plural vistîts can be taken as clothing, clothes), netâ (to plunder, to spoil, to clean out).

In verse 21, you have a new example of how you might use the expression cjapâ sù. (If you follow the link, you can review many other uses.) The sense of it here is to accept, to receive; you find it used in the expression cjapâ sù di buine viste (to receive in a good light; that is, to look favourably upon). Farther along in the verse, o larês is the second-person plural of the futûr sempliç of the verb lâ.

In verse 22, you read: la femine i domandarà (the woman [the women] will ask) a di chê che e sta puarte cun puarte (of the one who lives next door, of the one who is her neighbour) e a di chê che e je a stâ inte sô cjase (and of the one who is dwelling in her house) robe d’aur, robe d’arint e vistîts ([for] trinkets of gold, trinkets of silver and clothing).