Friulian language series: Esodo 1, sclavitût dai ebreus


Ve chi i nons

With this begins study of the Friulian language through the book of Exodus, or il libri dal Esodo. In this post, the reader will study the contents of Esodo 1, which is the first chapter of the book of Exodus, and where the subject is: la sclavitût dai ebreus (the slavery of the Hebrews).

In this Exodus study, it is assumed that the reader has already worked his way through the entire book of Genesis in Friulian. Should he not have already done so, he ought to begin study of the Friulian language here. The study notes provided for the book of Exodus take the same form as those already provided for the book of Genesis. Given the absence of advanced bilingual Friulian-English and monolingual Friulian dictionaries, I continue to list important Friulian vocabulary for reference.

Read Esodo 1

To read the Friulian text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Bibie par un popul and consult Esodo 1. An archived version of the text is found here.

Versets 1-7

Vocabulary: ve chi (these are), il non (name), un israelite (Israelite), lâ jù (to go down), l’Egjit (Egypt), ognidun (each), la int (people), la gjernazie (line), in dut (in all), setante (seventy), la persone (person), invezit (as for), za (already), murî (to die), compagn di (like), dut (all), il fradi (brother), la gjenerazion (generation), cressi (to increase), multiplicâsi (to multiply oneself), slargjâsi (to broaden oneself), il numar (number), la fuarce (might), fint a (until), jemplâ (to fill), la tiere (land).

Verses 1-4: Ve chi i nons dai israelits che a son lâts jù in Egjit cun Jacop (these are the names of the Israelites who went down into Egypt with Jacob); a son lâts jù ognidun cu la sô int (they each went down with their people): Ruben, Simeon, Levi e Gjude (Reuben, Simeon, Levi and Judah), Issacar, Zabulon e Beniamin (Issachar, Zebulun and Benjamin), Dan e Neftali (Dan and Naphtali), Gad e Aser (Gad and Asher).

Verse 5: La gjernazie di Jacop (the line of Jacob) a jerin in dut setante personis (were in all seventy people). Josef, invezit (as for Joseph), al jere za in Egjit (he was already in Egypt).

Verse 6: Po Josef al murì e (then Joseph died and), compagn di lui (like him), ducj i siei fradis e dute chê gjenerazion (all his brethren and all that generation).

Verse 7: I israelits a cresserin e si multiplicarin (the Israelites increased and multiplied themselves), si slargjarin di numar e di fuarce (broadened themselves in number and might), fint a jemplâ dute la tiere dal Egjit (until filling all the land of Egypt).

Versets 8-14

Vocabulary: montâ sù (to ascend), gnûf (new), il re (king), cognossi (to know), (to say), il popul (people), cjalâ (to look {upon}), chi (hither), la gjernazie (line), un ebreu (Hebrew), plui (more), ancje (also), fuart (mighty), (to do, to make), coventâ (to be necessary), inibî (to bar), cressi (to increase), ancjemò (yet), senò (otherwise), il câs (case), la vuere (war), (to go), il grum (heap), il nemì (enemy), combati (to fight), podê (to be able), dopo (afterwards), scjampâ (to flee), meti (to put), il sorestant (chief), tibiâ (to downtrod), lis voris (tasks), dûr (hard), fâ sù (to rear), il faraon (pharaoh), la citât-dipuesit (deposit city), la vite (life), impussibil (impossible), multiplicâsi (to multiply oneself), il numar (number), scomençâ (to start), cjapâ (to take), la pôre (fear), un egjizian (Egyptian), obleâ (to compel), lavorâ (to work), lis vitis (toilings), crodi (to believe), il piês (worst), preparâ (to prepare), l’argile (clay), il stamp (form), il modon (brick), dibot (well-nigh), dut (all), il cjamp (field), ogni (every), la sorte (sort), meti (to put), il pît (foot), il cuel (neck).

Verse 8: In Egjit al montà sù un gnûf re (in Egypt did ascend a new king), che nol veve cognossût Josef (who had not known Joseph).

Verse 9: I disè al so popul (he said unto his people): cjalait chi la gjernazie dai ebreus (look hither upon the line of the Hebrews): a son plui di nô e ancje plui fuarts (they are more than we and also mightier).

Verse 10: Dai, fasìn ce che al covente (come, let us do that which is necessary) par inibîur di cressi ancjemò (to bar them from increasing yet), senò, in câs di vuere (otherwise in the case of war), *a laressin* a fâ grum cui nestris nemîs (they would go +join up+ with our enemies). A combataressin cuintri di nô (they would fight against us) par podê, dopo, scjampâ (to be able, afterwards, to flee). — *Third-person plural of the condizionâl presint of the verb lâ, the complete conjugation whereof the reader will find below for reference; another instance of the condizionâl presint is found with a combataressin. +literally, make heap

Condizionâl presint
Present conditional

o larès
tu laressis
al larès

e larès

o laressin
o laressis
a laressin

Verse 11: Alore i meterin a Israel sorestants (then they put unto Israel chiefs) che ju tibiavin (who would downtrod them) fasintiur* fâ lis voris plui duris (in making them do the hardest tasks). E cussì al fasè sù pal faraon (and so they+ reared for the pharaoh) lis citâts-dipuesit di Pitom e Ramses (the deposit cities of Pithom and Ramses). — *See the note at verses 13-14. +Literally, it, put for the masculine singular Israel, which is to say, the people.

