Friulian language series: Esodo 2, al nas Mosè

In the second chapter of the book of Exodus, you read about the birth of Moses: al nas Mosè (Moses is born). Other subjects: Mosè al scjampe in Madian (Moses flees to Midian); clamade di Mosè (call of Moses).

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Read Esodo 2

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Versets 1-5

Vocabulary: un om (man), la cjase (house), cjoli (to take), la fie (daughter), cjapâ sù (to take up), parturî (to bear), il canai (child), biel (beautiful), tignî platât (to keep hidden), par trê mês (for three months), midiant che (given that), no rivâ plui (to no longer be able), fâle francje (to get away with it), preparâ (to prepare), la ceste (basket), il papîr (papyrus), smaltâ (to caulk), il catram (tar, pitch), la pês (resin), poâ (to place, to set down; also poiâ), il frut (boy, male child), meti (to put, to place), framieç di (amongst), il vencjâr (reed), un ôr (edge, bank), il flum (river), la sûr (sister), paissâ (to lurk, to linger), un pôc (a little), plui in là (farther ahead), viodi (to see), lâ a finîle (to end up, to turn out), il faraon (pharaoh), lâ jù (to go down), rinfrescjâsi (to bathe), intant che (whilst), la sierve (maidservant, handmaid), cjaminâ sù e jù (to walk up and down), mandâ (to send), regonâ (to fetch).

Verse 1: Un om de cjase di Levi (a man of the house of Levi) al veve cjolte* une fie di Levi (had taken {for wife} a daughter of Levi). *Cjolte: note the feminine form taken by the past participle cjolt to agree with the feminine fie following it.

Verse 2: Chê e cjapà sù e i parturì un canai: she conceived (took up) and bore a child to him. Viodint che al jere masse biel (upon seeing that he was very beautiful [seeing that he was too beautiful]), lu tignì platât par trê mês (she kept him hidden for three months).

Verse 3: Fâle francje means to get away with it, to pull it off; this expression uses the feminine singular direct object le, with the adjective franc in agreement with it as francje. You read: midiant che no rivave plui a fâle francje (given that she was no longer able to get away with it); what she was no longer able to get away with was keeping the infant hidden. Supplementary examples of fâle francje: no i sarà facil di fâle francje (it will not be easy for him to get away with it); cheste volte o soi rivât a fâle francje (this time I have managed to get away with it). The text continues: e preparà une ceste di papîr (she prepared a papyrus basket), le smaltà di catram e di pês (caulked it with pitch and resin), e poà dentri il frut (put the child in it) e le metè framieç dai vencjârs (and placed it amongst the reeds) sul ôr dal flum (on the riverbank; on the bank of the river).

Verse 4: La sûr dal frut *si metè a* paissâ un pôc plui in là (the child’s sister went to linger a little farther ahead), par viodi cemût ch’e leve a finîle (to see how things would turn out; to see what would happen; to see what would come to pass). *Literally, metisi a translates as to set/put oneself to; the sense of it is to start/undertake (doing something).

Verse 5: La fie dal faraon e lè jù tal flum (the daughter of Pharaoh went down to the river) a rinfrescjâsi (to bathe) intant che lis sôs siervis a cjaminavin sù e jù sul or dal flum (whilst her maidservants walked [were walking] up and down the riverbank [up and down on the bank of the river]). E viodè la ceste framieç dai vencjârs (she saw the basket amongst the reeds) *e e mandà* la sô sierve a regonâle (and sent her maidservant to fetch it). *E e mandà: the first e means and, whereas the second e is the atonic subject pronoun of the feminine singular: e [] e mandà.

Versets 6-10

Vocabulary: daviergi (to open; also davierzi), viodi (to see), il canai (child), il frutin (baby boy), blecâ (to cry, to wail), il dûl (sympathy, pity), fâ dûl (to move to pity), ebreu (Hebrew), la sûr (sister), il frut (boy, male child), la fie (daughter), il faraon (pharaoh), volê (to want), lâ a cirî (to go seek, to go look for), la bae (wet nurse; also baie), framieç di (amongst), la femine (wife), la tete (breast), dâ di tete (to nurse, to breastfeed, to suckle), rispuindi (to respond), la fantate (girl), la mari (mother), puartâ vie (to take away), fâ la pae (to pay one’s wages; also paie), in persone (personally), dispatussâ (to wean), tornâ a puartâ (to bring back), tignî (to keep), il non (name), meti non (to name), tirâ fûr di (to take/draw out of), la aghe (water).

Verse 6: Le daviergè e e viodè il canai (she opened it and saw the child): al jere un frutin che al blecave (it was a wailing baby boy [it was a baby boy who was wailing]). I fasè dûl (she took pity on him [he caused (made) pity unto her]) e e disè (and said): al è un frut ebreu (this is a Hebrew child).

