Friulian language series: Esodo 1, sclavitût dai ebreus


Ve chi i nons

This post begins your study of the Friulian language through the book of Exodus, or il libri dal Esodo. In this post, you will study the contents of Esodo 1, which is the first chapter of the book of Exodus, and where the subject is: la sclavitût dai ebreus (bondage of the Hebrews).

In this Exodus study, it is assumed that you have already worked your way through the entire book of Genesis in Friulian. If you have not done so, begin your study of the Friulian language here. The study notes provided for the book of Exodus take much the same form as those already provided for the book of Genesis. Given the absence of advanced bilingual Friulian-English and monolingual Friulian dictionaries, I continue to list important Friulian vocabulary for your reference.

Read Esodo 1

To read the Friulian text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Bibie par un popul and consult Esodo 1. An archived version of the text is found here.

Versets 1-7

Vocabulary: il non (name), un israelite (Israelite), lâ jù (to go down), l’Egjit (Egypt), ognidun (each one), la int (people), la gjernazie (line), in dut (in all), setante (seventy), la persone (person), invezit (as for), za (already), murî (to die), compagn di (like), il fradi (brother), la gjenerazion (generation), cressi (to increase), multiplicâsi (to multiply oneself), slargjâsi di numar (to broaden oneself in number), la fuarce (might), fint a (until), jemplâ (to fill), la tiere (land).

Verses 1-4: Ve chi i nons dai israelits che a son lâts jù in Egjit cun Jacop (these are the names of the Israelites who went down into Egypt with Jacob); a son lâts jù ognidun cu la sô int (they each went down with their people): Ruben (Reuben), Simeon (Simeon), Levi (Levi) e Gjude (and Judah), Issacar (Issachar), Zabulon (Zebulun) e Beniamin (and Benjamin), Dan (Dan) e Neftali (and Naphtali), Gad (Gad) e Aser (and Asher).

Verse 5: La gjernazie di Jacop a jerin in dut setante personis: the line of Jacob were seventy people in all. Josef, invezit, al jere za in Egjit: as for Joseph, he was already in Egypt.

Verse 6: Po Josef al murì e (then Joseph died and), compagn di lui (like him), ducj i siei fradis e dute chê gjenerazion (all his brethren and all that generation).

Verse 7: I israelits a cresserin e si multiplicarin (the Israelites increased and multiplied themselves), si slargjarin di numar e di fuarce (broadened themselves in number and might), fint a jemplâ dute la tiere dal Egjit (until filling all the land of Egypt).

Versets 8-14

Vocabulary: montâ sù (to arise), gnûf (new), il re (king), cognossi (to know), il popul (people), cjalâ (to look), un ebreu (Hebrew), fuart (mighty), coventâ (to be necessary), inibî (to bar), in câs di (in the event of), la vuere (war), fâ grum cun (to join up with), il nemì (enemy), combati (to fight), scjampâ (to escape), meti (to put), il sorestant (chief), tibiâ (to downtrod), lis voris (tasks), dûr (difficult), fâ sù (to rear), la citât-dipuesit (store city), fâi la vite impussibil a (to make life impossible for), cjapâ (to take), la pôre (fear), un egjizian (Egyptian), obleâ (to compel), lavorâ (to work), lis vitis (toilings), crodi (to believe), piês (worse), l’argile (clay), il stamp (form), il modon (brick), dibot (almost), il cjamp (field), ogni sorte di (every sort of), il pît (foot), il cuel (neck).

Verse 8: In Egjit al montà sù un gnûf re (a new king arose in Egypt) che nol veve cognossût Josef (who had not known Joseph).

Verse 9: I disè al so popul (he said to his people): cjalait chi la gjernazie dai ebreus (look hither at the line of the Hebrews): a son plui di nô e ancje plui fuarts (they are more {numerous} than us and also mightier).

Verse 10: Dai*, fasìn ce che al covente (go to, let us do that which is necessary) par inibîur di cressi ancjemò (to bar them from increasing yet) senò, in câs di vuere (otherwise in the event of war), ¬a laressin¬ a fâ grum+ cui nestris nemîs (they would go join up with our enemies). A combataressin cuintri di nô (they would fight against us) par podê, dopo, scjampâ (to escape afterwards). — *Dai: an interjection meaning go to, come on. ¬A laressin: third-person plural of the condizionâl presint of the verb lâ, the complete conjugation whereof you will find below for your reference; you find another example of the condizionâl presint with a combataressin. +The masculine grum is the Friulian for heap, pile; the expression fâ grum cun is to be taken as meaning to join up with.

