Friulian language series: Esodo 1, sclavitût dai ebreus


Ve chi i nons

With this begins your study of the Friulian language through the book of Exodus, or il libri dal Esodo. In this post, you will study the contents of Esodo 1, which is the first chapter of the book of Exodus, and where the subject is: la sclavitût dai ebreus (the slavery of the Hebrews).

In this Exodus study, it is assumed that you have already worked your way through the entire book of Genesis in Friulian. If you have not done so, begin your study of the Friulian language here. The study notes provided for the book of Exodus take much the same form as those already provided for the book of Genesis. Given the absence of advanced bilingual Friulian-English and monolingual Friulian dictionaries, I continue to list important Friulian vocabulary for your reference.

Read Esodo 1

To read the Friulian text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Bibie par un popul and consult Esodo 1. An archived version of the text is found here.

Versets 1-7

Vocabulary: ve chi (these are), il non (name), un israelite (Israelite), lâ jù (to go down), l’Egjit (Egypt), ognidun (each), la int (people), la gjernazie (line), in dut (in all), setante (seventy), la persone (person), invezit (as for), za (already), murî (to die), compagn di (like), dut (all), il fradi (brother), la gjenerazion (generation), cressi (to increase), multiplicâsi (to multiply oneself), slargjâsi (to broaden oneself), il numar (number), la fuarce (might), fint a (until), jemplâ (to fill), la tiere (land).

Verses 1-4: Ve chi i nons dai israelits che a son lâts jù in Egjit cun Jacop (these are the names of the Israelites who went down into Egypt with Jacob); a son lâts jù ognidun cu la sô int (they each went down with their people): Ruben, Simeon, Levi e Gjude (Reuben, Simeon, Levi and Judah), Issacar, Zabulon e Beniamin (Issachar, Zebulun and Benjamin), Dan e Neftali (Dan and Naphtali), Gad e Aser (Gad and Asher).

Verse 5: La gjernazie di Jacop (the line of Jacob) a jerin in dut setante personis (were in all seventy people). Josef, invezit (as for Joseph), al jere za in Egjit (he was already in Egypt).

Verse 6: Po Josef al murì e (then Joseph died and), compagn di lui (like him), ducj i siei fradis e dute chê gjenerazion (all his brethren and all that generation).

Verse 7: I israelits a cresserin e si multiplicarin (the Israelites increased and multiplied themselves), si slargjarin di numar e di fuarce (broadened themselves in number and might), fint a jemplâ dute la tiere dal Egjit (until filling all the land of Egypt).

Versets 8-14

Vocabulary: montâ sù (to ascend), gnûf (new), il re (king), cognossi (to know), (to say), il popul (people), cjalâ (to look {upon}), chi (hither), la gjernazie (line), un ebreu (Hebrew), plui (more), ancje (also), fuart (mighty), (to do, to make), coventâ (to be necessary), inibî (to bar), cressi (to increase), ancjemò (yet), senò (otherwise), il câs (case), la vuere (war), (to go), il grum (heap), il nemì (enemy), combati (to fight), podê (to be able), dopo (afterwards), scjampâ (to flee), meti (to put), il sorestant (chief), tibiâ (to downtrod), lis voris (tasks), dûr (hard), fâ sù (to rear), il faraon (pharaoh), la citât-dipuesit (deposit city), la vite (life), impussibil (impossible), multiplicâsi (to multiply oneself), il numar (number), scomençâ (to start), cjapâ (to take), la pôre (fear), un egjizian (Egyptian), obleâ (to compel), lavorâ (to work), lis vitis (toilings), crodi (to believe), il piês (worst), preparâ (to prepare), l’argile (clay), il stamp (form), il modon (brick), dibot (well-nigh), dut (all), il cjamp (field), ogni (every), la sorte (sort), meti (to put), il pît (foot), il cuel (neck).

Verse 8: In Egjit al montà sù un gnûf re (in Egypt did ascend a new king), che nol veve cognossût Josef (who had not known Joseph).

Verse 9: I disè al so popul (he said to his people): cjalait chi la gjernazie dai ebreus (look hither upon the line of the Hebrews): a son plui di nô e ancje plui fuarts (they are more than us and also mightier).

Verse 10: Dai, fasìn ce che al covente (come, let us do that which is necessary) par inibîur di cressi ancjemò (to bar them from increasing yet), senò, in câs di vuere (otherwise in the case of war), *a laressin* a fâ grum cui nestris nemîs (they would go join up [make heap] with our enemies). A combataressin cuintri di nô (they would fight against us) par podê, dopo, scjampâ (to be able, afterwards, to flee). — *Third-person plural of the condizionâl presint of the verb lâ, the complete conjugation whereof you will find below for reference; another instance of the condizionâl presint is found with a combataressin.