Verse 7: Alore la sûr dal frut i disè a la fie dal faraon (the child’s sister then said to the daughter of Pharaoh): *vûstu che o ledi* a cirîti une bae (shall I [do you want me to] go seek a wet nurse for you) framieç des feminis dai ebreus (from amongst the wives of the Hebrews), che i dedi di tete a di chest frut? (who may suckle this child [who may give breast to this child]?). *Vûstu che o ledi: literally, do you want that I go; observe: tu tu vûs (you want); jo o voi (I go); vûstu? (do you want?); vûstu che o ledi? (do you want me to go [do you want that I go]?). O ledi is in present subjunctive form (its present indicative equivalent is o voi); the subjunctive is used with volê che (to want that).

Verse 8: Va, i rispuindè la fie dal faraon: go, responded to her the daughter of Pharaoh. Alore la fantate e lè a cirî la mari dal frut: so the girl went to seek the child’s mother.

Verse 9: I disè la fie dal faraon (the daughter of Pharaoh said to her): puarte vie chest canai e dai di tete (take this child along and suckle it [give breast to it]). Ti fasarai la pae jo in persone: I myself will pay your wages.

Verse 10: Cuant che il frut al fo dispatussât (when the child was weaned), jê jal* tornà a puartâ a la fie dal faraon (she brought him back to the daughter of Pharaoh), che lu tignì come che al fos stât so (who kept him as though he were her own) e i metè non Mosè (and she named him Moses [and unto him did she put {the} name Moses]), parcè che, e disè: lu ài tirât fûr des aghis (for, {as} she said: I drew him out of the waters). *Jal is a contraction of i + lu, where lu stands in for the masculine frut.

Versets 11-15

Vocabulary: intant (in the meantime), il timp (time), passâ (to pass, to elapse), deventâ grant (to grow up), lâ a viodi di (to go see to), fâ vitis (to suffer), un egjizian (Egyptian), dâi a di un (to beat/strike someone), il fradi (brother), cjalâ ator (to look about), la anime (soul), aventi (there), copâ (to kill), taponâ (to cover, to bury), il savalon (sand), tal indoman (the next day), tornâ a saltâ fûr (to go/come back out), juste cuant che (just as), pacâ (to beat, to hit, to strike), fra di lôr (amongst themselves), il compagn (fellow), domandâ (to ask), implantâ (to initiate), la barufe (fight, row), rispuindi (to respond), il dirit (right), permetisi (to permit oneself), comandâ (to order, to command), fâ sentence (to judge), la voe (will, want; also voie), fâ fûr (to kill), scaturît (frightened, disconcerted), dentri di sè (within himself), sigûr che (surely), aromai (by now), la robe (matter), savê (to know), il faraon (pharaoh), fevelâ (to speak), sintî a fevelâ di (to hear word of), la cuistion (matter), cirî di (to try to, to seek to), fuî (to flee), lontan di (far from), la regjon (region), sentâsi (to sit down), daprûf di (by, alongside), il poç (well).

Verse 11: Intant il timp al passave (in the meanwhile time passed [was passing]) e Mosè, che al jere deventât za grant (and Moses, who had now grown up), al lè a viodi dai siei fradis (went to see to his brethren; went to look upon his brethren). Lis vitis means struggles, suffering, exertion; fâ vitis, to suffer; and fâ fâ vitis, to cause to suffer, to make suffer: al viodè lis vitis che ur fasevin fâ (he saw how they were made to suffer [he saw the exertion that unto them they were causing (doing) to do]). In the following, is to be taken as to beat, to strike: al viodè ancje un egjizian (he also saw an Egyptian) che i dave a di un ebreu (who was beating a Hebrew), un dai siei fradis (one of his brethren). This use of might be likened to the colloquial English to give it, as in he was giving it to a Hebrew; he was laying into a Hebrew, which is to say, he was beating a Hebrew; he was striking a Hebrew.

Verse 12: Al cjalà ator e (he looked about and), viodint che no ’nd jere anime aventi (seeing that there was not a soul there), al copà l’egjizian e lu taponà sot dal savalon (he killed the Egyptian and buried him under the sand).

Verse 13: Tal indoman (the next day) al tornà a saltâ fûr juste cuant che doi ebreus si pacavin fra di lôr (he went back out just as two Hebrews were fighting one another). You again encounter the verb used in the sense of to beat, to strike; the text continues: parcè mo i dâstu al to compagn? (why ever are you beating your fellow?) i domandà a di chel (he asked the one) che al veve implantade la barufe (who had started the row).

Verse 14: Chel i rispuindè: he (that one) responded; chel refers to the Hebrew who had started the row, who then says to Moses: cun ce dirit ti permetistu (what gives you the right [with what right do you permit yourself]) di comandânus (to order us about) e di fâ sentence? (and to judge us?). Âstu voe di copâmi ancje me come che tu âs fat fûr l’egjizian?: will you (do you want to) kill me too, as you killed the Egyptian? Dissal Mosè dut scaturît dentri di sè: taken aback, Moses thought to himself (Moses said within himself all disconcerted). You find the third-person plural of the presint indicatîf of the verb savê (to know) in the words thought by Moses: sigûr che aromai la robe le san ducj (the matter is now surely known by all).