Condizionâl presint
Present conditional

o larès
tu laressis
al larès

e larès

o laressin
o laressis
a laressin

Verse 11: Alore i meterin a Israel sorestants (so they put chiefs over Israel [unto Israel]) che ju tibiavin fasintiur* fâ lis voris plui duris (who downtrod them by making them do the most difficult tasks). E cussì +al fasè+ sù pal faraon lis citâts-dipuesit di Pitom e Ramses: and thus did they rear for Pharaoh the store cities of Pithom and Ramses. — *Fasintiur: see the note at verses 13-14. +Al fasè: agrees with the masculine singular Israel.

Verse 12: Ma plui si ur faseve la vite impussibil (but the more life was made impossible for them) e plui il popul si multiplicave e al cresseve di numar (the more the people would multiply themselves and increase in number): a scomençarin a cjapâ pôre dai israelits (they started to take fear of the Israelites).

Verses 13-14: I egjizians a oblearin i ebreus a lavorâ (the Egyptians compelled the Hebrews to work) e ur faserin fâ vitis di no crodi cu lis piês* voris (and made them do unbelievable toilings with the worst tasks): preparâ l’argile (preparing the clay); fâ il stamp dai modons (making the form of the bricks); dibot dutis lis voris dai cjamps (almost all the tasks of the fields); ogni sorte di voris che ju obleavin (every sort of tasks to which they would compel them) metintiur+ il pît sul cuel (by putting their feet on their necks [by putting the foot unto them on the neck]). — *Piês means worse; for instance, vuê o soi piês di îr means I am worse today than yesterday. In the text, you find piês used with the definite article, which gives it the meaning of worst. +Note the forms fasintiur (verse 11) and metintiur (verse 14), where an i has been inserted between the present participle and ur.

Versets 15-22

Vocabulary: il re (king), la comari (midwife), la femine (wife), il non (name), poiâsi (to set oneself down), parturî (to give birth), cjalâ (to look), la piere (stone), il mascjo (male), copâ (to kill), la frute (girl), lassâ (to leave), la vite (life), il timôr (fear), ordenâ (to order), il faraon (pharaoh), mandâ (to send), clamâ (to call), rispuindi (to respond), compagn di (like), jessi in podê (to be capable), prime ancjemò (yet before), rivâ (to arrive), distrigâsi (to finish up), la furtune (fortune), rivuart a (regarding), il furmiâr (ants’ nest), la int (people), fuart (mighty), la pôre (fear), midiant che (given that), la gjernazie (line), (to give), un ordin (order), nassi (to be born), butâ (to cast), il flum (river), però (but), sparagnâ (to spare).

Verses 15-16: Il re dal Egjit (the king of Egypt) ur disè a lis comaris des feminis dai ebreus (said to the midwives of the wives of the Hebrews), che a vevin non une Sifre e chê altre Pue (one of whom had {for} name Shiphrah and that other Puah): cuant che lis feminis dai ebreus (when the wives of the Hebrews) si poiaran par parturî (set [will set] themselves down to give birth), cjalait ben lis dôs pieris (take a good look at the two stones). Se al è un mascjo, copaitlu (if it is a male, kill it); se e je une frute, lassaitle in vite (if it is a girl, leave her in life).

Verse 17: Ma lis comaris a vevin timôr di Diu (but the midwives had fear of God) e no faserin ce che ur veve ordenât il faraon (and did not do that which Pharaoh had ordered them) e a lassarin in vite ancje i mascjos (and they left also the males in life).

Verse 18: Il re dal Egjit lis mandà a clamâ (the king of Egypt sent to call them) e ur disè (and said to them): parcè vêso fat cussì e lassât in vite i mascjos? (why have you done so and left the males in life?).

Verse 19: I rispuinderin al faraon (they responded to Pharaoh): lis feminis dai ebreus (the wives of the Hebrews) no son compagnis di chês dai egjizians (are not like those of the Egyptians): a son plui in podê (they are more capable). Prime ancjemò ch’e rivi la comari (yet before the midwife arrives), lôr si son biel distrigadis (they have fully finished up).

Verse 20: Diu ur dè furtune a lis comaris (God granted fortune to the midwives); rivuart al popul (as for the people), al deventà un furmiâr* di int e fuart di fâ pôre (they became a multitude [ants’ nest] of people and fearfully mighty). — *The masculine furmiâr is the Friulian for ants’ nest; un furmiâr di can be read as a multitude of.

Verse 21: Midiant che lis comaris a vevin vût timôr di Diu (given that the midwives had had fear of God), ur dè une gjernazie ancje a lôr (he gave a line to them as well).

Verse 22: Alore il faraon i dè chest ordin a dut il so popul (Pharaoh then gave this order to all his people): ogni mascjo che al nassarà (every male which is [will be] born) butaitlu tal flum (cast him in the river); però sparagnait lis frutis (but spare the girls).