Friulian language series: Gjenesi 49, muart di Jacop

In terms of both Friulian vocabulary and interpretation of subject matter, the forty-ninth chapter of the book of Genesis is a difficult one; the grammar of it, on the other hand, is relatively straightforward. You will read about: lis benedizions di Jacop (Jacob’s blessings); la muart di Jacop (the death of Jacob). To assist in understanding the contents of this chapter, you may wish to consult an outside source as you work through the Friulian text, as the notes here will only cover aspects of language. You have nearly completed your study of the entire book of Genesis through the Friulian language — sustain your effort and see your study through to the end of the book; the next chapter is the final one.

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Read Gjenesi 49

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Versets 1-5

Vocabulary: clamâ dongje (to call together), il fi (son), (to say), vignî (to come), ca di me (here unto me), contâ (to tell, to relate), cul lâ dal timp (with the passage of time), dâsi dongje (to gather round), scoltâ (to listen), il pari (father), il prin fi (firstborn), la fuarce (force, strength), la primizie (first issue, firstfruit), la zoventût (youth), spreçâ (to burst), il morbìn (vigour, energy), il coragjo (courage, valour), compagn di (just like, in the same way as), la aghe (water), cirî (to seek), saltâ fûr (to come forth), jessi il prin (to excel), montâ (to go up, to get on), il jet (bed), montâ sul jet (to mount the bed), disonorâ (to dishonour), il stramaç (bed), cuintri di (against), il fradi (brother), un imprest (instrument, tool), la violence (violence), la spade (sword).

Verse 1: Jacop al clamà dongje i siei fîs: Jacob called his sons together. He says to them: vignît ca di me (come to me), che us conti (so that I may tell you) ce che al sarà di vualtris cul lâ dal timp (what shall become of you [what shall be of you] with the passage of time).

Verse 2: Daitsi dongje e scoltait: gather round and listen.

Verse 3: Jacob describes Reuben: tu tu sês il gno prin fi (you are my firstborn son), la mê fuarce (my might), la primizie de mê zoventût (the firstfruit of my youth). Jacob also says of him: tu sprecis di morbin e di coragjo (you burst with vigour and valour).

Verse 4: Compagn des aghis che a cirin di saltâ fûr: just like waters that seek to burst forth. Ma no tu sarâs tu il prin: but it is not you who shall excel (but it is not you who shall be the first). Tu sês montât sul jet di to pari: you mounted your father’s bed. Tu âs disonorât il gno stramaç cuintri di me: you dishonoured my bed against me.

Verse 5: I imprescj is the plural of il imprest. Imprescj di violence a son lis lôr spadis: instruments of violence are their swords. Supplementary examples of imprest: i imprescj dal marangon (the carpenter’s tools); la borse dai imprescj (tool bag); un imprest di cusine (kitchen utensil).

Versets 6-9

Vocabulary: la anime (soul), jentrâ (to enter), la congreghe (congregation), il spirt (spirit), la semblee (assembly), la rabie (anger), fâ fûr (to kill), altri (other), un om (man), la prepotence (arrogance), mutilâ (to maim, to mutilate), il taur (bull), maladet (cursed; also maledet), violent (violent), la fote (wrath), smamîsi (to die down, to fade), dividi (to divide), sparniçâ (to scatter), il fradi (brother), dî ben di (to praise), la man (hand), la cope (nape, back of the neck), il nemì (enemy, foe), il fi (son), butâsi par tiere (to take to the ground), denant di (before), il leon (lion), zovin (young), la prede (prey), tornâ (to return), scrufuiâsi (to crouch down, to squat down), platâsi (to go into hiding), la mascje (female), une mascje di leon (lioness), lâ dongje (to go near, to draw near).

Verse 6: La mê anime no jentrarà tes lôr congreghis: my soul shall not enter their congregation (their congregations). Il gno spirt nol sarà tes lôr sembleis: my spirit shall not be in their assembly (in their assemblies). Te lôr rabie, a àn fat fûr altris oms: in their anger, they have killed other men. Te lôr prepotence a àn mutilâts i taurs: in their arrogance, they have maimed bulls.

Verse 7: Maledete la lôr rabie ch’e je violente: cursed be their anger which is violent. Si smamìs is the third-person singular of the presint indicatîf of the reflexive smamîsi (to die down). You read: maladete la lôr fote che no si smamìs (cursed be their wrath which does not die down). Jo ju dividarai in Jacop, ju sparniçarai in Israel: I shall divide them in Jacob, I shall scatter them in Israel.

