Friulian language series: Esodo 1, sclavitût dai ebreus


Ve chi i nons

This post begins your study of the Friulian language through the book of Exodus, or il libri dal Esodo. In this post, you will study the contents of Esodo 1, which is the first chapter of the book of Exodus, and where the subject is: la sclavitût dai ebreus (enslavement of the Hebrews).

In this Exodus study, it is assumed that you have already worked your way through the entire book of Genesis in Friulian. If you have not already done so, begin your study of the Friulian language here. The study notes provided for the book of Exodus take much the same form as those already provided for the book of Genesis. Given the absence of advanced bilingual Friulian-English and monolingual Friulian dictionaries, I continue to list important Friulian vocabulary for your reference.

Read Esodo 1

To read the Friulian text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Bibie par un popul and consult Esodo 1. An archived version of the text can be found here.

Versets 1-7

Vocabulary: il non (name), un israelite (Israelite), lâ jù (to go down), l’Egjit (m., Egypt), ognidun (each one), la int (people), la gjernazie (offspring), in dut (in all), setante (seventy), la persone (person), invezit (on the other hand, whereas), za (already), murî (to die), compagn di (just like, identical to), il fradi (brother), la gjenerazion (generation), cressi (to grow, to increase), multiplicâsi (to multiply oneself, to increase; also moltiplicâsi), slargjâsi di numar (to broaden/increase in number), la fuarce (force, strength), fint a (until), jemplâ (to fill), la tiere (land, earth).

Verses 1-4: Ve chi i nons dai israelits che a son lâts jù in Egjit cun Jacop (these are the names of the Israelites who went down to Egypt with Jacob); a son lâts jù ognidun cu la sô int (they each went down with their people): Ruben (Reuben), Simeon (Simeon), Levi (Levi) e Gjude (and Judah), Issacar (Issachar), Zabulon (Zebulun) e Beniamin (and Benjamin), Dan (Dan) e Neftali (and Naphtali), Gad (Gad) e Aser (and Asher).

Verse 5: La gjernazie di Jacop a jerin in dut setante personis: the offspring of Jacob were seventy people in all. Josef, invezit, al jere za in Egjit: as for Joseph, he was already in Egypt; Joseph, on the other hand, was already in Egypt.

Verse 6: Po Josef al murì e (then Joseph died and), compagn di lui (just like him), ducj i siei fradis e dute chê gjenerazion (all his brothers and all that generation).

Verse 7: I israelits a cresserin e si multiplicarin (the Israelites increased and multiplied), si slargjarin di numar e di fuarce ({and} broadened themselves in number and strength), fint a jemplâ dute la tiere dal Egjit (until they had filled [until filling] all the land of Egypt).

Versets 8-14

Vocabulary: montâ sù (to arise), gnûf (new), il re (king), cognossi (to know), il popul (people), cjalâ (to look), un ebreu (Hebrew), fuart (strong, mighty), coventâ (to be necessary), inibî (to inhibit, to prevent), in câs di (in the event of), la vuere (war), fâ grum cun (to join up with), il nemì (enemy, foe), combati (to fight, to battle), scjampâ (to flee, to escape), il sorestant (chief), tibiâ (to oppress), la vore (work), dûr (difficult), fâ sù (to build, to erect), il dipuesit (depository), la citât-dipuesit (store city), fâi la vite impussibil a (to make life impossible for), cjapâ pôre (to take fright/fear), un egjizian (Egyptian), obleâ (to obligate, to compel), lavorâ (to work, to labour), fâ vitis (to suffer), di no crodi (unbelievably), piês (worse), l’argile (clay), il stamp (form), il modon (brick), dibot (almost), il cjamp (field), ogni sorte di (every sort of), meti il pît sul cuel (to compel, to constrain, to force).

Verse 8: In Egjit al montà sù un gnûf re (a new king arose in Egypt) che nol veve cognossût Josef (who had not known Joseph).

Verse 9: I disè al so popul (he said to his people): cjalait chi la gjernazie dai ebreus (look here at the offspring of the Hebrews): a son plui di nô e ancje plui fuarts (they are more numerous than us [they are more than us] and also more powerful).

Verse 10: Dai*, fasìn ce che al covente (go to, let us do what is necessary) par inibîur di cressi ancjemò (to prevent them from increasing yet more) senò, in câs di vuere (otherwise, in the event of war), ¬a laressin¬ a fâ grum+ cui nestris nemîs (they would go join up with our enemies). A combataressin cuintri di nô (they would fight against us) par podê, dopo, scjampâ (as to escape afterwards). *Dai: an interjection meaning go to, come on. ¬A laressin: third-person plural of the condizionâl presint of the verb lâ, the complete conjugation of which you will find below for your reference; you find another example of the condizionâl presint with a combataressin. +The masculine grum is the Friulian for heap, pile; the expression fâ grum cun is to be taken as meaning to join up with.