Condizionâl presint
Present conditional

o larès
tu laressis
al larès

e larès

o laressin
o laressis
a laressin

Verse 11: Alore i meterin a Israel sorestants (then they put unto Israel chiefs) che ju tibiavin (who would downtrod them) fasintiur* fâ lis voris plui duris (in making them do the hardest tasks). E cussì al fasè sù pal faraon (and so they+ reared for the pharaoh) lis citâts-dipuesit di Pitom e Ramses (the deposit cities of Pithom and Ramses). — *See the note at verses 13-14. +Literally, it, put for the masculine singular Israel, which is to say, the people.

Verse 12: Ma plui si ur faseve la vite impussibil (but the more life would be made impossible for them) e plui il popul si multiplicave e al cresseve di numar (the more the people would multiply themselves and increase in number): a scomençarin a cjapâ pôre dai israelits (they started to take fear of the Israelites).

Verses 13-14: I egjizians a oblearin i ebreus a lavorâ (the Egyptians compelled the Hebrews to work) e ur faserin fâ vitis di no crodi cu lis piês voris (and made them do unbelievable toilings with the worst tasks): preparâ l’argile (preparing the clay); fâ il stamp dai modons (making the form of the bricks); dibot dutis lis voris dai cjamps (well-nigh all the tasks of the fields), ogni sorte di voris che ju obleavin (every sort of tasks to which they would compel them) metintiur+ il pît sul cuel (in putting their feet upon their necks [in putting unto them the foot upon the neck]). — *Note the forms fasintiur (verse 11) and metintiur (verse 14), where an i has been inserted between the present participle and ur.

Versets 15-22

Vocabulary: il re (king), la comari (midwife), la femine (woman), un ebreu (Hebrew), il non (name), altri (other), poiâsi (to set oneself down), parturî (to bear), cjalâ (to look {upon}), ben (well), la piere (stone), il mascjo (male), copâ (to kill), la frute (female child), lassâ (to leave), la vite (life), il timôr (fear), ordenâ (to order), il faraon (pharaoh), ancje (also), mandâ (to send), clamâ (to call), (to say), cussì (so), rispuindi (to respond), compagn di (like), un egjizian (Egyptian), in podê (capable), prime (before), ancjemò (yet), rivâ (to arrive), biel (fine), distrigâsi (to finish up), (to give), la furtune (fortune), rivuart a (in regard to), deventâ (to become), il furmiâr (ants’ nest), la int (people), fuart (mighty), la pôre (fear), midiant che (given that), la gjernazie (line), un ordin (order), dut (all), il popul (people), ogni (every), nassi (to be born), butâ (to cast), il flum (river), però (but), sparagnâ (to spare).

Verses 15-16: Il re dal Egjit ur disè a lis comaris (the king of Egypt said to the midwives) des feminis dai ebreus (of the women of the Hebrews), che a vevin non une Sifre e chê altre Pue (who had for name the one Shiphrah and that other Puah): cuant che lis feminis dai ebreus si poiaran par parturî (when the women of the Hebrews set [will set] themselves down to bear), cjalait ben lis dôs pieris (look well upon the two stones). Se al è un mascjo (if it is a male), copaitlu (kill him); se e je une frute (if it is a female child), lassaitle in vite (leave her in life).

Verse 17: Ma lis comaris a vevin timôr di Diu (but the midwives had fear of God) e no faserin ce che ur veve ordenât il faraon (and did not that which the pharaoh had ordered them) e a lassarin in vite ancje i mascjos (and left in life also the males).

Verse 18: Il re dal Egjit lis mandà a clamâ (the king of Egypt sent to call them) e ur disè (and said to them): parcè vêso fat cussì (why have you done so) e lassât in vite i mascjos? (and left in life the males?).

Verse 19: I rispuinderin al faraon (they responded to the pharaoh): lis feminis dai ebreus no son compagnis di chês dai egjizians (the women of the Hebrews are not like those of the Egyptians): a son plui in podê (they are more capable). Prime ancjemò ch’e rivi la comari (yet before the midwife arrives), lôr si son biel distrigadis (they have finished up fine).

Verse 20: Diu ur dè furtune a lis comaris (God gave fortune to the midwives); rivuart al popul (in regard to the people), al deventà un furmiâr di int (they became an ants’ nest of people) e fuart di fâ pôre (and fearsomely mighty).

Verse 21: Midiant che lis comaris a vevin vût timôr di Diu (given that the midwives had had fear of God), ur dè une gjernazie ancje a lôr (he gave a line also to them).

Verse 22: Alore il faraon i dè chest ordin a dut il so popul (then the pharaoh gave this order to all his people): ogni mascjo che al nassarà butaitlu tal flum (every male which is [will be] born, cast him into the river); però sparagnait lis frutis (but spare the female children).