Verse 8: I tiei fradis a disaran ben di te: your brothers shall praise you. La tô man e je su la cope dai tiei nemîs: your hand is on the nape of your foes. I fîs di to pari si butaran par tiere devant di te: your sons shall take to the ground (in deference) before you.

Verse 9: Un leon zovin: a young lion. De prede, fi gno, tu sês tornât: from prey, my son, have you returned. Si è scrufuiât, si è platât come un leon: he crouched, went into hiding like a lion. Come une mascje di leon: like a lioness (like a female of [the] lion). Cui i laraial dongje (who will dare go near him [who will go near him]) uses the interrogative form of al larà (he will go).

Versets 10-14

Vocabulary: il baston (sceptre), il comant (command), tirâ vie di (to take away from), il sorestant (chief, head), il pît (foot), fin che (until), puartâ dongje (to bring back), spietâi a (to be owing unto), il popul (people), sot (under, below), peâ (to bind, to tie), tor di (roundabout), une uvarie (vine), il mussut (donkey foal), la vît (vine), di prime (choice, best), la musse (she-ass), i vistîts (clothing, clothes), meti in muel (to let soak), il vin (wine), la munture (clothing, clothes; also monture), il sanc (blood), la uve (grape; also ue), il voli (eye), lusî (to shine, to sparkle), il dint (tooth), candît (whitened), il lat (milk), jessi a stâ (to live, to dwell), il mâr (sea), sul ôr dal mâr (at the seashore), il marinâr (seaman, sailor), fâ il marinâr (to be a seaman), la nâf (ship), il flanc (flank), il mus (ass, donkey), gaiart (strapping, hardy), scrufuiât (crouched), dentri (in, inside), un sierai (enclosure).

Verse 10: Il baston dal comant nol sarà tirât vie di Gjude (the sceptre of command shall not be taken away from Judah) ni il baston di sorestant dai siei pîts (nor the ruler’s sceptre [taken away] from his feet). Observe the use of no, in combination with fin che: fin che no i puartaran dongje ce che i spiete (until that which is his [is owing unto him] has been brought back to him) e che i popui no staran sot di lui (and the people are [will be] under him).

Verse 11: Al pee is the third-person singular of the presint indicatîf of the verb peâ (to bind, to tie). Al pee tor di une uvarie il so mussut: he binds his foal roundabout a vine. Tor di une vît di prime: roundabout a choice vine. Il fi de sô musse: the foal (son) of his she-ass. Al met i siei vistîts in muel tal vin: he soaks his clothing in wine; he puts his garments to soak in wine. La sô munture tal sanc de uve: his garments in blood of grapes.

Verse 12: I siei vôi a lusin di vin: his eyes sparkle with wine. I siei dincj a son candîts di lat: his teeth are whitened with milk. Dincj is the plural of the masculine dint (tooth).

Verse 13: Zabulon al è a stâ sul ôr dal mar: Zebulun dwells at the seashore. Al fâs il marinâr su lis sôs nâfs: he serves as seaman on his ships. Al à Sidon al so flanc: his flank is on Sidon (he has Sidon on his flank).

Verse 14: Issacar al è un mus gaiart: Issachar is a hardy ass. Scrufuiât dentri di un sierai: crouched within an enclosure (that is, within a pen or stall).

Versets 15-21

Vocabulary: viodi (to see), il polsâ (rest, respite), confâ (to befit, to suit), il paîs (country), biel (nice, pleasant), platâ (to hide), la schene (back; of human body), sot di (under, below), la cjame (load, burden), deventâ sclâf (to become a slave), sot paron (under a master), fâ sentence di (to judge), il popul (people), ogni (every), altri (other), la tribù (tribe), il madrac (snake), la strade (way, road), la lipare (viper), il cuar (horn), il troi (path), muardi (to bite), il cjaval (horse), il sghiret (hock, ankle joint), il cjavalîr (horseman, horserider), colâ (to fall), denant-daûr (backwards), spietâ (to await), la salvece (salvation), saltâ parmìs (to overtake, to overcome), il brigant (brigand, plunderer, marauder), saltâ intor par daûr (to come at from behind), il pan (bread), gras (fat, rich), furnî (to furnish, to provide), une pietance di re (dish of a king, royal dainty; also pitance), il re (king), la cerve (doe, hind; also cierve), svelt (quick, fast, swift), il piçul (young, newborn), fâ piçui (to bear young), di prime (choice, fine).