Verse 15: Il faraon al sintì a fevelâ di cheste cuistion (Pharaoh heard word [heard speak] of this matter) e al cirive di fâ fûr Mosè (and sought [was seeking] to kill Moses). Mosè alore al fuì lontan dal faraon (so Moses fled far from Pharaoh); al lè te regjon di Madian e si sentà daprûf di un poç (he went to the region of Midian and sat down by a well).

Versets 16-22

Vocabulary: aventi (there), il predi (priest), siet (seven), la fie (daughter), urî (to draw {water}), jemplâ (to fill), il laip (trough), imbeverâ (to water, to give water to; of animals), la robe minude (small livestock, flocks, sheep), il pari (father), rivâ (to arrive, to come), un pôcs di (some, a number of), il pastôr (shepherd), parâ vie (to drive away), jevâ sù (to arise), (to give), la man (hand), il besteam minût (small livestock, flocks, sheep), tornâ indaûr (to go back), domandâ (to ask), cemût mai che (how is it that, why ever is it that), vûe (today), adore (early), rispuindi (to respond), un egjizian (Egyptian), gjavâ fûr di (to deliver/rescue from), la sgrife (claw), la minuçarìe (flocks, sheep), lassâ dibessôl (to leave on one’s own), invidâ (to invite), cjoli une bocjade (to have something to eat), acetâ (to accept, to consent), sistemâsi (to settle), dongje di (alongside), un om (man), parturî (to bear), il frut (boy, male child), meti non (to name), il forest (foreigner, outsider), la tiere foreste (foreign land).

Verse 16: Aventi al jere un predi di Madian (there was a priest of Midian there), che al veve siet fiis (who had seven daughters). In the following, the feminine plural chês refers to the daughters of the priest: chês a vignirin a urî (they came to draw) e a jemplâ i laips (and to fill the troughs) par imbeverâ la robe minude di lôr pari (as to water the flocks of their father).

Verse 17: A rivarin ancje un pôcs* di pastôrs (some shepherds arrived; a number of shepherds came) e lis+ pararin vie (and drove them off; and drove them away). *Pôcs is pronounced pôs. +Lis: feminine plural; it is the daughters who were driven away by the shepherds. Moses comes to the defence of the daughters: Mosè al jevà sù (Moses arose) par dâur une man (to assist them [to lend (give) them a hand]) e al imbeverà il besteam minût (and he watered the flock).

Verse 18: Cuant che a tornarin indaûr (when they went back), lôr pari, Reuel, ur domandà (their father Reuel asked them): cemût mai che (how ever is it that) vuê (today) o tornais cussì adore? (you come back so early?).

Verse 19: The plural sgrifis (claws) can be taken figuratively here as clutches. I rispuinderin: un egjizian nus à gjavadis fûr des sgrifis dai pastôrs (they responded to him: an Egyptian rescued us from the clutches of the shepherds); al à ancje urît par nô (he also drew for us) e nus à imbeverade dute la minuçarìe (and watered the entire flock for us; and watered all the sheep for us).

Verse 20: Là esal cumò?, ur domandà a lis fiis (where is he now?, he asked his daughters), parcè po vêso lassât chest om dibessôl? (why ever did you leave this man on his own?). Invidaitlu a cjoli une bocjade: invite him to have something to eat.

Verse 21: Mosè al acetà di sistemâsi dongje di chest om (Moses consented to settle alongside this man), che i dè ancje sô fie Zipore (who also gave him his daughter Zipporah {for wife}).

Verse 22: Chê e parturì un frut (she bore a son [boy]) che lui i metè non Gherson (whom he named Gershom [unto whom he put {the} name Gershom]), parcè che, dissal (for, {as} he said): jo o soi un forest in tiere foreste (I am a foreigner in a foreign land).

Versets 23-25

Vocabulary: intant (in the meantime), passâ (to pass, to elapse), une vore di (a great deal of), il timp (time), il re (king), l’Egjit (Egypt), murî (to die), un israelit (Israelite), gemi (to groan; also zemi), la sclavitût (slavery, enslavement, bondage), berlâ (to yell, to cry out), clamâ (to call), il jutori (help), il berli (outcry, yell), dal font di (by reason of, on account of, owing to), lâ sù infint a Diu (to go up to God), sintî (to hear), il gemit (groan), visâsi di (to remember), il pat (covenant, pact), viodi (to see), capî (to understand).

Verse 23: Intant al passà une vore di timp (meanwhile a great deal of time went by), e ancje il re dal Egjit al murì (and the king of Egypt died also). I israelits a gemevin (the Israelites were groaning) pe sclavitût che a vevin (on account of the bondage to which they had been subjected [for the bondage that they were having]) e berlant (and in crying out) a clamavin jutori (they called [were calling] for help) e i lôr berlis (and their outcries), dal font de lôr sclavitût (by reason of their bondage), a lerin sù infint a Diu (went all the way up to God).

Verse 24: Diu al sintì i lôr gemits (God heard their groans); si visà dal pat che al veve fat (he remembered the covenant that he had made) cun Abram, cun Isac e cun Jacop (with Abraham, Isaac and Jacob).

Verse 25: Diu al viodè i israelits (God saw the Israelites) e Diu al capì (and God understood).