Condizionâl presint
Present conditional

o larès
tu laressis
al larès

e larès

o laressin
o laressis
a laressin

Verse 11: Alore i meterin a Israel sorestants (so they put chiefs over Israel [unto Israel]) che ju tibiavin fasintiur* fâ lis voris plui duris (who oppressed them by making them perform [by making unto them do] the most difficult tasks). E cussì +al fasè+ sù pal faraon lis citâts-dipuesit di Pitom e Ramses: and thus did they build (and thus did it build) for Pharaoh the store cities of Pithom and Ramses. *Fasintiur: see the note at verses 13-14. +Al fasè: agrees with the masculine singular Israel.

Verse 12: Take note of how Friulian uses plui… e plui to express what English does with the more… the more: ma plui si ur faseve la vite impussibil (but the more life was made impossible for them [unto them]) e plui il popul si multiplicave e al cresseve di numar (the more the people would multiply and increase in number): a scomençarin a cjapâ pôre dai israelits (they began to take fear of the Israelites).

Verses 13-14: I egjizians a oblearin i ebreus a lavorâ (the Egyptians compelled the Hebrews to work) e ur faserin fâ vitis di no crodi cu lis piês* voris (and made them suffer unbelievably with the worst tasks): preparâ l’argile (preparing the clay); fâ il stamp dai modons (forming the bricks); dibot dutis lis voris dai cjamps (almost all the labours of the fields); ogni sorte di voris che ju obleavin metintiur+ il pît sul cuel (every sort of tasks to which they would compel them by putting their feet on their necks [putting the foot unto them on the neck]). *Piês means worse; for instance, vuê o soi piês di îr means I am worse today than yesterday. In the text, you find piês used with the definite article, which gives it the meaning of worst. +Note the forms fasintiur (verse 11) and metintiur (verse 14), where an i has been inserted between the present participle and ur.

Versets 15-22

Vocabulary: il re (king), la comari (midwife), la femine (wife), vê non (to be named), poiâsi (to set oneself down), parturî (to give birth), cjalâ (to look), la piere (stone), il mascjo (male), copâ (to kill), la frute (girl), lassâ in vite (to let live), il timôr (fear), ordenâ (to command), il faraon (pharaoh), mandâ a clamâ (to send for), rispuindi (to respond), compagn di (like, identical to), jessi in podê (to be strong/capable), prime ancjemò (even before), rivâ (to arrive, to come), distrigâsi (to finish up), la furtune (fortune; also fortune), rivuart a (regarding), un furmiâr di (a multitude of), la int (people), fuart (strong, mighty), di fâ pôre (incredibly so), midiant che (given that), la gjernazie (offspring), dâ un ordin (to give an order), nassi (to be born), butâ (to throw, to cast), il flum (river), però (but), sparagnâ (to spare).

Verses 15-16: Il re dal Egjit (the king of Egypt) ur disè a lis comaris des feminis dai ebreus (said to the midwives of the wives of the Hebrews), che a vevin non une Sifre e chê altre Pue (one of whom was named Shiphrah and the other Puah [who were having name the one Shiphrah and the other Puah]): cuant che lis feminis dai ebreus (when the wives of the Hebrews) si poiaran par parturî (take their places [will set themselves down] to give birth), cjalait ben lis dôs pieris (take a good look at the two stones). Se al è un mascjo, copaitlu (if it is a male, kill it); se e je une frute, lassaitle in vite (if it is a girl, let her live).

Verse 17: Ma lis comaris a vevin timôr di Diu (but the midwives feared God [were having fear of God]) e no faserin ce che ur veve ordenât il faraon (and did not do what Pharaoh had commanded them [unto them]) e a lassarin in vite ancje i mascjos (and they let also the males live).

Verse 18: Il re dal Egjit lis mandà a clamâ (the king of Egypt sent for them) e ur disè (and said to them): parcè vêso fat cussì e lassât in vite i mascjos? (why have you done so and let the males live?).

Verse 19: I rispuinderin al faraon (they responded to Pharaoh): lis feminis dai ebreus (the wives of the Hebrews) no son compagnis di chês dai egjizians (are not like those of the Egyptians): a son plui in podê (they are more capable). Prime ancjemò ch’e rivi la comari (even before the midwife arrives), lôr si son biel distrigadis (they have already finished up entirely).

Verse 20: Diu ur dè furtune a lis comaris (God granted fortune to the midwives); rivuart al popul (as for the people), al deventà un furmiâr* di int e fuart di fâ pôre (they became a frightfully powerful multitude of people [it became a multitude (an ant’s nest) of people and powerful as to cause fear]). *The masculine furmiâr is the Friulian for ant’s nest; un furmiâr di can be understood as a great deal of, a multitude of.

Verse 21: Midiant che lis comaris a vevin vût timôr di Diu (given that the midwives had feared God [had had fear of God]), ur dè une gjernazie ancje a lôr (he gave offspring to them as well).

Verse 22: Alore il faraon i dè chest ordin a dut il so popul (Pharaoh then gave this order to all his people): ogni mascjo che al nassarà (every male that is [will be] born) butaitlu tal flum (cast him in the river); però sparagnait lis frutis (but spare the girls).