Verse 15: Al à viodût che il polsâ i confaseve: he saw that the rest suited (was suiting) him. Il paîs al jere biel: the country was pleasant. Al à platât la sô schene sot de cjame: he hid his back under the burden. Al è deventât sclâf sot paron: he became slave to (slave under) a master. The feminine cjame (burden, load) is related to the verb cjamâ (to load), which you have met a number of times in previous chapters.

Verse 16: Dan al fasarà sentence dal so popul (Dan shall judge his people) come ogni altre tribù d’Israel (like every other tribe of Israel).

Verse 17: Dan al sarà un madrac su la strade (Dan shall be a serpent by the way), une lipare cul cuar intal troi (a horned viper [viper with horn] on the path) ch’e muart il cjaval intai sghirets (which bites the horse in the hocks); e muart is the feminine, third-person singular of the presint indicatîf of the verb muardi (to bite). Il cjavalîr al cole denant-daûr: the horseman falls backwards. Supplementary examples of the verb colâ: colâ dal barcon (to fall out the window); o soi colât smontant de coriere (I fell [whilst] getting off the coach); mi è colât il libri di man (I dropped the book [the book fell from the hand unto me]); vuê e cole la nêf (it is snowing today [the snow is falling today]); il soldat al è colât in bataie (the soldier died [fell] in battle); la cjase e je colade (the house collapsed [fell]); chest an Nadâl al cole di domenie (this year Christmas falls on a Sunday). Supplementary examples of denant-daûr: cjaminâ denant-daûr (to walk backwards); lâ denant-daûr (to get worse [go backwards]); capî denant-daûr (to misunderstand [understand backwards]).

Verse 18: Dome di te o spieti la salvece, Signôr: only from you I await salvation, O Lord.

Verse 19: I saltin parmìs i brigants: brigands shall overtake him (brigands overtake him). Lui ur salte intor par daûr: he shall come (he comes) at them from behind.

Verse 20: Il so pan al è gras: his bread is rich. Al furnìs pietancis di re: he furnishes royal dishes.

Verse 21: La cerve (or cierve), meaning doe, hind (female deer), is the feminine form of il cerf (or cierf), meaning buck (male deer). Neftali al è une cerve di chês sveltis (Naphtali is a swift hind [a hind of those (that are) swift]) ch’e fâs piçui di prime (which bears fine young).

Versets 22-26

Vocabulary: la menade (shoot, sprout), di çoc che (of the sort that), butâ (to produce fruit), ad ôr di (next to, alongside), la nassint (spring), il ramaç (branch), ingrampâsi (to cling), tor di (roundabout), il mûr (wall), tirâ a ciment (to put to the test), pestâ (to trounce, to hit), fâ cuintri (to attack), trai (to shoot), un arc (bow), restâ intat (to remain intact), il braç (arm), movisi (to move), la sveltece (nimbleness, deftness), pes mans di (by the hands of), fuart (strong, mighty), il pastôr (shepherd), la piere (stone), midiant di (by way of), il pari (father), dâ une man (to help, to lend a hand), benedî (to bless), la benedizion (blessing), i cîi adalt (heavens above), un abìs (abyss), platât (hidden), là jù (down there), il font (bottom), il pet (chest, breast), il grim (womb), il spi (spike, ear; of grain), il flôr (flower), la mont (mount), vielon (ancient, very old), la culine (hill), eterni (eternal), vignî su (to come upon), il cjâf (head), il cerneli (forehead, brow), consacrât (consecrated), il fradi (brother).

Verse 22: Josef al è une menade di çoc che al bute: Joseph is a shoot of the sort that produces fruit. Ad ôr di une nassint: alongside a spring. I siei ramaçs si ingrampin tor dal mûr: its branches cling rounabout the wall. Supplementary example of ramaç: il ramaç al jere cjamât di miluçs (the branch was full of [charged with] apples).

Verse 23: Lu àn tirât a ciment e pestât: they put him to the test and trounced him. I àn fât cuintri chei che a train cul arc: those who shoot with the bow attacked him; that is, archers attacked him. Chei che a train: those who shoot. Cul arc: with the bow. A train is the third-person plural of the presint indicatîf of the verb trai (to shoot).