Verse 12: Ma plui si ur faseve la vite impussibil (but the more life would be made impossible for them) e plui il popul si multiplicave e al cresseve di numar (the more the people would multiply themselves and increase in number): a scomençarin a cjapâ pôre dai israelits (they started to take fear of the Israelites).

Verses 13-14: I egjizians a oblearin i ebreus a lavorâ (the Egyptians compelled the Hebrews to work) e ur faserin fâ vitis di no crodi cu lis piês voris (and made them do unbelievable toilings with the worst tasks): preparâ l’argile (preparing the clay); fâ il stamp dai modons (making the form of the bricks); dibot dutis lis voris dai cjamps (well-nigh all the tasks of the fields), ogni sorte di voris che ju obleavin (every sort of tasks whereunto they would compel them) *metintiur il pît sul cuel* (in putting their feet upon their necks). — *Taken apart: metintiur (in putting unto them) il pît (the foot) sul cuel (upon the neck). Note the forms fasintiur (verse 11) and metintiur (verse 14), where an i has been inserted between the present participle and ur.

Versets 15-22

Vocabulary: il re (king), la comari (midwife), la femine (woman), un ebreu (Hebrew), il non (name), altri (other), poiâsi (to set oneself down), parturî (to bear), cjalâ (to look {upon}), ben (well), la piere (stone), il mascjo (male), copâ (to kill), la frute (female child), lassâ (to leave), la vite (life), il timôr (fear), ordenâ (to order), il faraon (pharaoh), ancje (also), mandâ (to send), clamâ (to call), (to say), cussì (so), rispuindi (to respond), compagn di (like), un egjizian (Egyptian), in podê (capable), prime (before), ancjemò (yet), rivâ (to arrive), biel (fine), distrigâsi (to finish up), (to give), la furtune (fortune), rivuart a (in regard unto), deventâ (to become), il furmiâr (ants’ nest), la int (people), fuart (mighty), la pôre (fear), midiant che (given that), la gjernazie (line), un ordin (order), dut (all), il popul (people), ogni (every), nassi (to be born), butâ (to cast), il flum (river), però (but), sparagnâ (to spare).

Verses 15-16: Il re dal Egjit ur disè a lis comaris (the king of Egypt said unto the midwives) des feminis dai ebreus (of the women of the Hebrews), che a vevin non une Sifre e chê altre Pue (who had for name the one Shiphrah and that other Puah): cuant che lis feminis dai ebreus si poiaran par parturî (when the women of the Hebrews will set themselves down to bear), cjalait ben lis dôs pieris (look well upon the two stones). Se al è un mascjo (if it be a male), copaitlu (kill him); se e je une frute (if it be a female child), lassaitle in vite (leave her in life).

Verse 17: Ma lis comaris a vevin timôr di Diu (but the midwives had fear of God) e no faserin ce che ur veve ordenât il faraon (and did not that which the pharaoh had ordered them) e a lassarin in vite ancje i mascjos (and left in life also the males).

Verse 18: Il re dal Egjit lis mandà a clamâ (the king of Egypt sent to call them) e ur disè (and said unto them): parcè vêso fat cussì (why have ye done so) e lassât in vite i mascjos? (and left in life the males?).

Verse 19: I rispuinderin al faraon (they responded unto the pharaoh): lis feminis dai ebreus no son compagnis di chês dai egjizians (the women of the Hebrews are not like those of the Egyptians): a son plui in podê (they are more capable). Prime ancjemò ch’e rivi la comari (yet before the midwife arrive), lôr si son biel distrigadis (they are finished up fine).

Verse 20: Diu ur dè furtune a lis comaris (God gave fortune unto the midwives); rivuart al popul (in regard unto the people), al deventà un furmiâr di int (they became *an ants’ nest of people*) e fuart di fâ pôre (and fearsomely mighty). — *The use of this expression finds its source in the Friulian language, not the Hebrew; an ants’ nest of people is, of course, a great number of people.

Verse 21: Midiant che lis comaris a vevin vût timôr di Diu (given that the midwives had had fear of God), ur dè une gjernazie ancje a lôr (he gave a line also unto them).

Verse 22: Alore il faraon i dè chest ordin a dut il so popul (then the pharaoh gave this order unto all his people): ogni mascjo che al nassarà butaitlu tal flum (every male which will be born, cast him into the river); però sparagnait lis frutis (but spare the female children).