Verse 24: Restâ intat: to remain intact. Il so arc al è restât intat: his bow remained taut (intact). Movisi cun sveltece: to move with nimbleness. Pes mans dal Fuart di Jacop: by the hands of the Mighty One of Jacob. Pes mans dal Pastôr: by the hands of the Shepherd. De piere di Israel: of the stone of Israel.

Verse 25: Midiant dal Diu di to pari che ti dà une man: by way of the God of your father who helps you. Di El-Shadai che ti benedìs: from El-Shaddai who blesses you. Benedizions dai cîi adalt: blessings from the heavens above; cîi is the plural of the masculine cîl. Dal abìs platât là jù tal font: from the abyss hidden down below (down there at the bottom). Dal pet e dal grim: from breast and womb.

Verse 26: Dai spîs e dai flôrs: from ears and blossoms. Des monts vielonis: from ancient mounts. Des culinis eternis: from eternal hills. Che a vegnin dutis sul cjâf di Josef: may they all come upon Joseph’s head. Sul cerneli dal consacrât fra ducj i siei fradis: on the brow of the consecrated one amongst all his brothers.

Versets 27-33

Vocabulary: il lôf (wolf), scuartâ (to dismember, to rip apart), a buinore (in the morning), fâ fûr (to kill), cjapâ (to take), sore sere (in the evening), dividi (to divide), puartâ vie (to take away, to make away with), formâ (to form), la tribù (tribe), dodis (twelve), in dut (in all, altogether), ve ce che (this is what), (to say), il pari (father), benedî (to bless), ognidun (each one), une benedizion a part (a blessing of his own), dâ un ordin (to give an instruction), stâ par (to be about to), dâsi dongje de sô int (to gather oneself unto one’s people), soterâ (to bury), dongje di (alongside), i vons (forefathers), il landri (cave), il cjamp (field), un itit (Hittite), in face di (before, facing), la tiere (land), comprâ (to buy, to acquire), il tombâl di famee (family grave), sapulî (to bury; also sepulî), la femine (wife), ad ôr di (next to, alongside), il fi (son), dopo di (after), dâ une racomandazion (to give an admonition), ritirâ (to pull back), il pît (foot), il jet (bed), spirâ (to breathe one’s last).

Verse 27: Beniamin al è un lôf che al scuarte: Benjamin is a wolf that rips apart. A buinore al fâs fûr ce che al à cjapât: in the morning he kills what he has caught (taken). Fin sore sere al divît ce che al à puartât vie: in the evening he divides what he has made away with.

Verse 28: Ducj chescj a formin lis tribûs d’Israel (all these form the tribes of Israel); dodis in dut (twelve in all), e ve ce che ur à dit lôr pari (and this is what their father said to them). Ju à benedîts: a ognidun i à dade une benedizion a part: he blessed them: to each he gave a blessing of his own.

Verse 29: Po ur dè chest ordin: then he gave them this instruction. Jo o stoi par dâmi dongje de mê int: I am about to gather myself unto my people. Soteraitmi dongje dai miei vons, tal landri che al è tal cjamp di Efron, l’itit: bury me alongside my forefathers, in the cave which is in the field of Ephron the Hittite.

Verse 30: Tal landri dal cjamp di Macpele (in the cave of the field of Machpelah), in face di Mamre (facing Mamre), te tiere di Canaan (in the land of Canaan), che Abram lu à comprât di Efron l’itit come tombâl di famee (which Abraham bought from Ephron the Hittite as a family grave).

Verse 31: Li a forin sapulîts Abram e la sô femine Sare (there Abraham and his wife Sarah were buried), li a forin sapulîts Isac e la sô femine Rebeche (there Isaac and his wife Rebekah were buried), li jo o ai sapulide Lie (there I buried Leah).

Verse 32: Il cjamp e il landri ad ôr dal cjamp a son stâts comprâts dai fîs di It: the field and the cave alongside the field were bought from the sons of Heth.

Verse 33: Dopo di vêur dadis lis ultimis racomandazions ai siei fîs: after having given his sons the final admonitions. Observe: (to give); vê dât (to have given); dopo di vê dât (after having given); dopo di vêur dât (after having given to them). Jacop al ritirà i pîts sul jet: Jacob pulled back his feet on the bed. Al spirà: he breathed his last. Al tornà a dâsi dongje de sô int: he gathered himself back unto his people.